Presentation on theme: "Chapter 1: Sound: Pitch, Dynamics & Tone Color"— Presentation transcript:
1Chapter 1: Sound: Pitch, Dynamics & Tone Color Unit 1: ELEmentsChapter 1: Sound: Pitch, Dynamics & Tone Color
2Sound Sounds begin with the vibration of an object. Those vibrations are transmitted as sound waves to our ears by a medium.What mediums can be used to transmit sound?Once the vibrations reach our eardrums, they start vibrating.Impulses (or signals) are then transmitted to our brain.There, they are selected, organized & interpreted.
3Sound Three main methods of creating sound: StrikingScrapingPluckingFour main properties of sound:PitchDynamicsTone ColorDuration
4Pitch The relative highness or lowness that we hear in a sound. The pitch of a sound is determined by the frequency of its sound wave.The faster the vibration, the higher the pitchThe slower the vibration, the lower the pitch
5Pitch A sound with a definite pitch is called a tone. Tones have specific frequencies.The number of cycles per second is called a frequency.A common frequency is “A-440”We call the tone of 440 cycles per second an “A”Two tones sound different when they have different pitches.The distance in pitch between any two tones is called an interval.Example: A-440 & C-523.3
6PitchWhen you double or halve a frequency, you create the interval of an octave.Example: A-440 up an octave is A-880Example: A-440 down an octave is A-220Two pitches that are separated by an octave blend extremely well.
7Pitch There are an infinite number of pitches between octaves. DemonstrationHowever, there are only 12 typical tones used in western music:A, A#/Bb, B, C, C#/Db, D, D#/Eb, E, F, F#/Gb, G, G#/AbThese correspond with the 12 keys of the piano:
9PitchRange – the distance between the lowest and highest tones that a voice or instrument can produceThe average untrained voice has a range of 1 ½ octaves.The piano has a range of over 7 octaves
10Pitch Definite pitch – a pitch with a specific frequency Wind & String instruments and voices have a definite pitchIndefinite pitch – a pitch without a specific frequencyMany percussion instruments are based on indefinite pitch:Snare drumBass DrumGongOthers?
11Dynamics Dynamics are degrees of loudness or softness in music. Dynamics are related to the amplitude of the sound wave.The amplitude is the height of the sound wave.The bigger the amplitude, the louder the sound.The smaller the amplitude, the softer the sound.
12Dynamics Chart Term Abbreviation Meaning pianissimo pp very soft piano p softmezzo piano mp moderately softmezzo * m moderatemezzo forte mf moderately loudforte f loudfortissimo ff very loud* Mezzo is very rarely used. It is most often used with piano or forte.
13Dynamics There are extremes of the dynamic range ppp – pianississimo – extremely softpppp – pianissississimo – almost nonexistantfff – fortississimo – extremely loudffff – fortissississimo – bombasticThese are typically used to indicate degree of softness or loudness. They are mainly for effect.
14Dynamics Dynamics can change either gradually or suddenly. Gradual changes are notated by the following notations:Symbol Term Meaningdecrescendo (decresc.) gradually softeror dimenuendo (dim.)crescendo (cresc.) gradually louder
15Dynamics Unlike (definite) pitch, dynamics are NOT absolutely precise. Dynamics are relative to one another within the context of the piece or situation.
17Tone Color Also called timbre (pronounced tam-ber). Timbre is how we can differentiate one type of sound from another.Example: The difference in a flute or a trumpet.Example: The differences in people’s voices.Can you tell the difference?Used to create variety and contrast in a word
18Listening The Firebird, Scene 2 (1910) Igor StravinskyOne melody repeated over and overDynamics, tone color, and rhythm are used to create musical variety & contrastInstrumentation:Piccolo, 3 flutes, 3 oboes, English horn, 3 clarinets, bass clarinet, 3 bassoons, contrabassoon, 4 horns, 6 trumpets, tuba, timpani, triangle, cymbals, bass drum, 3 harps, 1st violins, 2nd violins, violas, cellos, double basses
19Listening C Jam Blues (1942) 8 Parts: Duke Ellington & His Famous Orchestra8 Parts:Piano, repeated note melodySaxophone, repeated note melodyViolin alone, then accompaniedMuted cornet alone, then accompaniedTenor saxophone alone, then accompaniedMuted trombone alone, then accompaniedClarinet alone, then accompaniedFull groupThis is a prime example of improvisation – music created at the same time it is performed.
20Chapter Wrap-Up 4 characteristics of sound Pitch - The relative highness or lowness that we hear in a sound.Dynamics - are degrees of loudness or softness in music.Tone ColorRhythm (discussed later)The characteristics are used to create variety and contrast in music.