Presentation on theme: "Types of Knowledge Declarative Knowledge = things you “know to be” or “that exist” - such as subject-related facts, concepts and generalizations (Who,"— Presentation transcript:
Types of Knowledge Declarative Knowledge = things you “know to be” or “that exist” - such as subject-related facts, concepts and generalizations (Who, What, When, Where) EX: knowing all about the rules, types of shots, in basketball Procedural Knowledge = requires an action to demonstrate competence - a performance- based task associated with a particular subject EX: Successfully sinking the free-line shot
Learning Styles for Studying – the Visuals (70%) Learning Style #1- The Visual/Verbal- learn best when information is presented in a graphic language format – eyes process/input the information – (see and remember) Learning Style #2- The Visual/Nonverbal- learn best when information is presented using pictures, charts, figures, symbols or designs – eyes process/input the information – (see and remember)
General Tips for Visual Learners 1. Write down what to remember, such as a list of things to do, facts to learn f 2. Write down information in your own words to learn information in a familiar way. 3. Underline or highlight ONLY important words as you read. 4. When learning a new vocabulary word, visualize the word. 5. Keep lists of things to remember in a place where you will be sure to see it several times a day. Suggestions: bulletin board, by your desk at home, in your notebook, on the mirror in the bathroom, etc. 6. Draw a picture of any information you want to learn. Try making a diagram, a chart, etc.
Learning Styles for Studying – the Other 2 Modes (30%) Learning Style #3- The Auditory/Verbal- learn best when information is presented aloud in an oral language format – ears process/input the information (listen and remember) Learning Style #4- The Tactile/Kinesthetic -learn best when physically engaged in a "hands on" activity – (do and remember)
General Tips for Auditory and Kinesthetic Learners Auditory 1. Use a tape recorder to record notes when reading instead of writing facts down. Play it back while you are riding in the car, doing dishes, washing the car, jogging etc. 2. Sub-vocalize - talk to yourself about any information you want to remember. Try to recite it without looking at your notes or the book. 3. Discuss with others from your class and then quiz each other on the material. Really listen to yourself as you talk. 4. When learning a new vocabulary word, say it out loud. 5. Say facts out loud, put the facts to music, or read them into a tape recorder. Then listen to what you have recorded often.
6. When writing, talk to yourself. First tell yourself what you will write, and then read aloud what you have written or tape record it. 7. Always read material in your textbook after hearing the information first in class, (unless the instructor assigns the reading first before class so you can participate in class discussions). Kinesthetic (combine any of the above) 8. Take frequent breaks in study periods only 5-10 minutes in length. 9. Use the computer to reinforce learning through the sense of touch. 10. Memorize or drill while walking, jogging or exercising. 11. ***Write facts to be learned on 3" x 5" flash cards, with a question on one side and the answer on the other. Lay out the cards, quiz yourself, shuffle them, lay them out again and quiz yourself again.
Try the Index/Flash Card System:. Studying for a test is the process of moving information from short-term to long-term memory so that it can be retrieved and used for the tasks on the test. Scientific research has demonstrated that flashcards are the best way to accomplish this task 1. Write a cue, a question, a term or a concept on one side – HINT – if you were the teacher, what questions would you ask on the exam?; 1.Use information from your Content Mastery Maps 2.Use content from your class notes/handouts 3.Use information from your textbook 2. Write an answer or explanation for the cue, question or term on the back. Put the answer or explanation in your own words whenever possible.
3. Divide a shoe box into 4 compartments: known, familiar(you think you know, but can’t put it into words), unknown, and questions. 4. Draw a card from the back; depending on the degree to which the answer is known, place in the compartment; 5. Further study those that are familiar and unknown - As they become known, move forward; 6. Vary the practice with the cards – start with the answer and give the question (like Jeopardy) 7. Say the question/answer out loud, put the facts to music, or read them into a tape recorder. Then play the index card system again.
CONTENT MASTERY MAP Major Course Generalizations – the BIG things I need to be able to know and/or do. **These would be the “essential or core” questions – main points or purpose of the teaching/learning unit What do I need to know? What I need to be able to do