Presentation on theme: "Chapter 1: Music, Sound, and Time. Key Terms vibrations pitch frequency scales dynamics amplitude decibels forte piano mezzo pianissimo fortissimo più."— Presentation transcript:
Key Terms vibrations pitch frequency scales dynamics amplitude decibels forte piano mezzo pianissimo fortissimo più forte meno forte subito crescendo decrescendo diminuendo
Key Terms tone color timbre partials overtones duration rhythm
Sound Vibrations The sound of A-440: String vibrates 440 times each second Vibrating string forces air molecules to vibrate at same frequency Air waves radiate outward at about 1,000 ft. (305 meters) per second The ear, like a satellite dish, intercepts air waves
Sound Vibrations Vibrating air molecules set eardrum in motion at same rate (440 cycles/second) Vibration passes through ear bones to corresponding auditory nerve in cochlea Cochlear nerve sends electrical impulse to brain Brain perceives impulse as a specific pitch Note power of even a single sound to change the atmosphere in the room!
Sound Vibrations Human ear’s extraordinary sound processing ability Ear can process vibrations from around 20 to 20,000 cycles/second Even complex sounds (orchestral music, noise, environmental sound), received by the ear as composite sound shapes, can be interpreted by the brain and broken down into their individual sounds
Sound Vibrations Scientific Understanding of Sounds Frequency Measured in cycles per second Amplitude Measured in decibels Overtones Fractional vibrations of sound-producing body (partials) Duration
Sound Vibrations Musical Understanding of Sounds Frequency Heard as pitch Amplitude Heard as loudness (dynamics) Overtones Heard as tone color (timbre) Duration Aspect of rhythm
Frequency Aspects of pitch Definite or indefinite High or low Female or male voices Soprano Alto Tenor Bass
Amplitude Aspects of dynamics Loud or soft forte piano Gradual changes crescendo decrescendo (diminuendo) Sudden changes subito forte or subito piano
Dynamics pp p mp mf f ff pianissimo piano mezzo piano mezzo forte forte fortissimo very soft soft medium soft medium loud loud very loud
Tone Color: Overtones Aspects of tone color Sound-producing bodies (strings, air columns, etc.) vibrate: as a whole (fundamental pitch) in fractions (halves, thirds, quarters, etc.) Fractional vibrations are called overtones, or upper partials Overtones are higher pitches, much softer than the fundamental
Tone Color: Overtones Tone color determined by: Number, proportion, and relative strength of overtones Different for each instrument Attack characteristic Noise associated with sound production Scraping of bow on string Thwack of piano hammer Buzzing of lips in brass mouthpiece etc.
Tone Color: Overtones Descriptions of tone color Descriptive adjectives Bright, warm, ringing, hollow, etc. Specific instruments Bowed strings, woodwinds, brass, percussion, keyboard, plucked strings, or human voice Musical ensembles Orchestra, chamber ensembles, choirs, etc.
Duration Aspects of duration Sounds (and silences) exist in time Building block for rhythm Can be long or short Measured by scientists or nonmusicians in minutes, seconds, milliseconds, etc. Measured by musicians in measures, beats, and fractions of beats