2Boardworks KS3 Science 2008 Human Behaviour What is behaviour
3Boardworks KS3 Science 2008 Human Behaviour What is behaviour?Boardworks KS3 Science 2008Human BehaviourBehaviour is the way in which a person acts in response to a stimulus or situation. These responses can aid survival.For example, if you hear a loud noise you put your hands over your ears. This prevents the noise from damaging your ears.The stimulus is the loud noise.Your response is to cover your ears.Photo credit: Jupiterimages CorporationSome human behaviour is much more complex.
4Boardworks KS3 Science 2008 Human Behaviour What do we respond to?Boardworks KS3 Science 2008Human BehaviourHumans respond to both internal and external stimuli.An external stimulus is a change in the environment around us. For example, the heat of an oven.An internal stimulus is a change inside the body. For example, the feeling of hunger.Photo credit: Jupiterimages Corporation
5Boardworks KS3 Science 2008 Human Behaviour Internal or external?Boardworks KS3 Science 2008Human Behaviour
7Boardworks KS3 Science 2008 Human Behaviour Nervous systemBoardworks KS3 Science 2008Human BehaviourThe nervous system can coordinate a response to a stimulus, using nerve cells.Nerve cells, or neurones are specialized cells that transmit electrical impulses around the body.nucleuscell body
8How are responses coordinated? Boardworks KS3 Science 2008Human BehaviourIf a stimulus is detected your nervous system sends an impulse along neurones to and from different parts of the body, to coordinate a response.Specific receptors in a sense organ detect a stimulus.2. An electrical impulse is sent to the brain.3. The brain processes the information.4. An electrical impulse is sent to an effector (e.g. a muscle or gland).Human behaviour worksheet 1 accompanies this slide5. The effector produces a response.
9Boardworks KS3 Science 2008 Human Behaviour The sensesBoardworks KS3 Science 2008Human Behaviour
10Parts of the nervous system Boardworks KS3 Science 2008Human Behaviour
11Boardworks KS3 Science 2008 Human Behaviour What is a reflex?Boardworks KS3 Science 2008Human BehaviourReflex reactions happen without you having to think about them – they are involuntary. This is because the central nervous system sends electrical signals to the muscles before the brain can pick up the message.Reflexes can stop you from getting hurt. For example if you touch a hot surface, your body automatically moves your hand away from the heat, preventing you from being burnt.
17Boardworks KS3 Science 2008 Human Behaviour The hormonal systemBoardworks KS3 Science 2008Human BehaviourThe hormonal system also coordinate some of the body’s responses, using hormones.Hormones are produced by glands. These chemicals are released into the blood where they are carried around the body. A response is produced when the hormone reaches its target organ.glandhormoneHormonal responses are slower and longer lasting than those coordinated by the nervous system.Hormones control growth and reproduction processes.
20Do humans have innate behaviour? Boardworks KS3 Science 2008Human BehaviourHumans have some innate or instinctive behaviour. This is pre-programmed behaviour, which is not learnt.The fight or flight response is thought to be a human innate behaviour. When humans are threatened or stressed this can cause a chemical change in the body. This causes a person to react or retreat.Photo credit: Jupiterimages CorporationThis behaviour can help us to survive in dangerous situations.
21Boardworks KS3 Science 2008 Human Behaviour Fight or flightBoardworks KS3 Science 2008Human BehaviourHuman behaviour worksheet 2 accompanies this slide. This worksheet is designed to be used alongside the animation.
22Boardworks KS3 Science 2008 Human Behaviour Learned behaviourBoardworks KS3 Science 2008Human BehaviourLearned behaviour is behaviour developed through experience. Experience allows us to improve or change our existing responses and develop behaviour to new situations.Learning can help humans acquire new skills for survival.For example, from an early age babies will react to the positive responses of their parents.If a baby displays behaviour that its parents respond to, the baby will soon learn to continue the same behaviour.
23Boardworks KS3 Science 2008 Human Behaviour Learned behaviourBoardworks KS3 Science 2008Human BehaviourAnimals, including humans, can learn to ignore a stimulus if it is harmless.There are so many stimuli in the environment around us that we can learn not to respond to those that are unimportant.For example, if you live near a noisy road or airport you soon stop noticing the noise. However, other people might find these noises loud and annoying.Photo credit: Jupiterimages Corporation
24Boardworks KS3 Science 2008 Human Behaviour Complex behaviourBoardworks KS3 Science 2008Human BehaviourThe brain is the site of your consciousness. It is the site of your thoughts, emotions, ideas, instincts and memories.cerebral hemispherecerebellumbrainstemspinal cordIf the brain is damaged it can cause a change in behaviour.
25Boardworks KS3 Science 2008 Human Behaviour The brainBoardworks KS3 Science 2008Human BehaviourFlash from GCSE coreSimplified
26How does behaviour help us to survive? Boardworks KS3 Science 2008Human BehaviourComplex behaviour, such as speech, emotion and memory, can help us to communicate and cooperate with each other.Humans work together in many aspects of life, helping us to survive and reproduce. This is called cooperative behaviour.Photo credit: Jupiterimages CorporationCan you think of an example of cooperative behaviour in humans?
27Cooperative behaviour Boardworks KS3 Science 2008Human BehaviourThere are lots of different examples of cooperative behaviour, as humans are very social animals. Most humans choose to live together in small family groups or units.This cooperative behaviour involves parents working together to protect, feed and teach their children.Photo credit: Jupiterimages CorporationDo you think this type of behaviour is innate or learned?
28What determines behaviour? Boardworks KS3 Science 2008Human BehaviourSome scientists think that people behave in the way they do because of instincts or innate behaviour that we are born with. This is called the nature theory of behaviour.Others believe that people do and think certain things because they learn to do them – they are taught by others. This is called the nurture theory of behaviour.Photo credit: Jupiterimages CorporationIn reality most behaviour is likely to be a mix of both nature and nurture. Humans are influenced by both genes and the environment.
30Boardworks KS3 Science 2008 Human Behaviour Nervous or hormonal?Boardworks KS3 Science 2008Human Behaviour
31Boardworks KS3 Science 2008 Human Behaviour GlossaryBoardworks KS3 Science 2008Human Behaviourbehaviour – The way in which a human acts in response to a stimulus.brain – The organ that coordinates the nervous system.central nervous system – The system made up of the brain and spinal cord.effector – A muscle or gland that produces a response to a stimulus.fight or flight – An innate human response to a stressful situation.gland – An organ in the body that secretes a hormone.hormone – Chemical messengers carried in the blood stream that co-ordinate the actions of different target cells.innate – Pre-programmed behaviour, which humans carry out instinctively without the need to learn new skills.learned – Behaviour that humans develop through experience.nervous system – The system that coordinates a response to stimulus, using electrical impulses.neurone – A specialized cell that transmits electrical impulses around the body.receptor – A cell within a sense organ that can detect a specific stimulus.reflex – An involuntary response to a stimulus.response – An action caused by a stimulus.sense organ – An organ that can detect a change in environment.spinal cord – The organ that carries electrical impulses to and from the brain.stimulus – A change in environment or an internal change within a human, which causes a response.