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1 of 33© Boardworks Ltd 2008
2 of 33© Boardworks Ltd 2008 What is behaviour
3 of 33© Boardworks Ltd 2008 What is behaviour? Behaviour is the way in which a person acts in response to a stimulus or situation. These responses can aid survival. Some human behaviour is much more complex. For example, if you hear a loud noise you put your hands over your ears. This prevents the noise from damaging your ears. The stimulus is the loud noise. Your response is to cover your ears.
4 of 33© Boardworks Ltd 2008 What do we respond to? Humans respond to both internal and external stimuli. An internal stimulus is a change inside the body. For example, the feeling of hunger. An external stimulus is a change in the environment around us. For example, the heat of an oven.
5 of 33© Boardworks Ltd 2008 Internal or external?
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7 of 33© Boardworks Ltd 2008 Nervous system The nervous system can coordinate a response to a stimulus, using nerve cells. Nerve cells, or neurones are specialized cells that transmit electrical impulses around the body. nucleus cell body
8 of 33© Boardworks Ltd 2008 If a stimulus is detected your nervous system sends an impulse along neurones to and from different parts of the body, to coordinate a response. 1.Specific receptors in a sense organ detect a stimulus. 2. An electrical impulse is sent to the brain. 3. The brain processes the information. 4. An electrical impulse is sent to an effector (e.g. a muscle or gland). 5. The effector produces a response. How are responses coordinated?
9 of 33© Boardworks Ltd 2008 The senses
10 of 33© Boardworks Ltd 2008 Parts of the nervous system
11 of 33© Boardworks Ltd 2008 What is a reflex? Reflex reactions happen without you having to think about them – they are involuntary. This is because the central nervous system sends electrical signals to the muscles before the brain can pick up the message. Reflexes can stop you from getting hurt. For example if you touch a hot surface, your body automatically moves your hand away from the heat, preventing you from being burnt.
12 of 33© Boardworks Ltd 2008 Knee-jerk reaction
13 of 33© Boardworks Ltd 2008 Reflex arc
14 of 33© Boardworks Ltd 2008 The brain and drugs
15 of 33© Boardworks Ltd 2008 Types of behaviour
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17 of 33© Boardworks Ltd 2008 The hormonal system Hormones are produced by glands. These chemicals are released into the blood where they are carried around the body. A response is produced when the hormone reaches its target organ. The hormonal system also coordinate some of the body’s responses, using hormones. Hormones control growth and reproduction processes. Hormonal responses are slower and longer lasting than those coordinated by the nervous system. gland hormone
18 of 33© Boardworks Ltd 2008 Hormone glands
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20 of 33© Boardworks Ltd 2008 Do humans have innate behaviour? The fight or flight response is thought to be a human innate behaviour. When humans are threatened or stressed this can cause a chemical change in the body. This causes a person to react or retreat. This behaviour can help us to survive in dangerous situations. Humans have some innate or instinctive behaviour. This is pre-programmed behaviour, which is not learnt.
21 of 33© Boardworks Ltd 2008 Fight or flight
22 of 33© Boardworks Ltd 2008 Learned behaviour Learned behaviour is behaviour developed through experience. Experience allows us to improve or change our existing responses and develop behaviour to new situations. For example, from an early age babies will react to the positive responses of their parents. If a baby displays behaviour that its parents respond to, the baby will soon learn to continue the same behaviour. Learning can help humans acquire new skills for survival.
23 of 33© Boardworks Ltd 2008 Learned behaviour Animals, including humans, can learn to ignore a stimulus if it is harmless. There are so many stimuli in the environment around us that we can learn not to respond to those that are unimportant. For example, if you live near a noisy road or airport you soon stop noticing the noise. However, other people might find these noises loud and annoying.
24 of 33© Boardworks Ltd 2008 Complex behaviour The brain is the site of your consciousness. It is the site of your thoughts, emotions, ideas, instincts and memories. If the brain is damaged it can cause a change in behaviour. cerebellum brainstem cerebral hemisphere spinal cord
25 of 33© Boardworks Ltd 2008 The brain Flash from GCSE core Simplified
26 of 33© Boardworks Ltd 2008 How does behaviour help us to survive? Complex behaviour, such as speech, emotion and memory, can help us to communicate and cooperate with each other. Humans work together in many aspects of life, helping us to survive and reproduce. This is called cooperative behaviour. Can you think of an example of cooperative behaviour in humans?
27 of 33© Boardworks Ltd 2008 Cooperative behaviour This cooperative behaviour involves parents working together to protect, feed and teach their children. Do you think this type of behaviour is innate or learned? There are lots of different examples of cooperative behaviour, as humans are very social animals. Most humans choose to live together in small family groups or units.
28 of 33© Boardworks Ltd 2008 What determines behaviour? Others believe that people do and think certain things because they learn to do them – they are taught by others. This is called the nurture theory of behaviour. Some scientists think that people behave in the way they do because of instincts or innate behaviour that we are born with. This is called the nature theory of behaviour. In reality most behaviour is likely to be a mix of both nature and nurture. Humans are influenced by both genes and the environment.
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30 of 33© Boardworks Ltd 2008 Nervous or hormonal?
31 of 33© Boardworks Ltd 2008 Glossary
32 of 33© Boardworks Ltd 2008 Anagrams
33 of 33© Boardworks Ltd 2008 Multiple-choice quiz
9 weeks Test Jeopardy Test Review Game. ABCDE
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