Presentation on theme: "Early Behaviorism: Pavlov, Watson and Guthrie (Chapter 2)"— Presentation transcript:
1Early Behaviorism: Pavlov, Watson and Guthrie (Chapter 2) Questions, Important psychophysics – measurement of physical stimuli and their effectVengertsev Dmitry
2Agenda Goals: Early Psychophysics What classical conditioning isEmotions might be learnedSimilarities and differences among Pavlov, Watson and GuthrieEarly PsychophysicsI. Pavlov: Classical conditioning and its phenomenaJ. Watson: Behaviorism, Emotional LearningE. Guthrie: One-shot learning theory
3First Steps of Psychophysics W. James: Introspection is the self-observation and reporting of conscious inner thoughts, desires and sensations.Scientific approach: PsychophysicsW. Wundt, G. Fechner tried tofind absolute threshold foreach sense – least amountof stimulation required forsensationM. Weber law: noticeabledifference are a constant proportionof a stimulusDescribe an example!
4Ivan Petrovich Pavlov Profound influence on development psychology Classical conditioningis a form of associative learningunconditioned stimulus (US)+unconditioned response (UR)conditioned stimulus (CS)conditioned response (CR)Biological classes at high school …..
5Classical Conditioning Important to remember US UR CS CR – we will use it. Stuffed dog from The Pavlov Museum in Saint-Petersburg.
6Classical Conditioning Theory Two different explanation of Learning:Contiguity – for behavior to change it’s sufficient that two events be pairedReinforcement – an effect that leads to learning (such as satisfaction of hunger) (details in Chapter 3)
7Phenomena in Classical Conditioning Learning curveExtinction and Recoveryconditioned associations areremarkably durablespontaneous recovery (aftersome period of time)Generalizationsalvation at wide range of tonesOther important aspects of Pavlov’s work in conditioning theory. In conclusion add information from p.43. Strength of CR – amount of salvation. Examples.
8John Broadus WatsonProfoundly influenced by Pavlov’s model of classical conditioningRevolutionize American psychologyBehaviorism – observable aspects of behavior. It’s real goal is to provide the basis of control of human beingsEmotional LearningWatson’s Environmentalism
9BehaviorismBefore Watson: Behaviorism is a study of the phenomena of consciousnessWatson: consciousness is an irrelevant concept. Behaviorists tried to limit psychology to the study of actual, observable behaviorThe main goals of behaviorism:to provide the basis for the prediction and control of human beingsto derive laws to explain the relationships existing among stimuli, responses and consequential conditions (reward, punishment)
10Emotional Learning Little Albert 11-month-old boy At the beginning showed no fear to great variety of objects and peopleEveryday among other things he was given white rat toyTouched white rat – loud sound. Albert didn’t cried, he tried again and again – each time was loud soundA week later procedure was repeated. Rat and the loud sound were combined for 5 more timesAlbert behavior change dramaticallySay result and adult
11Watson’s environmentalism Are humans primarily product of genetic makeup or are they developed according environment?He was convinced that there are no individual differences at birth, people is function of their experienceVery popular ides in the United States at that timeSome declarations
12Watson’s behaviorismExaggerating role of learning in determining the behavior and underemphasizing the role of heredityHe was more of a spokesman for behaviorism than a researcherHe popularized notion of environmental experiences
13Edwin R. Guthrie Theory consisted of only a single law: “When organism does something in one occasion, it will tend to do exactly the same thing if the occasion repeats itself”.He claims that the full strength of the bond between stimulus and response is reached during the first pairingLAW Example with woman! And application to dog
14Habits breaking Fatigue Technique Threshold technique Method of Incompatible StimuliHabit bracking – useful in practise