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From ULIRGs to QSOs From ULIRGs to QSOs XiaoYang, Xia XiaoYang, Xia Center for Astrophysics Center for Astrophysics Tianjin Normal University Tianjin Normal.

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Presentation on theme: "From ULIRGs to QSOs From ULIRGs to QSOs XiaoYang, Xia XiaoYang, Xia Center for Astrophysics Center for Astrophysics Tianjin Normal University Tianjin Normal."— Presentation transcript:

1 From ULIRGs to QSOs From ULIRGs to QSOs XiaoYang, Xia XiaoYang, Xia Center for Astrophysics Center for Astrophysics Tianjin Normal University Tianjin Normal University Collaborators: H. Wu, Deng, Zou, Z. Zheng, Mao, X.Z. Zheng, Hao, Huo, Y. Gao, Wang,J.L, Tan

2 Outline Outline The morphology and environment of ULIRGs and LIRGs The morphology and environment of ULIRGs and LIRGs May give hint for high-z SMGs May give hint for high-z SMGs Infrared luminous QSOs Infrared luminous QSOs may give hint on high-z submm loud QSOs may give hint on high-z submm loud QSOs Then the relation of ULIRGs with SMGs and IR QSOs with submm loud QSOs Then the relation of ULIRGs with SMGs and IR QSOs with submm loud QSOs

3 The morphology of ULIRGs The morphology of ULIRGs Based on 97 HST snapshot images, we find that all ULIRGs are interacting/merging galaxies and the fractions of single, double and multi-nucleus/nuclei are 43%, 39% and 18%, respectively Based on 97 HST snapshot images, we find that all ULIRGs are interacting/merging galaxies and the fractions of single, double and multi-nucleus/nuclei are 43%, 39% and 18%, respectively The AGN fraction is 80%, 65% to 36% from single, double and multi-nucleus/nuclei The AGN fraction is 80%, 65% to 36% from single, double and multi-nucleus/nuclei QSOs and ellipticals appear at last stage of merger QSOs and ellipticals appear at last stage of merger Some ULIRGs have extended soft X-ray halo based on Chandra observations (e.g. NGC 6240, Mrk 273) Some ULIRGs have extended soft X-ray halo based on Chandra observations (e.g. NGC 6240, Mrk 273)

4 Cui et al. 2002

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6 The morphology of ULIRGs The morphology of ULIRGs All ULIRGs are interacting/merging galaxies and the fractions of single, double and multi-nucleus/nuclei are 43%, 39% and 18%, respectively, based on 97 HST snapshot images. All ULIRGs are interacting/merging galaxies and the fractions of single, double and multi-nucleus/nuclei are 43%, 39% and 18%, respectively, based on 97 HST snapshot images. The AGN fractions are The AGN fractions are 80% 65% 36% 80% 65% 36% single double multi nucleus/nuclei single double multi nucleus/nuclei (total AGN fraction is about 65%, similar as z=1-3 ULIRGs, but little less than 80% for SMGs) QSOs and ellipticals appear at last stage of merger QSOs and ellipticals appear at last stage of merger Some ULIRGs have extended soft X-ray halo based on Chandra observations (e.g. NGC 6240, Mrk 273) Some ULIRGs have extended soft X-ray halo based on Chandra observations (e.g. NGC 6240, Mrk 273)

7 Z. Zheng, et al. 1999

8 The morphology of ULIRGs The morphology of ULIRGs Based on 97 HST snapshot images, we find that all ULIRGs are interacting/merging galaxies and the fractions of single, double and multi-nucleus/nuclei are 43%, 39% and 18%, respectively Based on 97 HST snapshot images, we find that all ULIRGs are interacting/merging galaxies and the fractions of single, double and multi-nucleus/nuclei are 43%, 39% and 18%, respectively The AGN fraction is 36%, 65% to 80% from single, double and multi-nucleus/nuclei The AGN fraction is 36%, 65% to 80% from single, double and multi-nucleus/nuclei QSOs and ellipticals appear at last stage of merger QSOs and ellipticals appear at last stage of merger Some ULIRGs have extended soft X-ray halo based on Chandra observations (e.g. NGC 6240, Mrk 273) Some ULIRGs have extended soft X-ray halo based on Chandra observations (e.g. NGC 6240, Mrk 273)

9 Huo et al. ApJ 2004

10 Xia et al Mrk x80 kpc

11 NGC 6240 Huo et al. 2004

12 · ······ Ellipticals Groups ULIRGs

13 Not all local ULIRGs will be sub-L* ellipticals Not all local ULIRGs will be sub-L* ellipticals Some ULIRGs may form from group Some ULIRGs may form from group and will be massive ellipticals and will be massive ellipticals Such case could be more at higher-z Such case could be more at higher-z

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16 This result is conflict with lower metallicity in center of ULIRGs based on optical analysis This result is conflict with lower metallicity in center of ULIRGs based on optical analysis “ we find that LIRGs and ULIRGs are underabundant by a factor of 2 on average ” by Rupke et al.2008, ApJ, 674, 172 “ we find that LIRGs and ULIRGs are underabundant by a factor of 2 on average ” by Rupke et al.2008, ApJ, 674, 172

17 Le Floc'h et al., 2006

18 Morphology of LIRGs Morphology of LIRGs Wang, et al. 2006, ApJ, 649, 722 Wang, et al. 2006, ApJ, 649, 722 Based on SDSS DR2 159 images Based on SDSS DR2 159 images (R<15.9m and z<0.1) (R<15.9m and z<0.1)

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20 Barred spiral

21 The morphology of LIRGs The morphology of LIRGs The fractions of interacting/merging and normal spirals are 50% and 40%, respectively The fractions of interacting/merging and normal spirals are 50% and 40%, respectively 75% spirals are with strong bar 75% spirals are with strong bar

22 Lir<4x10^11 Lsun

23 Wang et al. 2006, ApJ Spirals Interacting/merging

24 Infrared luminous QSOs QSOs with Lir>10^12Msun

25 IR QSOs sample IR QSOs sample QDOT IRAS galaxy sample (Lawrence et al. 1999) QDOT IRAS galaxy sample (Lawrence et al. 1999) 1 Jy ULIRGs sample (Kim & Sanders 1998) 1 Jy ULIRGs sample (Kim & Sanders 1998) IRAS-ROSAT cross-identification sample (Moran et al. 1996) IRAS-ROSAT cross-identification sample (Moran et al. 1996) A sample of 31 IR QSOs (z<0.35) , takes a fraction of about 25% in local universe. A sample of 31 IR QSOs (z<0.35) , takes a fraction of about 25% in local universe.

26 Zheng, X.Z., 2002

27 Zheng, 2002

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29 Hao, et al ● ○ PG QSOs IR QSOs

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32 BH mass of ULIRGs is 10^7-10^8Msun

33 19 IR QSOs 19 IR QSOs Hao et al. 2005, 15 have both low & high – res obs. Hao et al. 2005, 15 have both low & high – res obs. 35 ULIRGs 35 ULIRGs IRAS 1-Jy sample and Spitzer GTO #105 + High-resolution mid-IR data, Farrah et al. (2007) IRAS 1-Jy sample and Spitzer GTO #105 + High-resolution mid-IR data, Farrah et al. (2007) 20 PG QSOs 20 PG QSOs Spitzer GTO & GO #14, 3187 & 20142, with enough S/N, z< PG QSOs from QUEST (Schweitzer et al. 2006) Spitzer GTO & GO #14, 3187 & 20142, with enough S/N, z< PG QSOs from QUEST (Schweitzer et al. 2006) Samples by Spitzer IRS

34 The low resolution mid-infrared spectra The low resolution mid-infrared spectra of IR QSOs of IR QSOs③ Cao, et al. 2008

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36 Fine structure line [NeII]  m Fine structure line [NeII]  m  SFR indicator in QSOs  SFR indicator in QSOs③

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39 SFR/Mdot③ H  blueshift Feedback may play role to suppress both Feedback may play role to suppress both star formation and AGN star formation and AGNAnti-correlated SFR/Mdot

40 High-z SMGs are scaled up of ULIRGs High-z SMGs are scaled up of ULIRGs Are high-z submm-loud QSOs are scaled up of IR QSOs? Are high-z submm-loud QSOs are scaled up of IR QSOs? 30% high-z QSOs detected at submm 30% high-z QSOs detected at submm

41 High-z (sub)mm loud QSOs High-z (sub)mm loud QSOs  Optically selected QSOs at redshift about 4 with 1.2mm observation, Omont et al. (2001)  Optically selected QSOs at redshift about 4 with 1.2mm observation, Carilli et al. (2001)  Optically selected QSOs at redshift about 2 with 1.2mm observation, Omont et al. (2003)  X-ray absorbed and submillimeter detected QSOs Stevens et al. ( 2005) QSOs Stevens et al. ( 2005)  CO/HCN detected QSOs Carrilli et al. (2002, 2005)

42 Z=6 Carilli et al Hao, et al. 2008

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44 Molecular gas of IR QSOs Tan and Mao) Molecular gas of IR QSOs (Xia, Gao, Hao, Omont, Leon, Ocana, Tan and Mao) Sample Sample IR QSOs 20 observed at 2008 fall IR QSOs 20 observed at 2008 fall PG & HE QSOs 24 PG & HE QSOs 24 ULIRGs 36 ULIRGs 36 SMG 12 SMG 12 submm-loud QSOs 15 submm-loud QSOs 15

45 15/20 IR QSOs detected by IRAM 30m

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57 BH mass of ULIRGs and IR QSOs are 10^7 to 10^8 Msun and 10^7 to 10^9 BH mass of ULIRGs and IR QSOs are 10^7 to 10^8 Msun and 10^7 to 10^9 BH mass of SMG and submm loud QSOs are <10^8 Msun and 10^9 BH mass of SMG and submm loud QSOs are <10^8 Msun and 10^9 Molecular gas of ULIRGs and IR QSO is similar Molecular gas of ULIRGs and IR QSO is similar Molecular gas for SMG and submm loud QSOs are similar Molecular gas for SMG and submm loud QSOs are similar

58 BH mass of ULIRGs is 10^7-10^8Msun

59 IR QSOs and high-z (sub)mm loud QSOs are at stage with high SFR and high accretion rate The Coeval Growth of Black Holes and their host Spheriods

60 Thank you Thank you

61 Summary Summary ULIRGs are interacting/merging pair or group or galaxies ULIRGs are interacting/merging pair or group or galaxies From ULIRGs to elliptical galaxies, there is From ULIRGs to elliptical galaxies, there is a transition stage (IR QSOs), during which both SFR and accration rate are high a transition stage (IR QSOs), during which both SFR and accration rate are high Feedback plays important role on suppressing both starburst and AGN Feedback plays important role on suppressing both starburst and AGN

62 IR QSOs are in transition stage from starburst to QSOs Strong FeII emitters and Balmar emission line blueshift Strong FeII emitters and Balmar emission line blueshift Infrared excess from starburst Infrared excess from starburst PAH, NeII and L60 could be good indicators of SFR for IR QSOs PAH, NeII and L60 could be good indicators of SFR for IR QSOs High L60/Lco ’ for both IR QSOs and high-z sub- mm loud QSOs High L60/Lco ’ for both IR QSOs and high-z sub- mm loud QSOs

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68 How to measure the SFR at QSOs Torus of QSOs could give FIR emission Torus of QSOs could give FIR emission Haas et al Haas et al Lir/Lco, Lir/L(HCN) are higher for QSOs than those of ULIRGs Lir/Lco, Lir/L(HCN) are higher for QSOs than those of ULIRGs Evens et al Evens et al. 2007

69 How to measure the SFR at QSOs Torus of QSOs could give FIR emission Torus of QSOs could give FIR emission Haas et al Haas et al Lir/Lco, Lir/L(HCN) are higher for QSOs than those of ULIRGs Lir/Lco, Lir/L(HCN) are higher for QSOs than those of ULIRGs Evens et al Evens et al. 2007

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80 Summary Summary Mid-IR to Far-IR slop reflects the relative Mid-IR to Far-IR slop reflects the relative contribution from central AGN and SF contribution from central AGN and SF NeII is a good indicator for SFR NeII is a good indicator for SFR The inclination of molecular disk of ULIRGs and silicate absorption correlates well – need more sample The inclination of molecular disk of ULIRGs and silicate absorption correlates well – need more sample

81 The morphology and environment of nearby ULIRGs and LIRGs The morphology and environment of nearby ULIRGs and LIRGs ULIRGs are interacting/merging galaxies ULIRGs are interacting/merging galaxies “ An HST surface photometric study of ultraluminous infrared galaxies ” , 1999,A&A,349,735 , Zheng, Z. et all. “ An HST surface photometric study of ultraluminous infrared galaxies ” , 1999,A&A,349,735 , Zheng, Z. et all. “ IRAS : a compact group including a Seyfert 1 and a starburst galaxy ” , 1995,A&A, 304,369 , Zou, et al. “ IRAS : a compact group including a Seyfert 1 and a starburst galaxy ” , 1995,A&A, 304,369 , Zou, et al. “ Statistical Properties of Ultraluminous IRAS Galaxies from an HST Imaging Survey ” , 2001, AJ, 122, 63 , Cui, J. et al. “ Statistical Properties of Ultraluminous IRAS Galaxies from an HST Imaging Survey ” , 2001, AJ, 122, 63 , Cui, J. et al. “ Chandra Observations of Markarian 273: Unveiling the Central Active Galactic Nucleus and the Extended Hot Gas Halo ” 2002, ApJ, 564, 196 , Xia, et al. “ Chandra Observations of Markarian 273: Unveiling the Central Active Galactic Nucleus and the Extended Hot Gas Halo ” 2002, ApJ, 564, 196 , Xia, et al.

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84 T=41K, ß=1.95

85 Z=6 Carilli et al. 2007

86 Parameters estimates at high z SFR: Monochromatic luminosity at 60  m the monochromatic luminosity at 60  m from the flux density at 1.2mm by assuming the rest-frame FIR SED can be described by the monochromatic luminosity at 60  m from the flux density at 1.2mm by assuming the rest-frame FIR SED can be described by a greybody spectrum with the dust temperature of 41K and the dust emissivity of 1.95 a greybody spectrum with the dust temperature of 41K and the dust emissivity of 1.95 Priddey & McMahon (2001). Priddey & McMahon (2001). Mdot: Bolometric luminosity Vestergaard (2004 )

87 · cluster · group 。 ULIRGs Xue &Wu 2001

88 · Ellipticals O’Sullivan et al. 2003

89 Lx-T 关系(星系群,椭球星系和 ULIRGs )

90 · cluster · group 。 ULIRGs Xue &Wu 2001

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92 IR QSOs are at transition state from ULIRGs to QSOs, then to ellipticals, during which the SFR and accretion rate are higher and the relation of BH mass with budge mass could be established IR QSOs are at transition state from ULIRGs to QSOs, then to ellipticals, during which the SFR and accretion rate are higher and the relation of BH mass with budge mass could be established

93 Infrared luminous QSOs (IR QSOs) Infrared luminous QSOs (IR QSOs) “ Spectroscopic Properties of QSOs Selected from Ultraluminous Infrared Galaxy Samples ” , “ Spectroscopic Properties of QSOs Selected from Ultraluminous Infrared Galaxy Samples ” , 2002, AJ, 124, 18 , Zheng, X. Z. et al. 2002, AJ, 124, 18 , Zheng, X. Z. et al. “ The Physical Connections among Infrared QSOs, Palomar-Green QSOs, and Narrow-Line Seyfert 1 Galaxies ” , “ The Physical Connections among Infrared QSOs, Palomar-Green QSOs, and Narrow-Line Seyfert 1 Galaxies ” , 2005, ApJ, 625, 78 , Hao, C.N. et al. 2005, ApJ, 625, 78 , Hao, C.N. et al. “ Growth of Black Holes and Their Host Spheroids in (Sub)mm-loud High-Redshift QSOs ” , “ Growth of Black Holes and Their Host Spheroids in (Sub)mm-loud High-Redshift QSOs ” , 2008, ChJAA, 8, 12 , Hao, C.N. et al. 2008, ChJAA, 8, 12 , Hao, C.N. et al. “ Mid-Infrared spectroscopic properties of ultra-luminous infrared quasars ” , “ Mid-Infrared spectroscopic properties of ultra-luminous infrared quasars ” , 2008, MNRAS, 390, 336, Cao, C. et al. 2008, MNRAS, 390, 336, Cao, C. et al.

94 The relation of spectral type with morphology The relation of spectral type with morphology Single nucleus Single nucleus Double nuclei Double nuclei Multi-nuclei AGN fraction Multi-nuclei AGN fraction

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99 · cluster · group 。 ULIRGs

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104  Optically selected QSOs at redshift about 4 with 1.2mm observation, Omont et al. (2001)  Optically selected QSOs at redshift about 4 with 1.2mm observation, Carilli et al. (2001)  Optically selected QSOs at redshift about 2 with 1.2mm observation, Omont et al. (2003)  X-ray absorbed and submillimeter detected QSOs Stevens et al. ( 2005) QSOs Stevens et al. ( 2005)  CO/HCN detected QSOs Carrilli et al. (2002, 2005) Sample Sample

105 ③ ULIRGs IR QSOs PG QSOs ULIRGs IR QSOs PG QSOs

106 SFR

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112 The morphology of ULIRGs The morphology of ULIRGs “ The proportion of ultraluminous IRAS galaxies in interacting systems ” “ The proportion of ultraluminous IRAS galaxies in interacting systems ” Zou, et al.,1991,MNRAS,252,593 , Zou, et al.,1991,MNRAS,252,593 , “ A statistical study of the spectra of very luminous IRAS galaxies. II. Spectral and environmental analysis ” “ A statistical study of the spectra of very luminous IRAS galaxies. II. Spectral and environmental analysis ” Wu et al.1998,A&AS, 132,181, Wu et al.1998,A&AS, 132,181, “ An HST surface photometric study of ultraluminous infrared galaxies ” , “ An HST surface photometric study of ultraluminous infrared galaxies ” , Zheng, Z. et al. 1999,A&A,349,735 , Zheng, Z. et al. 1999,A&A,349,735 , “ Statistical Properties of Ultraluminous IRAS Galaxies from an HST Imaging Survey ” , “ Statistical Properties of Ultraluminous IRAS Galaxies from an HST Imaging Survey ” , Cui, J. et al. 2001, AJ, 122, 63 , Cui, J. et al. 2001, AJ, 122, 63 ,

113 The environment of ULIRGs The environment of ULIRGs “ IRAS : a compact group including a Seyfert 1 and a starburst galaxy ” , “ IRAS : a compact group including a Seyfert 1 and a starburst galaxy ” , Zou, et al., 1995, A&A, 304,369 Zou, et al., 1995, A&A, 304,369 “ Chandra Observations of Markarian 273: Unveiling the Central Active Galactic Nucleus and the Extended Hot Gas Halo ” “ Chandra Observations of Markarian 273: Unveiling the Central Active Galactic Nucleus and the Extended Hot Gas Halo ” Xia, et al.,2002, ApJ, 564, 19 Xia, et al.,2002, ApJ, 564, 19 “ Chandra Observations of Ultraluminous Infrared Galaxies: Extended Hot Gaseous Halos in Merging Galaxies ” , “ Chandra Observations of Ultraluminous Infrared Galaxies: Extended Hot Gaseous Halos in Merging Galaxies ” , Huo, et al., 2004, ApJ, 611, 208 Huo, et al., 2004, ApJ, 611, 208

114 barred spirals are the dominant population above L IR =5x10 10 L ⊙ barred spirals are the dominant population above L IR =5x10 10 L ⊙

115 IR luminosity function IR luminosity function “ Infrared Galaxies in the nearby Universe ” “ Infrared Galaxies in the nearby Universe ” Wang, et al. 2008, ChJAA, in press Wang, et al. 2008, ChJAA, in press 1137 IR galaxies from SDSS DR IR galaxies from SDSS DR5 (z<0.08 and r<15.9) (z<0.08 and r<15.9) Normal spirals are the dominant population below L IR =8x10 10 L ⊙ Normal spirals are the dominant population below L IR =8x10 10 L ⊙

116 Infrared luminous QSOs (IR QSOs) Infrared luminous QSOs (IR QSOs) “ Spectroscopic Properties of QSOs Selected from Ultraluminous Infrared Galaxy Samples ” , “ Spectroscopic Properties of QSOs Selected from Ultraluminous Infrared Galaxy Samples ” , Zheng, X. Z. et al. 2002, AJ, 124, 18 Zheng, X. Z. et al. 2002, AJ, 124, 18 “ The Physical Connections among Infrared QSOs, Palomar-Green QSOs, and Narrow-Line Seyfert 1 Galaxies ” , “ The Physical Connections among Infrared QSOs, Palomar-Green QSOs, and Narrow-Line Seyfert 1 Galaxies ” , Hao, C.N. et al. 2005, ApJ, 625, 78 Hao, C.N. et al. 2005, ApJ, 625, 78 “ Mid-Infrared spectroscopic properties of ultra- luminous infrared quasars ” , “ Mid-Infrared spectroscopic properties of ultra- luminous infrared quasars ” , Cao, C. et al. 2008, MNRAS, 390, 336 Cao, C. et al. 2008, MNRAS, 390, 336 “ The moleculor gas of IR QSOs ” , Xia et al. in preparison “ The moleculor gas of IR QSOs ” , Xia et al. in preparison “ Growth of Black Holes and Their Host Spheroids in (Sub)mm-loud High-Redshift QSOs ” , “ Growth of Black Holes and Their Host Spheroids in (Sub)mm-loud High-Redshift QSOs ” , Hao, C.N. et al. 2008, ChJAA, 8, 12 Hao, C.N. et al. 2008, ChJAA, 8, 12

117 IR QSOs are at transition state from mergers to classicals QSOs then to ellipticals IR QSOs are at transition state from mergers to classicals QSOs then to ellipticals IR QSOs are with high SFR and high accretion rate IR QSOs are with high SFR and high accretion rate

118 BH mass of ULIRGs is 10^7-10^8Msun


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