Presentation on theme: "Compare the speed of sound in different mediaCompare the speed of sound in different media Explain how frequency and pitch are relatedExplain how frequency."— Presentation transcript:
Compare the speed of sound in different mediaCompare the speed of sound in different media Explain how frequency and pitch are relatedExplain how frequency and pitch are related Describe the Doppler effect, and give examples of itDescribe the Doppler effect, and give examples of it Explain how amplitude and loudness are relatedExplain how amplitude and loudness are related
The differences between the sounds— how high or low and how loud or soft they are—depend on the properties of the sound waves
The time it takes for sounds to reach you does not depend on how loud or high the sound is. The speed of sound depends only on the medium through which the sound is traveling I can talk underwater
The time it takes for sounds to reach you does not depend on how loud or high the sound is. The speed of sound depends only on the medium through which the sound is traveling Medium Speed m/s) Air343 Helium1,005 Water1,482 Sea Water1,522 Wood (oak)3,850 Glass4,540 Steel5,200 Speed of Sound in Different Media at 20 degrees Celsius
In 1947, American pilot Chuck Yeager became the first person to travel faster than the speed of sound. But he was flying at a speed of only 293 m/s. If the speed of sound in air is 343 m/s, how did Yeager fly faster than the speed of sound?? I am traveling faster than the speed of sound
In general, the cooler the medium, the slower the speed of sound This happens because particles in cool materials move slower than particles in warmer materials When the particles move slower, they transmit energy more slowly Therefore, sound travels more slowly in cold air than in hot air
Pitch Depends on Frequency The pitch of a sound is determined by the frequency of the sound wave The higher the frequency the higher the pitch
Why can’t you hear a dog whistle?? Because the frequency of the sound wave is out of the range of human hearing A dog hears a very high pitch from the whistle and comes running!! Did you hear that??
The average human ear can detect sounds that have frequencies between 20Hz and 20,000Hz. Young children can often hear sounds with frequencies above this range, while many elderly people have difficulty hearing sounds higher than 8,000Hz Young children can often hear sounds with frequencies above this range, while many elderly people have difficulty hearing sounds higher than 8,000Hz Range of hearing in Hertz
Ultrasound Ultrasound is sound of vibrations with frequencies too high to be audible by the human ear, above approximately 20 kilohertzs or 20,000Hz. Some sound that is ultrasound to the human ear can be heard by animals, such as dogs. Ultrasound has industrial and medical applications. Medical ultrasonography can visualize muscle and soft tissue, making them useful for scanning the organs. However, they will not penetrate bone so they are not a substitute for conventional X-rays in many cases. Ultrasonic cleaners, sometimes called supersonic cleaners, are used at frequencies from 20-40kHz for Jewelry, Lenses, Optical parts, Watches, Dental instruments, surgical instruments, and industrial parts.
Heard an ambulance go by recently? Remember how the siren's pitch changed as the vehicle raced towards, then away from you? First the pitch became higher, then lower. This change in pitch results from a shift in the frequency of the sound waves
As an object moves toward you, this causes the waves to be closer together and to have a higher frequency Whatever is coming at me has a high pitch—it must have a high frequency As an object moves away from you, this causes the waves to be farther apart and to have a lower frequency
Loudness is Related to Amplitude If I strike a drum with a large force, I will hear a loud BOOM!! Changing the force I strike the drum will change the loudness of the sound that is created Loudness is how loud or soft a sound is perceived to be As you strike the drum harder, you transfer more energy to the drum The drum moves with a larger vibration and transfers more energy to the surrounding air This increase in energy causes air particles to vibrate farther from their rest positions.
When you strike a drum harder, you are increasing the amplitude of the sound waves being created The amplitude of a wave is the maximum distance the particles in a wave vibrate from their rest positions. The larger the amplitude, the louder the sound, and the smaller the amplitude, the softer the sound An amplifier increases the amplitude of the sound generated by my guitar
The most common unit used to express loudness is the decibel (dB) Sound Decibel level The softest sounds you can hear 0 Whisper20 Purring cat 25 Normal conversation 60 Lawn mower, vacuum cleaner, truck traffic 80 Chain saw, snowmobile 100 Sandblaster, loud rock concert, automobile horn 115 Threshold of pain 120 Jet engine 30 meters away 140 Rocket engine 50 meters away 200 Some Common Decibel Levels
Seeing Sounds An oscilloscope is used to graph representations of sound waves For example, a microscope converts sound waves into an electric current. The oscilloscope then converts the electric current into graphs