7 Vibration is measured in cycles per second Vibration is measured in cycles per second. The smaller the vibrating object, the faster is vibrationsSound that has a definite pitch is called a toneThe distance in pitch between any two tones is called an interval.
8 When tones are separated by the interval called an octave, they sound very much alike Octave = important in musicThe interval between the first and last notes of most familiar scales
9 Range – the distance between the highest and lowest pitch in a song or that an instrument can play Pitch – the first tool a composer has in creating a mood.
10 2. DYNAMICS Dynamics – degrees of loudness or softness in music Loudness is related to amplitude of vibrationAccent – when a performer emphasizes tone by playing it more loudly than the tones around it.
11 Notating Dynamics (in Italian): Term Abbreviation MeaningPianissimo pp very softPiano p softMezzo piano mp moderately softMezzo forte mf moderately loudForte f loudFortissimo ff very loud
12 Gradual changes are shown as: Symbol Term Meaningcrescendo gradually louderdecrescendo or gradually softerdiminuendo
13 Listening for Dynamics Turn in books to page 11:“Lohengrin,” Prelude to Act IIIRichard Wagner (“Vahgner”)“The Firebird,” Scene 2Igor StravinskyO Magnum MysteriumMorten Lauridsen
14 3. TONE COLOR/TIMBRETimbre – the quality that distinguishes one tone from anotherWords like bright, dark, mellow, rich, etc.Composers use different combinations of instruments to create the tone color they want.
15 4. DURATION Music is divided into long and short notes Rhythm – the organization of long and short pitches through timeBeat – a regular, recurrent pulsation that divides music into equal units of timeForms the background against which the composer places notes of varying lengths. Beats are basic units of time by which all notes are measured.
16 Meter – the organization of accented and unaccented beats in music Look in books, page 40Syncopation – an effect when an accented note comes where we normally would not expect one (the “offbeat”)Defining characteristic of jazz music
17 Listening for Syncopation Turn in books to page 42I Got RhythmGeorge GershwinUnsquare DanceDave Brubeck
18 Tempo – the speed of the beat, the pace of music Tempo markings:Prestissimo – as fast as possiblePresto – very fastVivace – livelyAllegro – fastAllegretto – moderately fastModerato – moderateAndante – moderately slow, walking speedAdagio – slowGrave – very slow, solemnLargo – very slow, broad
19 Other markings: accelerando (becoming faster) and ritardando (becoming slower) metronome