Presentation on theme: "How We Learn from Experience Classical and Operant Conditioning."— Presentation transcript:
How We Learn from Experience Classical and Operant Conditioning
Classical Conditioning Was Discovered by Ivan Pavlov
All animals automatically salivate when food is placed in their mouth
But, as we all know, we can also begin to salivate just by seeing someone eating scrumptious food
Originally Pavlov was only interested in studying the digestive process of dogs He knew that each time he gave his dogs food, they would automatically salivate. The food is an example of an unconditioned stimulus and salivation to the food is an example of a unconditioned response. Why are they unconditioned? But what puzzled Pavlov is that his dogs soon began to salivate when they were put in their harness before he had given them food?!
The brains of these dogs had begun to associate the lab with food Originally only food powder placed in their mouth would cause the dogs to salivate. However, soon the dogs began to salivate to the stimuli of the lab. Which salivation response is unconditioned and which is conditioned and why ?
To study how a reflex is conditioned to a new stimulus, Pavlov decided to associate a tuning fork with food
Sure enough, the dogs now began to salivate to the sound of the tuning fork The salivation response to food in your mouth is inborn so is called an _________ response. response. However, the salivation response to the sound of the tuning fork is learned so is called a _________ response. However, the salivation response to the sound of the tuning fork is learned so is called a _________ response. The salivation response to both the food and to the tuning fork is a reflex. Why? The salivation response to both the food and to the tuning fork is a reflex. Why?
Watson used classical conditioning to get little Albert to fear white rats
How Albert was conditioned to fear rats From birth we all fear a loud sudden noise—it is inborn or unlearned. Therefore, the noise is an _________ stimulus and the _________ is an _________ response. Watson made a loud, sudden noise every time the white rat was close to little Albert. Fairly soon little Albert began to fear white rats— a learned fear. So the rat is a ________stimulus and the fear of the rat is a _________response and the fear of the rat is a _________response
So a loud sudden noise is causes a fear reflex from birth so is called what type of stimulus? a) A conditioned stimulus b) An unconditioned stimulus
However, Albert learned to fear white rats so now a white rat is called: A) a conditioned stimulus; or B) a unconditioned stimulus
The Fear Response to a sudden loud noise is inborn or unlearned so is a: A) a conditioned response B) an unconditioned response
In contrast, the Fear response to the white rat is learned so is called: A) the conditioned response B) the unconditioned response
Classical conditioning explains how we learn all types of fears like a fear of small enclosed spaces
Being stuck in a small, enclosed space elicits an automatic fear response Being stuck is an unconditioned stimulus and the fear reflex is an unconditioned response. Why?
Some of my students learned fear of small spaces by being stuck in small space, like a trunk
Being locked in trunk can condition a person to fear any small enclosed space, like being in a closet or under a bed. Identify the unconditioned stimulus (UCS) : unconditioned response (UCR): conditioned stimulus (CS): conditioned response (CR) :
Almost Drowning Almost drowning is an unconditioned stimulus that elicits the unconditioned reflex of fear. Why?
Now a Person could have a conditioned or learned fear of deep water due to it being associated with the experience of almost drowning. Identify the unconditioned and conditioned variables: UCS: ___________________ UCR: ___________________ CS: _____________________ CR:_____________________
We all will have a fear reflex if attacked by a dog!
If attacked by a dog, we might start to have a fear response every time we see a dog. The Unconditioned stimulus is the ___________ and the conditioned stimulus is the __________
The automatic response to the dog attack and the automatic response to seeing a dog would both be fear The fear response to an attacking dog would is called a ___________ response. Why? But the fear response to seeing a dog is called a ________________ response. Why?
We all are born with a fear of falling So falling is which type of stimulus—unconditioned or conditioned and why? What type of response is the fear response to falling—unconditioned or conditioned and why?
A person who had a bad fall from a tree might learn a fear of heights Is this an unconditioned fear or conditioned fear? Is being on a ladder a unconditioned stimulus or conditioned stimulus?
All people would have a fear response to being bitten by a snake What type of stimulus and response is this?
If you were bitten by a snake or heard scary stories about snakes, you likely would learn to fear snakes. Identify the: UCS: UCR: CS: CR:
People can learn a fear by observing others with that fear See a person become fearful to a spider: Now you have a fear response to seeing spiders:
If a fear can be learned, it also can be unlearned through desensitization
In class we watched a video of a woman who unlearned her phobia of snakes. Describe the small steps used by the therapist when exposing the woman to the snake. Why does this type of exposure therapy so effective in helping people lose their fears?
How could someone learn a taste aversion to cotton candy? To Brussels Sprouts?
What is UCS, UCR, CS and CR when a person learns to feel nauseated to the smell of tequilas?
How we learn voluntary behaviors: Law of Effect as observed by Thorndike
B. F. Skinner work discovered the science of operant conditioning: Consequences that encourage & discourage our behaviors
Skinner taught his rats to press the lever by giving them food pellets as moved closer and closer to the lever
Operant conditioning Our voluntary (operant) responses are influenced by the consequences they receive. Positive reinforcements encourage our operant responses by providing us something good Examples of positive reinforcement: praise, attention, money, a sense of accomplishment, affection, good grades, blue ribbons
Examples of positive reinforcements that encourage us!
Skinner taught his pigeons to turn circles, play ping pong & play tic, tack, toe by positively reinforcing these behaviors in small step.
Positive Reinforcement Getting something pleasant Intrinsic: Simply gives us a good feeling via our pleasure centers Extrinsic: Grades, money, approval, attention—i.e. from our environment
Negative Reinforcements Also Encourage Operant Responses Negative reinforcements enable us to escape or avoid an unpleasant consequence Examples of negative reinforcement: take an aspirin to escape a headache, drive close to speed limit so not get a speeding ticket or study for a test so not get an F!
Punishment and extinction both discourage our behaviors
Skinner never use punishment—just extinction Why do you think giving electric shocks to rats or pigeons that weren’t learning well is a terrible idea? So what would Skinner do if the rats and pigeons did not accomplish the behavior they had been taught?
Quiz You start a fitness program and lose a significant percentage of body fat. This consequence is: a) Positive reinforcement b) Negative reinforcement c) Punishment d) Extinction
Quiz You join a health club but never have the time to go. This consequence would best be identified as: a) Positive reinforcement b) Negative reinforcement c) Punishment d) Extinction
Quiz Your personal trainer at your fitness club is very critical about your attitude and fitness. This would be perceived by many of us as: a) Positive reinforcement b) Negative reinforcement c) Punishment d) Extinction
Quiz You take an art class and find that your sketching ability improves significantly. This consequence is a: a) positive reinforcement b) negative reinforcement c) punishment d) extinction
Quiz Your art teacher makes no comments about your art work. This consequence is: a) Positive reinforcement b) Negative reinforcement c) Punishment d) Extinction
Quiz At the end of your art class, one of your projects is chosen to be in the student exhibit. This is a: a) Positive reinforcement b) Negative reinforcement c) Punishment d) Extinction
Quiz During your art class other more experienced students make it clear that your work is inferior and unsophisticated. a) Positive reinforcement b) Negative reinforcement c) Punishment d) Extinction
Animal trainers faithfully follow the principles of operant conditioning: Only use positive reinforcement and extinction
Shaping a mouse to learn through a maze
Shaping of Complex Behaviors: Shaping Dog to Climb Wall
Shaping Dog to Open Waste Can
How Teach a Dog to Jump over fences and through hoops through shaping?
Clicker Training used with animals
Bandura’s Study with the Bobo Doll illustrate the learning principle of observation and imitation
Children will imitate live models, filmed models and cartoon models