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Long-term monitoring of PKS 0558-504: a highly accreting AGN with a radio jet Mario Gliozzi (GMU) ‏ I. Papadakis (Crete), W. Brinkmann, C. Raeth (MPE),

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Presentation on theme: "Long-term monitoring of PKS 0558-504: a highly accreting AGN with a radio jet Mario Gliozzi (GMU) ‏ I. Papadakis (Crete), W. Brinkmann, C. Raeth (MPE),"— Presentation transcript:

1 Long-term monitoring of PKS : a highly accreting AGN with a radio jet Mario Gliozzi (GMU) ‏ I. Papadakis (Crete), W. Brinkmann, C. Raeth (MPE), D. Grupe (PSU), L. Kedziora-Chudczer (Sidney) *Long-term multi-wavelength data from RXTE, SWIFT, XMM, ATCA, VLBI to shed light on the nature of PKS : Presence and role of a jet? Accretion state? Energetics? *Implications of results for AGN, AGN-GBHs unification

2 Preliminary information on PKS Radio-loud NLS1: R~27 [Seibert et al. 1999] X-ray spectrum: 2-10 keV steep PL (Г~2.2) + soft excess with different interpretation : 2 Comptonization components [O’Brien et al. 2001; Brinkmann et al. 2004] Reflection-dominated [Ballantyne et al. 2001; Crummy et al. 2006] X-ray bright: only radio-loud NLS1 bright enough for RXTE monitoring (F 2-10 keV ~ 2x erg cm -2 s -1, L 2-10 keV ~ erg s -1 ): X-ray variability: short timescales: 67% flux variation in 3’ [Remillard et al. 1991] medium timescales: flux doubling in 2d [ROSAT; Gliozzi et al. 2000]

3 The monitoring campaign RXTE: 4 March 2005 – today > 5 yr SWIFT: 7 Sept 2008 – 30 March 2010 ~1.5 yr XMM: 7 Sept 2008 – 17 Sept 2008 ~10 d ATCA: Nov 2007 – March 2008 (+ 17 Sept 2008) ‏

4 A jet in PKS ? ATCA Image at 4.8 GHz beam=2” 1”=2.4 kpc 2 symmetric lobes resolved at ~7” from the core Projected linear size of full structure ~40 kpc F 5GHz ~ 90 mJy, L 5GHz ~ 1.7 x erg s -1

5 A jet in PKS ? VLBI Image jet resolved (R~100 pc) ‏

6 Radio emission highly variable Timescales longer compared to X-rays No trivial correlation with X-rays but longer baseline needed Radio Summary: * jet and lobe-like structures revealed; * strong (~100 mJy) and variable emission; * flat spectrum ( α ~0-0.5). A jet in PKS ? YES

7 Role of the jet in PKS ? Using simultaneous radio, optical, X-ray data in Sept 2008: R O ~20, R X ~2x10 -4 Radio loudness consistent with radio-quiet Seyferts [Panessa et al. 2007]

8 Role of the jet in PKS ? Using long-term RXTE monitoring data: Constant trend in the hardness ratio count rate plot Different from typical jet-dominated behavior: HR α ct [Gliozzi et al. 2006] Mrk 501

9 Role of the jet in PKS ? Using long-term RXTE monitoring data: Constant trend F var vs. E Different from typical jet-dominated behavior: F var α E [Gliozzi et al. 2006] Mrk 501

10 Role of the jet in PKS ? Additional constraints from X-rays and gamma-rays: Spectral and temporal behavior typical of Seyferts: [XMM; Papadakis et al. 2010a,b] Non detection with Fermi-LAT [Abdo et al. 2009] Non detection at TeV energies with HESS: [Giebels private communication]

11 Role of the jet in PKS ? MARGINAL Additional constraints from X-rays and gamma-rays: Spectral and temporal behavior typical of Seyferts: [XMM; Papadakis et al. 2010a,b] Non detection with Fermi-LAT [Abdo et al. 2009] Non detection at TeV energies with HESS: [Giebels private communication] Jet contribution negligible beyond the radio band X-rays track accretion activity

12 Is PKS highly accreting? Need to determine λ Edd = L bol / L Edd L bol derived from simultaneous multiwavelength data Long-term monitoring

13 Is PKS highly accreting? Need to determine λ Edd = L bol / L Edd L bol derived from simultaneous multiwavelength data Short-term monitoring

14 Is PKS highly accreting? L bol derived from direct integration of SED SED dominated by a ~constant UV bump SED variations: 10% on short timescales L bol ~ 5.5 x erg/s (M BH = 2.5 x 10 8 M solar ) ‏ κ bol = L 2-10 keV / L bol ~ 160 L bol ~ 1.5 x erg/s (M BH = 6 x 10 7 M solar ) ‏

15 Is PKS highly accreting? L Edd =L edd (M BH ) Need to estimate M BH : (1) Virial theorem [R=R(L); Bentz et al. 2009] : M BH = f R Δv 2 / G ~ 6 x 10 7 M solar (2) Fundamental plane of BHs [Merloni et al. 2003; Gueltekin et al. 2009] : log M BH = a logL Radio + b logL X + c ~ 3 x 10 8 M solar (3) Characteristic X-ray timescale [Mc Hardy et al. 2006] : logM BH = a logT break + b logL bol + c ~ 2 x 10 8 M solar (4) Scaling of X-ray spectral properties [Shaposhnikov & Titarchuk 2009] : M BH = f M GBH (N AGN /N GBH ) (d AGN /d GBH ) 2 ~ 2 x 10 8 M solar

16 Is PKS highly accreting? YES (1) Non-conservative case M BH = 6 x 10 7 M solar : L Edd = 8 x erg/s λ Edd ~ 20 (2) Conservative case M BH = 3 x 10 8 M solar : L Edd = 3.5 x erg/s λ Edd ~1.5 Super-Eddington regime Consistency check [XMM-COSMOS survey; Lusso et al. 2010] : κ bol =κ bol (λ Edd ) κ bol (1.5) ~150 fully consistent with SED results

17 Accretion & Ejection in PKS PKS “clean” disk-jet system: relative contributions clearly separated Direct comparison between accretion L accr = L bol and jet power L kin = L kin (L Radio ) [Merloni & Heinz 2007] Comparison between inflow and outflow rate: L accr = η Ṁ in c 2 ~ 5.5 x erg/s L kin = (Γ – 1) Ṁ out c 2 ~ 2 x erg/s L accr > L kin Ṁ in >> Ṁ out

18 Is PKS unique among NLS1s? PKS compared to other radio-loud NLS1s: -Different radio structure (extended vs. compact); -Lower radio loudness; -Non detection vs. Detection at γ-rays [Abdo et al. 2009; Foschini et al. 2009] If R x =L 2-10 keV / L Radio ~ typical for NLS1s most NLS1s undetected by radio surveys Based on X-ray (and UV) properties: PKS typical NLS1 But radio loudness? PKS member of parent population of jet-dominated NLS1s

19 PKS in the Grand Unification model AGN scaled up analogs of GBHs: [e.g., Uttley et al. 2002; Markowitz et al. 2003; McHardy et al. 2006; Merloni et al. 2003; Falke et al. 2004; Koerding et al. 2006] Hardness Intensity Diagram: model-independent way to describe GBH evolution [Homan & Belloni 2004] Qualitatively PKS analog of bright Intermediate State

20 PKS in the Grand Unification model Quantitative comparison: (1a) Spectral variability: [Gierlinski & Zdziarski 2005] E [keV] LS HS IS E [keV] F var - E plot

21 PKS in the Grand Unification model Quantitative comparison: (1b) Spectral variability: Γ - N BMC plot Plot used to derive M BH using a scaling relationship. General assumption: X-rays produced by Comptonization in GBHs and SMBHs. [Shaposhnikov & Titarchuk 2009; Gliozzi et al. 2010]

22 PKS in the Grand Unification model Quantitative comparison: (2) Broadband Spectral index: α GBH analogous of α OX for AGN: measures the relative strength of disk and corona. [Sobolewska et al. 2009]

23 PKS in the Grand Unification model Quantitative comparison: (3) Disk-Jet Energetics: From radiation-MHD simulations of GBHs with λ Edd > 1: L accr > L kin Ṁ in >> Ṁ out in full agreement with PKS results [Ohsuga et al. 2009]

24 Summary & Conclusions * Reminiscent of GBHs in Intermediate State * Disk and jet contributions cleanly separated: -source accreting at super-Eddington rate -accretion power > jet power * PKS has a radio jet (and lobes) but the emission unlikely jet-dominated * “Normal” NLS1 member of parent population of jet-dominated NLS1s


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