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Division Circuits Jan 2013 Shmuel Wimer Bar Ilan University, Engineering Faculty Technion, EE Faculty 1

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Jan 20132 Sequential Division Like sequential multiplication of k-bit operands, yielding a 2k-bit product, the division of 2k-bit dividend by k-bit divisor can be realized in k cycles of shift and subtraction.

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Jan 20133 2k bitsk bits First subtraction must consider k+1 MSBs for non negative difference. Considering k bits would mean that quotient is 2 k at least, which requires k+1 bits at least.

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Jan 20134 Since for unsigned division we have q<2 k and s

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Jan 20135 Fractional Division Unsigned integer and unsigned fractional can be converted to each other as follows Since z is 2k-bit and d, q, and s are k-bit, we obtain We can therefore divide fractions just as integers, except that the reminder is right shifted by k bits. Overflow detects that z frac < d frac, as otherwise the quotient would be no smaller than 1.

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Sequential Bit-at-a-Time Division Jan 20136 It is performed by initializing s (0) =z, and successively subtracting from it the properly shifted terms q k-j d. Rather than shifting q k-j d rightwards, we shift the partial quotient leftward, leading to left-shift division algorithm. shift left subtract

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Jan 20137 shift left subtract 2 k pre multiplies d to unsure proper alignment. After k iterations the above recursion turn into In the fractional version the dividend is aligned to the radix point. The bits of the quotient begin from -1.

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multiply divisor by 2 k initialize reminder left-shift subtract left-shift subtract left-shift subtract left-shift subtract Jan 20138

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9 In fractional division the dividend is aligned to the radix point. The bits of the quotient begin from -1.

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Jan 201310 Unlike multiplication that can be done by right and left shifts, division can be done only by left shift. This follows from the bit of the quotient that are known progressively, starting from MSB. In multiplication, then multiplier bits are known in the outset.

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Jan 201311 The partial reminder is left shifted and its MSB is loaded into a special FF. A trial difference 2s (j-1) -q k-j (2 k d) is computed.

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Lecture notes Reading: Section 3.4, 3.5, 3.6 Multiplication

Lecture notes Reading: Section 3.4, 3.5, 3.6 Multiplication

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