Formative Assessment Critical Learning Objectives At the completion of today, it is our goal that you will be able to state the following: I can tell another person the difference between summative and formative assessments. I can articulate critical learning targets to my students in student-friendly language. I can match the appropriate type of assessment to a learning target for my students. I can determine if feedback is descriptive or evaluative. I can explain the importance of actively involving students in the assessment process.
Personal Reflection Think of a time when you were assessed and it was a negative experience. What made it negative? Now think of a time when you were assessed and it was a positive experience. What made it positive?
Classroom Assessments Think of the assessments you give. Why do you give them? List all of the reasons that come to mind.
Two Purposes for Assessment SUMMATIVE Assessments OF Learning How much have students learned as of a particular point in time? FORMATIVE Assessments FOR Learning How can we use assessments to help students learn more?
Assessments FOR and OF Learning Watch the video clip of Rick Stiggins discussing the differences between assessments FOR and OF learning. Track the differences on the chart. In your own words, briefly summarize the difference between formative and summative assessments?
Balanced Assessment Summative Provides evidence of achievement to certify student competence or program effectiveness Assessment for learning Use assessments to help students assess and adjust their own learning Formative uses of summative data Use of summative evidence to inform what comes next for individuals or groups of students Formative Formal and informal processes teachers and students use to gather evidence to directly improve the learning of students assessed Assessment for learning Use classroom assessments to inform teacher’s decisions
Balanced Assessment “If we wish to maximize student achievement in the U.S., we must pay greater attention to the improvement of classroom assessment. Both assessment of learning and assessment for learning are essential. But one is currently in place, and the other is not.” Rick Stiggins, 2002
Assessment Research 0.7 Standard Deviation Score Gain = 25 Percentile Points on ITBS (middle of score range) 70 SAT Score Points; 4 ACT Score Points Largest Gain for Low Achievers StudyS.D. gains Bloom (1984)1.0 – 2.0 Black and Wiliam (1998)0.4 – 0.7 Miesels, et.al. (2003)0.7 – 1.5 Rodriguez (2004)0.5 – 1.8
Needed Improvements Increased commitment to high- quality formative assessments Increased descriptive feedback, reduced evaluative feedback Increased student involvement in the assessment process
Clear Learning Targets Know what kinds of targets are represented in curriculum Know which targets each assessment measures Communicate the learning targets in advance in language students can understand
Clear Learning Targets: Research on Student Benefits Students who could identify their learning scored 27 percentile points higher than those who could not (Marzano, 2005)
We Need Clear Learning Targets to... 1.Ensure that there is a common understanding of what needs to be learned. 2.Know if the assessment adequately covers what we taught. 3.Correctly identify what students know and don ’ t know. 4.Have students self-assess or set goals likely to help them learn more.
Learning Targets Any achievement expectations we hold for students Statements of what we want students to learn
Which of these are actually Learning Targets? Senior project Model of a fort Present a persuasive argument State report Diorama
A Social Studies Example Learning target Understand recurring conflicts that lead to war Activity Chapter 10 Korean War World History Create a timeline Resource Topic Subject
Kinds of Learning Targets Master content knowledge Use knowledge to reason and solve problems Demonstrate performance skills Create quality products
KnowledgeReasonSkillProduct ListPredictMeasureConstruct DefineInfer Demonstrate Develop UnderstandClassifyUseCreate RecognizeEvaluateOperateProduce ExplainSummarizeCalculate Kinds of Learning Targets with Associated Verbs
Learning Targets by Content Area What kinds of learning targets are most common in your content area? Elbow partner share
Converting Learning Targets to Student-Friendly Language 1.Identify important or difficult learning goal. 2.Identify word(s) needing clarification. 3.Define the word(s). 4.Rewrite the definition as an “ I can ” statement, in terms that your students will understand. 5.Try it out and refine as needed. 6.Have students try this process.
Student-Friendly Language Word to be defined: SUMMARIZE to give a brief statement of the main points, main events, or important ideas to give a brief statement of the main points, main events, or important ideas Student-friendly language: I can summarize text. I can summarize text. This means I can make a short statement of the main points or the big ideas of what I read. This means I can make a short statement of the main points or the big ideas of what I read.
Student-Friendly Language Word to be defined: PREDICTION A statement saying something will happen in the future A statement saying something will happen in the future Student-friendly language:
Student-Friendly Language Word to be defined: PREDICTION A statement saying something will happen in the future A statement saying something will happen in the future Student-friendly language: I can make predictions. I can make predictions. This means I can use information from what I read to guess at what will happen next. This means I can use information from what I read to guess at what will happen next.
Student-Friendly Language Learning Target: “ Deeply examine policy issues …” Word to be defined: EXAMINE A process by which problems, alternate views and reasons for differing views for a given situation are understood. I Can Statement: I can “ examine. ” This means I can state the problems, describe alternative views, and understand the reasons for these different views.
Your Turn … Choose either “ analyze ” or “ describe ” and convert it into student-friendly terms Definition: Student-friendly language:
Clear and Appropriate Learning Targets - Summary Things to remember Different types of targets Different types of targets Clarify targets by using student- friendly language Clarify targets by using student- friendly language Post targets or have students keep them (refer to targets) Post targets or have students keep them (refer to targets) Connect learning targets to learning activities and assessments Connect learning targets to learning activities and assessments
The Assessment Map From Curriculum Documents to Learning Targets
Work time Use the Assessment Map to Define Learning Targets
Sound Assessment Design Select a proper assessment method Select or create quality items, tasks, and rubrics Sample—gather enough evidence Control for bias Design assessments so students can self-assess and set goals
Possible Assessment Methods Selected Response Extended Written Response Performance Assessment Personal Communication
Sound Design Assessment methods match learning targets. Sample is representative of what was taught. Items, tasks and scoring guides are well-written. Bias is avoided.
Target - Method Match +PRODUCT ++SKILLS++++REASON +?++KNOW PCPAEWRSR
Good Match Good Match for Oral comm. only Good Match for Writ. comm. only Okay but not efficient Reasoning Inferred by observation Possibly okay Think-aloud w/follow-up questions Good match for Some patterns Of reasoning
The Assessment Map Identify your “I cans” as Knowledge, Skill, Reasoning, or Performance items Next, select a method of assessment that would sample that ability effectively and efficiently.
Effective Communication “The most powerful single modification that enhances achievement is feedback. The simplest prescription for improving education must be ‘dollops of feedback’.” John Hattie (1992) “…all forms of feedback are not equally effective.”
Research Quotes on Effects of Feedback Read the quotes provided on the handout. Choose 1 quote that is most meaningful to you at this time.
Feedback On your own think about what you know to be the characteristics of effective feedback.
What Makes Feedback Effective? Describes features of work or performance Relates directly to the learning targets and/or standards of quality Points out strengths and gives specific information about how to improve
Source Characteristics of Feedback from Classroom Assessment Number of Studies * Effect Size Percentile Gain or Loss in Student Achievement Bangert-Drowns, Kulik, Kulik, & Morgan (1991) Right/wrong 6 -.08 -3 Provide correct answer 39.22 8.5 Criteria understood by students vs. not understood 30.41 16 Explain 9.53 20 Repeat until correct 4.53 20 Fuchs & Fuchs (1986) Displaying results graphically 89.70 26 Evaluation (interpretation) by rule 49.91 32 * Indicates the number of studies that were examined by the researchers to compute an effect size. See Technical Note 1.2 for discussion of an effect size.
Summary of the Research Formative classroom assessments should be frequent and provide many opportunities for feedback. Feedback should give students a clear picture of their progress on learning goals and how they might improve. Feedback on classroom assessments should encourage students to improve Marzano, 2006
Evaluative vs. Descriptive Feedback Evaluative feedback sums up achievement and assigns a label. It expresses a judgment. Descriptive feedback offers information that can be used by students to take action to improve.
Descriptive or Evaluative? Table Activity Mark each example of descriptive feedback with a D and each example of evaluative feedback with an E. If you believe it is neither, mark it with an X. Mark each example of descriptive feedback with a D and each example of evaluative feedback with an E. If you believe it is neither, mark it with an X.
Effective Communication Provide students with descriptive feedback Involve students in tracking and communicating about their learning Use grading practices that accurately communicate about student learning
Effective Communication Effective Communication Continue Assessment Map Effective Communication Continue Assessment Map Effective Communication
Student SELF-assessment is crucial for feedback to be used effectively. Students are the ones who must ultimately take action to bridge the gap between where they are and where they are heading. The transition from feedback to self- monitoring can occur only when the student comes to know what constitutes quality. --Sadler, 1989
Student as User of Assessment Information (Sadler) Where am I going? Where am I now? How can I close the gap?
Student Motivation and Involvement Where am I going? 1.Provide a clear statement of the learning target 2.Use examples and models Where am I now? 3.Offer regular descriptive feedback 4.Teach students to self-assess and set goals How can I close the gap? 5.Design focused lessons 6.Teach students focused revision 7.Engage students in self-reflection; let them keep track of and share their learning
Student Involvement “The most important instructional decisions are made, not by the adults working in the system, but by students themselves.” CASL 2006
Emily’s Story: Assessment for Learning Read Emily’s story. Note what Emily’s teacher did to enhance student involvement, motivation, and achievement. Now read her writing samples. What does Emily have to say about this? (video) What does this look like in social studies?
Involving the Student Clear learning targets in student friendly language- made known at the outset to the student Instruction that models what success looks like Assessments that are fair – no surprises, no excuses