Presentation on theme: "Unit 7 Civil War and Reconstruction 1860-1877. Things to Know 1.Outbreak of the Civil War: 1.Outbreak of the Civil War: pattern of secession after Lincoln’s."— Presentation transcript:
Unit 7 Civil War and Reconstruction
Things to Know 1.Outbreak of the Civil War: 1.Outbreak of the Civil War: pattern of secession after Lincoln’s election; relative strengths and weaknesses of the North and South at the outbreak of the war. 2.The Civil War, The Civil War, : military strategy and major battles; economic impact of the war on the North and South; response to war in Europe; Emancipation Proclamation- position of African- Americans during the war.
Reconstruction: 3. Reconstruction: Lincoln’s views on treatment of the South; difference between Congressional and Presidential Reconstruction; implementation of Reconstruction; status of former slaves; national politics and the end of Reconstruction. Things to Know
People to Know – Union Ulysses S. Grant - Ulysses S. Grant - Main Northern General; later president. George McClell George McClellan - Northern General; later ran as presidential candidate for Peace Democrats in Sherman Sherman - Northern general. He led the March to the Sea from Atlanta to Savannah in Georgia.
People to Know - Confederacy Jefferson Davis - Jefferson Davis - President of the Confederacy. Robert E. Lee - Robert E. Lee - Main Confederate General. “Stonewall” Jackson “Stonewall” Jackson - Southern general.
Andrew Johnson - Andrew Johnson - President during Reconstruction, impeached because of violation of the Tenure of Office Act (underlying reason was his conciliatory policies toward the South). Mathew Brady - Mathew Brady - Photographer of the War; credited with being the father of photojournalism. John Wilkes Booth - John Wilkes Booth - Killed Lincoln. Other People to Know
Freedman’s Bureau - Freedman’s Bureau - Aided former slaves through education, health care and employment. Ku Klux Klan - Ku Klux Klan - Wanted to restore white supremacy after the Civil War; used violence and terrorism. Radical Republicans - Radical Republicans - Supported equal rights for freedmen; impeached Andrew Johnson. Groups to Know
Major Battles Fort SumterSC Fort Sumter, SC ; first battle of the war. North failed to take control of the harbor. First Battle of Bull Run (aka Manassas) – First Battle of Bull Run (aka Manassas) – 1861; spectators watched, expecting an easy Union victory, but were disappointed. Southern spies warned the CSA ahead of time, and the Union was defeated. Some women from D.C. came with picnic baskets and blankets to watch.
Battle of the Ironclads Battle of the Ironclads, 1862 – Monitor (North) had revolving turret forced Merrimac (South) to retreat. Shiloh Shiloh, Tennessee ; unsuccessful Southern attack on Northern forces. Antietam (aka Sharpsburg) Antietam (aka Sharpsburg) ; bloodiest one-day battle in the history of American combat. Vicksburg - Vicksburg ; Southern surrender. Major Battles
Gettysburg Gettysburg ; more men died here than in any other battle on American soil; after this Union victory, the Confederacy could not recover. Chancellorsville Chancellorsville - Lee succeeded against Hooker’s larger army; Stonewall Jackson was shot by his own men and died of pneumonia eight days later. Appomattox - Appomattox ; Lee surrendered to Grant, marked the end of the Civil War. Major Battles
Strategies/Concepts Anaconda Plan- Anaconda Plan- Union plan to cut off supplies from the Mississippi to the South Sherman’s March to the Sea- Sherman’s March to the Sea- Gen. Sherman’s troops left the captured city of Atlanta and ended with the capture of Savannah; used principle of scorched earth
Legislature Morrill Land Grant Act - Morrill Land Grant Act - Allowed for the creation of land-grant colleges to teach military tactics, mechanics and agriculture. Pacific Railroad Act - Pacific Railroad Act ; authorized the construction of the first transcontinental railway line connecting the east and west coasts.
Election of Election of Democrat Tilden vs. Republican Hayes; Tilden won popular vote but electoral vote was in question; in the Compromise of 1877, Hayes was chosen as president Contract Labor System - Contract Labor System - during the war immigration declined, therefore creating a shortage of labor; led government to create the Act to Encourage Immigration. Tenant farms - Tenant farms - most freed slaves could not afford to get their own property, so they were tenant farmers for former masters.Legislature
National Bank Act - National Bank Act - Together with Lincoln's issuance of "greenbacks," raised money for the federal government in the war by enticing banks to buy federal bonds and taxed state bonds out of existence. Wade-Davis Bill - Wade-Davis Bill ; made re-admittance to the Union for former Confederate states contingent on a majority in each Southern state to take the Ironclad oath to the effect they had never in the past supported the Confederacy.Legislature
13 th, 14 th, 15 th amendments - 13 th, 14 th, 15 th amendments - Freedom, citizenship, suffrage for colored people. Civil Rights Act Civil Rights Act Counterattack against Black Codes; gave some civil rights to recently freed slaves; President Johnson vetoed the bill. Reconstruction Acts (1867) - Reconstruction Acts (1867) - Creation of five military districts in the seceded states, states required to ratify the 14 th Amendment before being readmitted to the Union.Legislature
Multiple Choice Questions!
1. At the outset, President Lincoln held that the Civil War was being fought to?: a. end all state sovereignty. b. carry out the goals of the abolitionist movement. c. free the slaves. d. preserve the Union. e. all of these choices are correct.
2. The major battle in the western theater during the Civil War which had the effect of splitting the Confederacy in half was?: a. the Battle of the Wilderness. b. Vicksburg. c. Gettysburg. d. Antietam. e. First Bull Run.
3. The Emancipation Proclamation?: a. freed the slaves and abolished slavery in all the states of the Union and the Confederacy. b. freed slaves only in areas in rebellion against the United States but not in areas that remained loyal. c. was formulated by the Radical Republicans and issued by Lincoln despite his strong personal objections. d. convinced England and France to enter the war on behalf of the Union in order to win the crusade against slavery.
4. The final Union war strategy included all of the following components EXCEPT?: a. guerilla warfare. b. undermining the Confederate economy. c. a naval blockade. d. seizing control of the Mississippi River.
5. What two issues lay at the heart of Reconstruction?: a. whether the federal or state government was ultimately sovereign, and whether Africa-Americans or Native Americans were the most oppressed minority group. b. which party would gain the ascendance, and how the government could regulate the economy. c. the future of political and economic power for freed slaves, and the future of North-South economic and political relations. d. rebuilding the North's shattered economy and restoring the South's shattered society.
6. Which of the following was NOT a feature of Abraham Lincoln's "10 Percent Plan"?: a. state governments could be formed when at least 10% of those who had voted in 1860 had sworn allegiance to the Union and accepted emancipation. b. Confederate officials and army and naval officers needed presidential pardons before they could participate in the new governments. c. southern plantations were to be confiscated and divided among the blacks who had formerly worked there as slaves. d. freedmen were excluded from participation because they had not been voters in 1860.
7. The Fourteenth Amendment to the Constitution was important because it?: a. prohibited slavery within the United States. b. guaranteed equal protection under the law for every American citizen. c. prohibited any state from denying an American citizen the right to vote based on race/ethnic background, color, or having previously been a slave. d. provided Congress with the power to establish and collect income taxes. prohibited any state from denying women the right to vote.