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Accepting and Embracing Resistance to CHANGE

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1 Accepting and Embracing Resistance to CHANGE
MOVING FORWARD

2 Part 1 Resistance and Behaviour
CHANGE CHAMPIONS & ASSOCIATES Part 1 Resistance and Behaviour

3 RESISTANCE ?

4 Resistance Styles

5 Who’s In Your Zoo? Why is it important to know who is in your zoo?
CHANGE CHAMPIONS & ASSOCIATES Who’s In Your Zoo? Why is it important to know who is in your zoo?

6 The Attitude Bell Curve
CHANGE CHAMPIONS & ASSOCIATES Let’s Move Them Resistant Neutral Supportive The Attitude Bell Curve

7 Push the River or Flow With It
RESIST SUPPORT No input into decision making Surprise Fear loss/cost - security, money, status, friends, freedom Skeptical of success Change unnecessary/make worse If it's not broken, don't fix it Feel manipulated Believe organization lacks resources to implement Something in it for them New challenge Makes sense Right thing to do Opportunity to input Respect the champion Believe time is right

8 CHANGE CHAMPIONS & ASSOCIATES
Defining Resistance = feedback = valuable information = opportunity to increase buy in = potential for new champions = greater potential for better result/success ? Push back/rejection ? Not buying in/ supporting ? Criticising ? Foot dragging ? Eye rolling ? Sabotage = SUBJECTIVE Even though perceptions about resistors and resistance to change are often subjective, we are usually obsessed by moving them We get into a “them & us” cycle The program failed because “they” just refused to do X.

9 CHANGE CHAMPIONS & ASSOCIATES
SCENARIO Change Implementers = Three managers of a large scale government funded health reform program Task = Explain for the first time to project teams that a new data management system is about to be introduced Collecting different data using different software Challenge = Managers fuzzy on details 3 volunteers Off stretcher time – now starting it from the time the ambulance arrives at the hospital rather than when the stretcher is rolled into the emergency department. Also using brand new software that integrates with the ambulance call centre, SOSSYS but not the hospital systems. Audience asked to fire a ton of questions at Manager, operate as if its an interrogation and to appear irritated when Manager doesn’t know the answers Audience asked not ask questions – to stone wall. Manager asked to deliver information in a way that is uninviting of questions. Audience asked to challenge. Manager asked to be responsive and engaging and encourage of questions and debate Summary 1. Manager sees resistance because received a ton of questions, felt interrogated and employees irritated that he couldn’t answer ? Perhaps irritated because answers weren’t sufficient and manager didn’t commit to finding answers Summary 2. No questions and shallow comments and silence seen as stonewalling. Did Manager 2 unconsciously discourage questions or did the group legitimately have nothing to ask. Summary 3 Enjoys the animated dialogue and questions very receptive…typical of a productive reaction to resistance.

10 Which is indicative of a productive reaction??
Three Perspectives Manager 1 Asked a “ton of questions” Felt “interrogated” Team “irritated” when couldn’t answer questions Manager 2 Silence Felt “stonewalled” Manager 3 “Very receptive” “Lots of questions” Disappointed with lack of answers promised to get back “Energising and engaging meeting” Which is indicative of a productive reaction??

11 Mind Set Adjustment RESISTANCE =
CHANGE CHAMPIONS & ASSOCIATES Mind Set Adjustment Why do I see this behaviour as resistant? What can I learn from this? How can I incorporate “resistance” into the change program to get a better result? RESISTANCE =

12 Part 2 Minimising Resistance – Program Development
CHANGE CHAMPIONS & ASSOCIATES Part 2 Minimising Resistance – Program Development

13 Anticipate Resistance and Build Flexibility into Change Management Strategy

14 Designing Change Strategies for Success
CHANGE CHAMPIONS & ASSOCIATES Designing Change Strategies for Success (drawing on John Kotter’s work) Establish True Sense of Urgency Challenge = drive cuckoo out of comfort zone Well thought out case for change All head, intellect Theoretical, compelling rationale, data driven business cases  Win hearts and minds Connect with people and their values 

15 True Sense of Urgency Bring the outside in Connect internal & external
CHANGE CHAMPIONS & ASSOCIATES True Sense of Urgency Bring the outside in Connect internal & external Recognise internal silos Customer feedback Share troubling data (competitor analysis etc) Send people out to learn Bring expertise from outside in “If we don’t start to change now, we won’t exist/ will be irrelevant in X years”

16 True Sense of Urgency Behave like its urgent every day
CHANGE CHAMPIONS & ASSOCIATES True Sense of Urgency Behave like its urgent every day Alert Attitude Engage Time Tone No resting on laurels - Past reputation, successes Meeting treadmill

17 True Sense of Urgency Find opportunity in crisis Deal with the No No’s
CHANGE CHAMPIONS & ASSOCIATES True Sense of Urgency Find opportunity in crisis Deal with the No No’s Skilled urgency and passion killers Disruptive Neutralise Assignment in Outer Mongolia Move on or move on Peer Pressure

18 Powerful Coalitions for Change
CHANGE CHAMPIONS & ASSOCIATES Powerful Coalitions for Change Who? Positional Power Composition important Recognised Authority Leaders to drive; managers to manage process Broad Reaching Credibility Mutual trust & respect Relevant Expertise Shared objective Proven Leaders, Effective Managers Able to work as a team

19 Communicate Vision for Change
Imaginable Paint a picture of the future Desirable Appeal to long-term interest (employees, customers, shareholders) Feasible Realistic, attainable goals Focused Clear. Provide guidance for decision making Flexible Individual initiative, alternative responses with changing conditions Communicable Easy to explain (especially WIIFM?)

20 Consistent, constant communication Simple, honest messages
Communicate for Buy- In Consistent, constant communication Hour by hour, anywhere, everywhere, CNN news flash Lively visionary articles Discussion replaces ritualistic meetings Social media, water cooler, tea room Communicate vision Discrepancy message Then Communicate Vision Simple, honest messages verbal picture no jargon no techno/psycho babble easy to repeat inviting a 2 way conversations

21 Would You Buy In? “Reminder: ‘Hot Wheels’: Spontaneous Sex and Cerebral Palsy If you have moderate-severe cerebral palsy and want to talk about sex, a PhD student from The University of (Blah Blah) invites you to participate in a study. This investigates how people perceive the prevalent idea that good sex is spontaneous, the effect that this perception may have on their sexuality, and whether the idea of sexual spontaneity is a contributing factor to any difficulty they may have in accessing sexual relationships. Participants would engage in two interviews (about 2 weeks apart) in person, over the phone, or by , according to your preference. The project has been approved by The Human Research Ethics Committee of The University of (Blah Blah). For more information….

22 Manage The Message Create a true story – Craft up to 4 versions
Tailor for relevance: positional (i.e. exec vs. production line) impact ?motherhood statements offensive negative messages specify improvement required Managers are thinking that they need to refine process to ensure that each end product is identical Production line workers are worried that they might be in trouble because there were streaks in one batch of purple layers, or the layers are not exactly the same size etc.

23 Empowering the Team Remove the obstacles Structures Skills Systems
New Existing Systems Supervisor Rationale for change is everyone’s business Typically, empowering employees involves addressing four major obstacles: structures, skills, systems and supervisors.  We will explore two of these here: Structural Barriers: Often the internal structures of companies work as cross-purposes to the change vision.  An organization that claims to want to be customer focused finds its structures fragment resources and responsibilities for products and services.  Companies that claim to want to create more local responsiveness have layers of management that second guess and criticize regional decisions.  Companies that claim to want to increase productive and become a low-cost producer have huge staff groups that constantly initiate costly procedures and programs.  The list is endless. Many times, it is difficult to remove these barriers in the midst of the change process.  However, some obstacles are so disempowering that they must be changed.  Typically, the most effective of these changes can occur in the human resources area.  Realigning incentives and performance appraisals to reflect the change vision can have a profound effect on the ability to accomplish the change vision. Management information systems can also have a big impact on the successful implementation of a change vision.  Up-to-date competitive information and market analysis and the ability to communicate powerfully and effectively throughout the company in a cost effective way can speed up feedback loops and provide information necessary for people to do their jobs more efficiently.  Troublesome Supervisors: 

24 Celebrate the Wins Generate short-term wins Rewards
CHANGE CHAMPIONS & ASSOCIATES Celebrate the Wins Generate short-term wins Highly visible Unambiguously related to change effort Rewards impact morale/motivation Re-energise, re-motivate Reinforce urgency Neutralise blockers/No Nos

25 Don’t Give Up! Ambidexterity Change fatigue Let up
CHANGE CHAMPIONS & ASSOCIATES Don’t Give Up! Ambidexterity Drive change, new future Manage day to day operations Change fatigue Let up assumption job is done lose momentum resistance

26 Would you spend the $20,000? How? Why?
CHANGE CHAMPIONS & ASSOCIATES A Change Challenge Background Division in a multi-national with 2000 employees Geographically dispersed Totally entrenched silo thinking culture New CEO Wants to plant a seed that moves them toward a more collaborative mindset within 12 months You have $20,000 to create the most 'shift in thinking possible' taking all these constraints into account Would you spend the $20,000? How? Why?

27 Problem Based V Appreciative Inquiry
CHANGE CHAMPIONS & ASSOCIATES Problem Based V Appreciative Inquiry PB -problem to solve Focus = problem Establish facts Formulate problem Analyse causes Investigate, discover, learn Diagnose, solve Develop management plan AP – miracle to embrace Focus = people, relationships Discover what works well Dream – envision future Discussion, innovation Design process that would work well Deliver ie implement

28 CHANGE CHAMPIONS & ASSOCIATES
Change Program Design Using a real or hypothetical example, briefly outline a strategy for building support for change Urgency Driving Coalition Vision Buy In Empowerment Wins

29 Part 3 Incorporating Resistance
CHANGE CHAMPIONS & ASSOCIATES Part 3 Incorporating Resistance

30 Plan for Resistance Organisational culture/societal culture
CHANGE CHAMPIONS & ASSOCIATES Plan for Resistance Organisational culture/societal culture Fear Factor People and emotions Can’t talk people out of emotions Acknowledge the elephant in the room Don’t try to fight Storms blow out: feelings change Address known reasons for resistance Avoid assumptions No one will resist change for the better Everyone close will be supportive Self interest Self management/ autonomy/ immunity Managers will communicate unpopular changes Message sent = message received Chinese whispers

31 Plan for Resistance Emotional Process Don’t fight Feelings change
CHANGE CHAMPIONS & ASSOCIATES Plan for Resistance Emotional Process Can’t talk people out of their feelings Don’t fight Like a storm – will blow out over time Feelings change Avoid assumptions No one will resist change for the better Everyone close will be supportive Self interest Self management/ autonomy/ immunity Managers will communicate unpopular changes Message sent = message received Chinese whispers

32 Plan for Resistance Identify impacts
CHANGE CHAMPIONS & ASSOCIATES Plan for Resistance Identify impacts Different levels of organisation/hierarchy Different individuals, values, skills, tasks, concerns Interpretation/internalisation of messages Geographic Power of informal networks, gossip, innuendo Unintended/unimaginable consequences

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35 Thinking about how you would roll out a change program:
CHANGE CHAMPIONS & ASSOCIATES Exercise 3 Thinking about how you would roll out a change program: Identify broad areas/people where you might receive feedback that is less than supportive Use your organisational chart to draw linkages between supportive and resistant groups Use network diagrams to understand connections between internal and external stakeholders How sure are you that you have identified all of them?

36 Identifying Resistance
CHANGE CHAMPIONS & ASSOCIATES Identifying Resistance WHAT WHO WHY HOW WHEN WHERE What is the problem? What is happening. Like the fishing trip. You need to be able to define the problem before you leap to a diagnosis Prosci 2006 Who is most heavily invested? What are the implications for them directly? Indirectly? Further downstream? External relationships? Why are they resisting – what is the root cause What might that resistance look like – can you develop some if then plans, alternate plans, fall back strategies Have you identified where in the organisation resistance might come from? Have you look beyond the obvious? Have you thought about how you might best deal with it? FOR EACH GROUP -How and where might it manifest? Can anticipate where or is it coming from left field? Power of networks.

37 Who Resists Boost your own awareness Listen, hear, learn Walk the talk
CHANGE CHAMPIONS & ASSOCIATES Who Resists Boost your own awareness Walk the talk Different levels of hierarchy Different tangents of network Listen, hear, learn Complaints Heated discussions keep change alive

38

39 Key Stakeholders

40 Networks and network connections
CHANGE CHAMPIONS & ASSOCIATES Networks and network connections

41 Getting to the Bottom of It
CHANGE CHAMPIONS & ASSOCIATES Getting to the Bottom of It Why won’t it work Genuinely ill conceived? Flawed logic/unnecessarily reactive If X, then Y? or ??? History/culture/politics/threat investment /resourcing 2+2=5 How, when, where might resistance manifest Risks to change effort

42 Talking About Resistance
CHANGE CHAMPIONS & ASSOCIATES Talking About Resistance Driving Forces = Growth/Improvement Restraining Forces = Stagnation, Blocking, Controlling Answering questions Building ideas Proposing Describing experience Understanding about future Exploring someone’s thoughts Integrating information in new ways Taking responsibility/owning the task Changing subject Yes-butting Blaming and complaining Ought-to-tuding Dooming and glooming Mindreading Redundancy Disowning/depending on others/becoming detached

43 Reframing Resistance Talk
CHANGE CHAMPIONS & ASSOCIATES Reframing Resistance Talk Situation A reorganisation has resulted in a work group comprised of 2 operators and 2 group leaders each working in different geographical locations. The operator in question is resentful about being passed over for promotion and is working unco- operatively. Dilemma As a group manager on a self managed team, I am in a bind when my co-worker slows down his work. I have a choice of either picking up the slack for him or not. If I don’t production suffers. When I ask for more cooperation, he says its my responsibility since I “earn the big bucks” How do we deal with this dilemma? Study Enable the dilemma to be expressed Explore feelings about the situation – helps us to recognise our empathy for the other person’s position and enables us to move on from anger and blame, judging etc. What are the losses associated with choices? Helps to manage resistance by being authentic and encouraging the other person to be authentic as well Act See the dilemmas as symptoms and as a system problem Explore the dilemmas in the context of the organisation, task, roles, responsibilities, rewards

44 Resistance Talk Methodology
CHANGE CHAMPIONS & ASSOCIATES Resistance Talk Methodology Identify Resistant Behaviour (What they said, body language and what they were really thinking) Define the bind (What is the wall they face) Describe the dilemma (Reframe the bind to become a choice) Feelings and losses Find solutions to the system issues

45 Talking About Resistance – Role Play Exercise 4
CHANGE CHAMPIONS & ASSOCIATES Talking About Resistance – Role Play Exercise 4 Step 1 P1 describes a change program P2 responds PLUS writes notes about what he/she was thinking but didn’t say Step 2A P2 imagines what he/she would say if telling P1 what they really think

46 Talking About Resistance – Role Play Exercise 3
CHANGE CHAMPIONS & ASSOCIATES Talking About Resistance – Role Play Exercise 3 Then….yes…reveal Step 3 Discuss the bind ie points of resistance Step 4 Discuss the feelings and losses Step 5 Co-develop a solution Pair up Person is a manager talks about change that will impact the other person Second person notes what they were really thinking but were reluctant to say. These will be points of resistance. Imagine saying what you are thinking and describe how that makes them feel How did they interpret what the manager said. Did they feel the manager tried to protect them from discomfort and loss? Could P2 have felt differently if P1 had been more authentic

47 Root Cause Analysis (from Six Sigma)
CHANGE CHAMPIONS & ASSOCIATES Root Cause Analysis (from Six Sigma) "Every problem is an opportunity" Kilchiro Toyoda, founder of Toyota

48 Why? Technical Historical Inertia Political Motivational
CHANGE CHAMPIONS & ASSOCIATES Why? Technical "We don't think this will work” Historical Inertia "We've always done things in a certain way, and it is hard for us to accept a new way because of the uncertainty that change introduces” Political "If we go forward with this change, then our group loses out and we don't want to sacrifice our resources or status, even if it's for the greater good” Motivational "This change makes me have to work harder without greater potential reward, so it's not in my/our self-interest to change"

49 Part 4 Embracing and Working with Feedback
CHANGE CHAMPIONS & ASSOCIATES Part 4 Embracing and Working with Feedback

50 Build Participation Note concerns Encourage suggestions & advice
CHANGE CHAMPIONS & ASSOCIATES Build Participation Note concerns Listen, empathise, watch….think beyond the spoken words ABC Model Encourage suggestions & advice How to do it better Cognitive mapping Generate “worry” and “idea” lists Incorporate feedback into change via guiding coalition Acknowledge the sources of idea Research/Action Leaning (PDSA cycles)

51 Build Participation Change the change Other tools
CHANGE CHAMPIONS & ASSOCIATES Build Participation Change the change CO-CREATE VISION, CO-CONSTRUCT STRATEGY Potential for a better outcome Other tools Collaboration, Communication, Creativity Six Thinking Hats – separates ego and performance

52 Building Participation Finn Tschudi's ABC-Model
CHANGE CHAMPIONS & ASSOCIATES Building Participation Finn Tschudi's ABC-Model A = current and desired state B = disadvantages/negatives of the current state +the advantages/positives of the desired state C = positives/advantages of current state + the disadvantages/negatives/losses associated with moving to the desired state If B> or more powerful than C = struggle

53 Cognitive Mapping Way Finding Behaviour
CHANGE CHAMPIONS & ASSOCIATES Cognitive Mapping Way Finding Behaviour

54 History Repeating Cynics have seen it all before Complete the past
CHANGE CHAMPIONS & ASSOCIATES History Repeating Cynics have seen it all before Didn’t work last time Promises didn’t materialise Biased decision making Questionable ethics Complete the past Apologise publicly, privately, personally and sincerely Deliver on promises

55 Deliver on Promises Incentives Raise
CHANGE CHAMPIONS & ASSOCIATES Deliver on Promises Incentives Raise More benefits, better working conditions Training, re-skilling, multi-skilling, cross-skilling Promotion Re-orientation of teams, more collaborative management New uniform, parking space, free parking Positive feedback

56 Dealing with Resistance 4
CHANGE CHAMPIONS & ASSOCIATES Dealing with Resistance 4 Using a real or hypothetical example, develop a tailored strategy for dealing with resistance Who is resistant? Why? How will you discover the real concerns? What are those concerns? How can you address them?

57 Part 5 Resilience Messages for Managers
CHANGE CHAMPIONS & ASSOCIATES Part 5 Resilience Messages for Managers

58 Accepting Feedback Choosing who responds Toolkits for managers
CHANGE CHAMPIONS & ASSOCIATES Accepting Feedback Choosing who responds Manager, supervisor Knowledge, skills, expertise Credibility, respect, trust Demonstrates commitment to change Toolkits for managers Tailored messages Story telling skills Clear deliverables

59 Phases for Managing Employees
CHANGE CHAMPIONS & ASSOCIATES Phases for Managing Employees Awareness of the need to change Desire to participate and support the change Knowledge of how to change (and what the change looks like) Ability to implement the change on a day-to-day basis Reinforcement for sustainability Document what messages have been communicated and plot their progress bearing in mind that it won’t be a linear progression. Do their actions and behaviours reflect that they get the change. Do they ask questions When we have..will ..is there a hint that they are thinking ahead Do they have the resources, tools, knowledge and skills to make the change Review, and re-present messages so they maintain urgency and currency to prevent becoming lost, eroded and ignored and constantly positively reinforce.

60 Phases of Change Mourning the Past
CHANGE CHAMPIONS & ASSOCIATES Phases of Change Mourning the Past Realize change intellectually, but now beginning to comprehend it emotionally Acceptance Emotionally May still have reservations, but not fighting May see some of the benefits even if not completely convinced Enlightenment Completely accept the new change. May wonder how they ever managed the "old" way Feel good Accept it as the status quo from here forward Anticipation - Waiting stage Not sure what to expect …..so they wait Confrontation Realize that change is really going to happen or is happening Realization Nothing is ever going to be as it once was Know where your team is at. Recognise that some aspects are similar to a grief process and people will move back and forth.

61 Managing Individuals Honest, open communication Individualised plans
CHANGE CHAMPIONS & ASSOCIATES Managing Individuals Honest, open communication Stay on message Individualised plans Special case How is one drop of water different to all the other millions and trillions of drops of water? Open door Seek assistance from HR Individualised plans Capacity to change – understanding, skills, relevance, willingness, removing obstacles be they physical, structural or psychological Understanding their concerns and addressing them Find out what their bite size is and break the changes they need to make into to manageable bites. Show them how it contributes to the big picture. Reinforcing the message

62 Resistant Resistors Nudge Manipulate Cajole/humour Carrot/stick
CHANGE CHAMPIONS & ASSOCIATES Resistant Resistors Nudge Manipulate Cajole/humour Carrot/stick Open honest frank discussion Distance/sideline/disenfranchise Move on …could it be you who is resisting? Could the conscientious objector have a point that you can’t see? Are you looking at the problem from the wrong angle? Are you looking for answer in the wrong place? Disenfranchising by peers is a powerful antidote to resistance – usually achieved by offline network communication

63 Resistant Resistors – their story
CHANGE CHAMPIONS & ASSOCIATES Resistant Resistors – their story Map out their footprint in the project What did they contribute/achieve What is the future direction What is the next step How would they like to be remembered How will their contribution be remembered in the corporate history Confronting approach to help the resistor get the disconnect between how they seem themselves and how everyone else sees them.

64 Old Habits Inhibit Change
CHANGE CHAMPIONS & ASSOCIATES Old Habits Inhibit Change Management Comfort Zone Dozens of inter-related habits Not “hot wired” for change Confront Honest dialogue Set specific performance objectives

65 The Big Splash? Or continuous improvement?
CHANGE CHAMPIONS & ASSOCIATES The Big Splash? Or continuous improvement? Demonstrate leadership resilience Persevere Laws of jungle – don’t fight human nature Handle stress with dignity Focus on maximising impact Influence what you can Let go of what you can’t control

66 Personal Mastery (from Peter Senge 1990)
CHANGE CHAMPIONS & ASSOCIATES Personal Mastery (from Peter Senge 1990) People change, not organisations Organisations learn through their people People learning ≠ organisational learning Personal mastery Journey not a destination, no arrival Beyond competency, skills, spiritual awakening Continual learning mode Manage gap between vision & reality Personal mastery. ‘Organizations learn only through individuals who learn. Individual learning does not guarantee organizational learning. But without it no organizational learning occurs’ (Senge 1990: 139). Personal mastery is the discipline of continually clarifying and deepening our personal vision, of focusing our energies, of developing patience, and of seeing reality objectively’ (ibid.: 7). It goes beyond competence and skills, although it involves them. It goes beyond spiritual opening, although it involves spiritual growth (ibid.: 141). Mastery is seen as a special kind of proficiency. It is not about dominance, but rather about calling. Vision is vocation rather than simply just a good idea. People with a high level of personal mastery live in a continual learning mode. They never ‘arrive’. Sometimes, language, such as the term ‘personal mastery’ creates a misleading sense of definiteness, of black and white. But personal mastery is not something you possess. It is a process. It is a lifelong discipline. People with a high level of personal mastery are acutely aware of their ignorance, their incompetence, their growth areas. And they are deeply self-confident. Paradoxical? Only for those who do not see the ‘journey is the reward’. (Senge 1990: 142) In writing such as this we can see the appeal of Peter Senge’s vision. It has deep echoes in the concerns of writers such as M. Scott Peck (1990) and Erich Fromm (1979). The discipline entails developing personal vision; holding creative tension (managing the gap between our vision and reality); recognizing structural tensions and constraints, and our own power (or lack of it) with regard to them; a commitment to truth; and using the sub-conscious (ibid.: ).

67 Take Home Messages Be strong
CHANGE CHAMPIONS & ASSOCIATES Take Home Messages Resistance to change normal, natural, healthy People resist/support change for good reasons Change your mindset to embrace resistance as useful feedback Be flexible, anticipate feedback, incorporate it into change strategy from the outset Communicate constantly Plan for resistance at implementation, who, what, when, where, why How might it manifest What are the risks Develop a proactive management strategy Be strong

68 What will you do next?

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