5 Who’s In Your Zoo? Why is it important to know who is in your zoo? CHANGE CHAMPIONS & ASSOCIATESWho’s In Your Zoo?Why is it important to know who is in your zoo?
6 The Attitude Bell Curve CHANGE CHAMPIONS & ASSOCIATESLet’s Move ThemResistantNeutralSupportiveThe Attitude Bell Curve
7 Push the River or Flow With It RESISTSUPPORTNo input into decision makingSurpriseFear loss/cost - security, money, status, friends, freedomSkeptical of successChange unnecessary/make worseIf it's not broken, don't fix itFeel manipulatedBelieve organization lacks resources to implementSomething in it for themNew challengeMakes senseRight thing to doOpportunity to inputRespect the championBelieve time is right
8 CHANGE CHAMPIONS & ASSOCIATES Defining Resistance= feedback = valuable information = opportunity to increase buy in = potential for new champions = greater potential for better result/success? Push back/rejection ? Not buying in/ supporting ? Criticising ? Foot dragging ? Eye rolling ? Sabotage = SUBJECTIVEEven though perceptions about resistors and resistance to change are often subjective, we are usually obsessed by moving themWe get into a “them & us” cycleThe program failed because “they” just refused to do X.
9 CHANGE CHAMPIONS & ASSOCIATES SCENARIOChange Implementers = Three managers of a large scale government funded health reform program Task = Explain for the first time to project teams that a new data management system is about to be introduced Collecting different data using different software Challenge = Managers fuzzy on details3 volunteersOff stretcher time – now starting it from the time the ambulance arrives at the hospital rather than when the stretcher is rolled into the emergency department. Also using brand new software that integrates with the ambulance call centre, SOSSYS but not the hospital systems.Audience asked to fire a ton of questions at Manager, operate as if its an interrogation and to appear irritated when Manager doesn’t know the answersAudience asked not ask questions – to stone wall. Manager asked to deliver information in a way that is uninviting of questions.Audience asked to challenge. Manager asked to be responsive and engaging and encourage of questions and debateSummary 1. Manager sees resistance because received a ton of questions, felt interrogated and employees irritated that he couldn’t answer? Perhaps irritated because answers weren’t sufficient and manager didn’t commit to finding answersSummary 2. No questions and shallow comments and silence seen as stonewalling. Did Manager 2 unconsciously discourage questions or did the group legitimately have nothing to ask.Summary 3 Enjoys the animated dialogue and questions very receptive…typical of a productive reaction to resistance.
10 Which is indicative of a productive reaction?? Three PerspectivesManager 1Asked a “ton of questions”Felt “interrogated”Team “irritated” when couldn’t answer questionsManager 2SilenceFelt “stonewalled”Manager 3“Very receptive”“Lots of questions”Disappointed with lack of answerspromised to get back“Energising and engaging meeting”Which is indicative of a productive reaction??
11 Mind Set Adjustment RESISTANCE = CHANGE CHAMPIONS & ASSOCIATESMind Set AdjustmentWhy do I see this behaviour as resistant?What can I learn from this?How can I incorporate “resistance” into the change program to get a better result?RESISTANCE =
12 Part 2 Minimising Resistance – Program Development CHANGE CHAMPIONS & ASSOCIATESPart 2 Minimising Resistance – Program Development
13 Anticipate Resistance and Build Flexibility into Change Management Strategy
14 Designing Change Strategies for Success CHANGE CHAMPIONS & ASSOCIATESDesigning Change Strategies for Success(drawing on John Kotter’s work)Establish True Sense of UrgencyChallenge = drive cuckoo out of comfort zoneWell thought out case for changeAll head, intellectTheoretical, compelling rationale,data driven business cases Win hearts and mindsConnect with people and their values
15 True Sense of Urgency Bring the outside in Connect internal & external CHANGE CHAMPIONS & ASSOCIATESTrue Sense of UrgencyBring the outside inConnect internal & externalRecognise internal silosCustomer feedbackShare troubling data (competitor analysis etc)Send people out to learnBring expertise from outside in“If we don’t start to change now, we won’t exist/ will be irrelevant in X years”
16 True Sense of Urgency Behave like its urgent every day CHANGE CHAMPIONS & ASSOCIATESTrue Sense of UrgencyBehave like its urgent every dayAlertAttitudeEngageTimeToneNo resting on laurels- Past reputation, successesMeeting treadmill
17 True Sense of Urgency Find opportunity in crisis Deal with the No No’s CHANGE CHAMPIONS & ASSOCIATESTrue Sense of UrgencyFind opportunity in crisisDeal with the No No’sSkilled urgency and passion killersDisruptiveNeutraliseAssignment in Outer MongoliaMove on or move onPeer Pressure
18 Powerful Coalitions for Change CHANGE CHAMPIONS & ASSOCIATESPowerful Coalitions for ChangeWho?Positional PowerComposition importantRecognised AuthorityLeaders to drive; managers to manage processBroad Reaching CredibilityMutual trust & respectRelevant ExpertiseShared objectiveProven Leaders, Effective ManagersAble to work as a team
19 Communicate Vision for Change ImaginablePaint a picture of thefutureDesirableAppeal to long-term interest (employees, customers,shareholders)FeasibleRealistic,attainable goalsFocusedClear. Provide guidance fordecision makingFlexibleIndividual initiative, alternative responses with changingconditionsCommunicableEasy to explain(especially WIIFM?)
20 Consistent, constant communication Simple, honest messages Communicate for Buy- InConsistent, constant communicationHour by hour, anywhere, everywhere, CNN news flashLively visionary articlesDiscussion replaces ritualistic meetingsSocial media, water cooler, tea roomCommunicate visionDiscrepancy messageThenCommunicate VisionSimple, honest messagesverbal pictureno jargonno techno/psycho babbleeasy to repeatinviting a 2 way conversations
21 Would You Buy In?“Reminder: ‘Hot Wheels’: Spontaneous Sex and Cerebral Palsy If you have moderate-severe cerebral palsy and want to talk about sex, a PhD student from The University of (Blah Blah) invites you to participate in a study. This investigates how people perceive the prevalent idea that good sex is spontaneous, the effect that this perception may have on their sexuality, and whether the idea of sexual spontaneity is a contributing factor to any difficulty they may have in accessing sexual relationships. Participants would engage in two interviews (about 2 weeks apart) in person, over the phone, or by , according to your preference. The project has been approved by The Human Research Ethics Committee of The University of (Blah Blah). For more information….
22 Manage The Message Create a true story – Craft up to 4 versions Tailor for relevance:positional (i.e. exec vs. production line)impact?motherhood statements offensivenegative messagesspecify improvement requiredManagers are thinking that they need to refine process to ensure that each end product is identicalProduction line workers are worried that they might be in trouble because there were streaks in one batch of purple layers, or the layers are not exactly the same size etc.
23 Empowering the Team Remove the obstacles Structures Skills Systems NewExistingSystemsSupervisorRationale for change is everyone’s businessTypically, empowering employees involves addressing four major obstacles: structures, skills, systems and supervisors. We will explore two of these here:Structural Barriers:Often the internal structures of companies work as cross-purposes to the change vision. An organization that claims to want to be customer focused finds its structures fragment resources and responsibilities for products and services. Companies that claim to want to create more local responsiveness have layers of management that second guess and criticize regional decisions. Companies that claim to want to increase productive and become a low-cost producer have huge staff groups that constantly initiate costly procedures and programs. The list is endless.Many times, it is difficult to remove these barriers in the midst of the change process. However, some obstacles are so disempowering that they must be changed. Typically, the most effective of these changes can occur in the human resources area. Realigning incentives and performance appraisals to reflect the change vision can have a profound effect on the ability to accomplish the change vision.Management information systems can also have a big impact on the successful implementation of a change vision. Up-to-date competitive information and market analysis and the ability to communicate powerfully and effectively throughout the company in a cost effective way can speed up feedback loops and provide information necessary for people to do their jobs more efficiently. Troublesome Supervisors:
24 Celebrate the Wins Generate short-term wins Rewards CHANGE CHAMPIONS & ASSOCIATESCelebrate the WinsGenerate short-term winsHighly visibleUnambiguously related to change effortRewardsimpact morale/motivationRe-energise, re-motivateReinforce urgencyNeutralise blockers/No Nos
25 Don’t Give Up! Ambidexterity Change fatigue Let up CHANGE CHAMPIONS & ASSOCIATESDon’t Give Up!AmbidexterityDrive change, new futureManage day to day operationsChange fatigueLet upassumption job is donelose momentumresistance
26 Would you spend the $20,000? How? Why? CHANGE CHAMPIONS & ASSOCIATESA Change ChallengeBackgroundDivision in a multi-national with 2000 employeesGeographically dispersedTotally entrenched silo thinking cultureNew CEOWants to plant a seed that moves them toward a more collaborative mindset within 12 monthsYou have $20,000 to create the most 'shift in thinkingpossible' taking all these constraints into accountWould you spend the $20,000? How? Why?
27 Problem Based V Appreciative Inquiry CHANGE CHAMPIONS & ASSOCIATESProblem Based V Appreciative InquiryPB -problem to solveFocus = problemEstablish factsFormulate problemAnalyse causesInvestigate, discover, learnDiagnose, solveDevelop management planAP – miracle to embraceFocus = people, relationshipsDiscover what works wellDream – envision futureDiscussion, innovationDesign process that would work wellDeliver ie implement
28 CHANGE CHAMPIONS & ASSOCIATES Change Program DesignUsing a real or hypothetical example, briefly outline a strategy for building support for changeUrgencyDriving CoalitionVisionBuy InEmpowermentWins
29 Part 3 Incorporating Resistance CHANGE CHAMPIONS & ASSOCIATESPart 3 Incorporating Resistance
30 Plan for Resistance Organisational culture/societal culture CHANGE CHAMPIONS & ASSOCIATESPlan for ResistanceOrganisational culture/societal cultureFear FactorPeople and emotionsCan’t talk people out of emotionsAcknowledge the elephant in the roomDon’t try to fightStorms blow out: feelings changeAddress known reasons for resistanceAvoid assumptionsNo one will resist change for the betterEveryone close will be supportiveSelf interestSelf management/ autonomy/ immunityManagers will communicate unpopular changesMessage sent = message receivedChinese whispers
31 Plan for Resistance Emotional Process Don’t fight Feelings change CHANGE CHAMPIONS & ASSOCIATESPlan for ResistanceEmotional ProcessCan’t talk people out of their feelingsDon’t fightLike a storm – will blow out over timeFeelings changeAvoid assumptionsNo one will resist change for the betterEveryone close will be supportiveSelf interestSelf management/ autonomy/ immunityManagers will communicate unpopular changesMessage sent = message receivedChinese whispers
32 Plan for Resistance Identify impacts CHANGE CHAMPIONS & ASSOCIATESPlan for ResistanceIdentify impactsDifferent levels of organisation/hierarchyDifferent individuals, values, skills, tasks, concernsInterpretation/internalisation of messagesGeographicPower of informal networks, gossip, innuendoUnintended/unimaginable consequences
35 Thinking about how you would roll out a change program: CHANGE CHAMPIONS & ASSOCIATESExercise 3Thinking about how you would roll out a change program:Identify broad areas/people where you might receive feedback that is less than supportiveUse your organisational chart to draw linkages between supportive and resistant groupsUse network diagrams to understand connections between internal and external stakeholdersHow sure are you that you have identified all of them?
36 Identifying Resistance CHANGE CHAMPIONS & ASSOCIATESIdentifying ResistanceWHATWHOWHYHOWWHENWHEREWhat is the problem? What is happening. Like the fishing trip. You need to be able to define the problem before you leap to a diagnosisProsci 2006Who is most heavily invested? What are the implications for them directly? Indirectly? Further downstream? External relationships?Why are they resisting – what is the root causeWhat might that resistance look like – can you develop some if then plans, alternate plans, fall back strategiesHave you identified where in the organisation resistance might come from? Have you look beyond the obvious? Have you thought about how you might best deal with it?FOR EACH GROUP -How and where might it manifest? Can anticipate where or is it coming from left field? Power of networks.
37 Who Resists Boost your own awareness Listen, hear, learn Walk the talk CHANGE CHAMPIONS & ASSOCIATESWho ResistsBoost your own awarenessWalk the talkDifferent levels of hierarchyDifferent tangents of networkListen, hear, learnComplaintsHeated discussions keep change alive
40 Networks and network connections CHANGE CHAMPIONS & ASSOCIATESNetworks and network connections
41 Getting to the Bottom of It CHANGE CHAMPIONS & ASSOCIATESGetting to the Bottom of ItWhy won’t it workGenuinely ill conceived?Flawed logic/unnecessarily reactiveIf X, then Y? or ???History/culture/politics/threatinvestment /resourcing2+2=5How, when, where might resistance manifestRisks to change effort
42 Talking About Resistance CHANGE CHAMPIONS & ASSOCIATESTalking About ResistanceDriving Forces = Growth/ImprovementRestraining Forces = Stagnation, Blocking, ControllingAnswering questionsBuilding ideasProposingDescribing experienceUnderstanding about futureExploring someone’s thoughtsIntegrating information in new waysTaking responsibility/owning the taskChanging subjectYes-buttingBlaming and complainingOught-to-tudingDooming and gloomingMindreadingRedundancyDisowning/depending on others/becoming detached
43 Reframing Resistance Talk CHANGE CHAMPIONS & ASSOCIATESReframing Resistance TalkSituation A reorganisation has resulted in a work group comprised of 2 operators and 2 group leaders each working in different geographical locations. The operator in question is resentful about being passed over for promotion and is working unco- operatively. Dilemma As a group manager on a self managed team, I am in a bind when my co-worker slows down his work. I have a choice of either picking up the slack for him or not. If I don’t production suffers. When I ask for more cooperation, he says its my responsibility since I “earn the big bucks”How do we deal with this dilemma?StudyEnable the dilemma to be expressedExplore feelings about the situation – helps us to recognise our empathy for the other person’s position and enables us to move on from anger and blame, judging etc. What are the losses associated with choices?Helps to manage resistance by being authentic and encouraging the other person to be authentic as wellActSee the dilemmas as symptoms and as a system problemExplore the dilemmas in the context of the organisation, task, roles, responsibilities, rewards
44 Resistance Talk Methodology CHANGE CHAMPIONS & ASSOCIATESResistance Talk MethodologyIdentify Resistant Behaviour(What they said, body language and what they were really thinking)↓Define the bind(What is the wall they face)Describe the dilemma(Reframe the bind to become a choice)Feelings and lossesFind solutions to the system issues
45 Talking About Resistance – Role Play Exercise 4 CHANGE CHAMPIONS & ASSOCIATESTalking About Resistance – Role Play Exercise 4Step 1P1 describes a change programP2 respondsPLUS writes notes about what he/she was thinking but didn’t sayStep 2AP2 imagines what he/she would say if telling P1 what they really think
46 Talking About Resistance – Role Play Exercise 3 CHANGE CHAMPIONS & ASSOCIATESTalking About Resistance – Role Play Exercise 3Then….yes…revealStep 3Discuss the bind ie points of resistanceStep 4Discuss the feelings and lossesStep 5Co-develop a solutionPair upPerson is a manager talks about change that will impact the other personSecond person notes what they were really thinking but were reluctant to say. These will be points of resistance. Imagine saying what you are thinking and describe how that makes them feelHow did they interpret what the manager said. Did they feel the manager tried to protect them from discomfort and loss? Could P2 have felt differently if P1 had been more authentic
47 Root Cause Analysis (from Six Sigma) CHANGE CHAMPIONS & ASSOCIATESRoot Cause Analysis (from Six Sigma)"Every problem is an opportunity"Kilchiro Toyoda,founder of Toyota
48 Why? Technical Historical Inertia Political Motivational CHANGE CHAMPIONS & ASSOCIATESWhy?Technical"We don't think this will work”Historical Inertia"We've always done things in a certain way, and it is hard for us to accept a new way because of the uncertainty that change introduces”Political"If we go forward with this change, then our group loses out and we don't want to sacrifice our resources or status, even if it's for the greater good”Motivational"This change makes me have to work harder without greater potential reward, so it's not in my/our self-interest to change"
49 Part 4 Embracing and Working with Feedback CHANGE CHAMPIONS & ASSOCIATESPart 4 Embracing and Working with Feedback
50 Build Participation Note concerns Encourage suggestions & advice CHANGE CHAMPIONS & ASSOCIATESBuild ParticipationNote concernsListen, empathise, watch….think beyond the spoken wordsABC ModelEncourage suggestions & adviceHow to do it betterCognitive mappingGenerate “worry” and “idea” listsIncorporate feedback into change via guiding coalitionAcknowledge the sources of ideaResearch/Action Leaning (PDSA cycles)
51 Build Participation Change the change Other tools CHANGE CHAMPIONS & ASSOCIATESBuild ParticipationChange the changeCO-CREATE VISION, CO-CONSTRUCT STRATEGYPotential for a better outcomeOther toolsCollaboration, Communication, CreativitySix Thinking Hats – separates ego and performance
52 Building Participation Finn Tschudi's ABC-Model CHANGE CHAMPIONS & ASSOCIATESBuilding Participation Finn Tschudi's ABC-ModelA = current and desired stateB = disadvantages/negatives of the current state +the advantages/positives of the desired stateC = positives/advantages of current state + the disadvantages/negatives/losses associated with moving to the desired stateIf B> or more powerful than C = struggle
53 Cognitive Mapping Way Finding Behaviour CHANGE CHAMPIONS & ASSOCIATESCognitive Mapping Way Finding Behaviour
54 History Repeating Cynics have seen it all before Complete the past CHANGE CHAMPIONS & ASSOCIATESHistory RepeatingCynics have seen it all beforeDidn’t work last timePromises didn’t materialiseBiased decision makingQuestionable ethicsComplete the pastApologise publicly, privately, personally and sincerelyDeliver on promises
55 Deliver on Promises Incentives Raise CHANGE CHAMPIONS & ASSOCIATESDeliver on PromisesIncentivesRaiseMore benefits, better working conditionsTraining, re-skilling, multi-skilling, cross-skillingPromotionRe-orientation of teams, more collaborative managementNew uniform, parking space, free parkingPositive feedback
56 Dealing with Resistance 4 CHANGE CHAMPIONS & ASSOCIATESDealing with Resistance 4Using a real or hypothetical example, develop a tailored strategy for dealing with resistanceWho is resistant? Why?How will you discover the real concerns?What are those concerns?How can you address them?
57 Part 5 Resilience Messages for Managers CHANGE CHAMPIONS & ASSOCIATESPart 5 Resilience Messages for Managers
58 Accepting Feedback Choosing who responds Toolkits for managers CHANGE CHAMPIONS & ASSOCIATESAccepting FeedbackChoosing who respondsManager, supervisorKnowledge, skills, expertiseCredibility, respect, trustDemonstrates commitment to changeToolkits for managersTailored messagesStory telling skillsClear deliverables
59 Phases for Managing Employees CHANGE CHAMPIONS & ASSOCIATESPhases for Managing EmployeesAwareness of the need to changeDesire to participate and support the changeKnowledge of how to change (and what the change looks like)Ability to implement the change on a day-to-day basisReinforcement for sustainabilityDocument what messages have been communicated and plot their progress bearing in mind that it won’t be a linear progression.Do their actions and behaviours reflect that they get the change.Do they ask questionsWhen we have..will ..is there a hint that they are thinking aheadDo they have the resources, tools, knowledge and skills to make the changeReview, and re-present messages so they maintain urgency and currency to prevent becoming lost, eroded and ignored and constantly positively reinforce.
60 Phases of Change Mourning the Past CHANGE CHAMPIONS & ASSOCIATESPhases of ChangeMourning the PastRealize change intellectually, but now beginning to comprehend it emotionallyAcceptance EmotionallyMay still have reservations, but not fightingMay see some of the benefits even if not completely convincedEnlightenmentCompletely accept the new change.May wonder how they ever managed the "old" wayFeel goodAccept it as the status quo from here forwardAnticipation - Waiting stageNot sure what to expect…..so they waitConfrontationRealize that change is really going to happen or is happeningRealizationNothing is ever going to be as it once wasKnow where your team is at. Recognise that some aspects are similar to a grief process and people will move back and forth.
61 Managing Individuals Honest, open communication Individualised plans CHANGE CHAMPIONS & ASSOCIATESManaging IndividualsHonest, open communicationStay on messageIndividualised plansSpecial caseHow is one drop of water different to all the other millions and trillions of drops of water?Open doorSeek assistance from HRIndividualised plansCapacity to change – understanding, skills, relevance, willingness, removing obstacles be they physical, structural or psychologicalUnderstanding their concerns and addressing themFind out what their bite size is and break the changes they need to make into to manageable bites. Show them how it contributes to the big picture.Reinforcing the message
62 Resistant Resistors Nudge Manipulate Cajole/humour Carrot/stick CHANGE CHAMPIONS & ASSOCIATESResistant ResistorsNudgeManipulateCajole/humourCarrot/stickOpen honest frank discussionDistance/sideline/disenfranchiseMove on…could it be you who is resisting?Could the conscientious objector have a point that you can’t see? Are you looking at the problem from the wrong angle? Are you looking for answer in the wrong place?Disenfranchising by peers is a powerful antidote to resistance – usually achieved by offline network communication
63 Resistant Resistors – their story CHANGE CHAMPIONS & ASSOCIATESResistant Resistors – their storyMap out their footprint in the projectWhat did they contribute/achieveWhat is the future directionWhat is the next stepHow would they like to be rememberedHow will their contribution be remembered in the corporate historyConfronting approach to help the resistor get the disconnect between how they seem themselves and how everyone else sees them.
64 Old Habits Inhibit Change CHANGE CHAMPIONS & ASSOCIATESOld Habits Inhibit ChangeManagement Comfort ZoneDozens of inter-related habitsNot “hot wired” for changeConfrontHonest dialogueSet specific performanceobjectives
65 The Big Splash? Or continuous improvement? CHANGE CHAMPIONS & ASSOCIATESThe Big Splash?Or continuous improvement?Demonstrate leadership resiliencePersevereLaws of jungle – don’t fight human natureHandle stress with dignityFocus on maximising impactInfluence what you canLet go of what you can’t control
66 Personal Mastery (from Peter Senge 1990) CHANGE CHAMPIONS & ASSOCIATESPersonal Mastery (from Peter Senge 1990)People change, not organisationsOrganisations learn through their peoplePeople learning ≠ organisational learningPersonal masteryJourney not a destination, no arrivalBeyond competency, skills, spiritual awakeningContinual learning modeManage gap between vision & realityPersonal mastery. ‘Organizations learn only through individuals who learn. Individual learning does not guarantee organizational learning. But without it no organizational learning occurs’ (Senge 1990: 139). Personal mastery is the discipline of continually clarifying and deepening our personal vision, of focusing our energies, of developing patience, and of seeing reality objectively’ (ibid.: 7). It goes beyond competence and skills, although it involves them. It goes beyond spiritual opening, although it involves spiritual growth (ibid.: 141). Mastery is seen as a special kind of proficiency. It is not about dominance, but rather about calling. Vision is vocation rather than simply just a good idea.People with a high level of personal mastery live in a continual learning mode. They never ‘arrive’. Sometimes, language, such as the term ‘personal mastery’ creates a misleading sense of definiteness, of black and white. But personal mastery is not something you possess. It is a process. It is a lifelong discipline. People with a high level of personal mastery are acutely aware of their ignorance, their incompetence, their growth areas. And they are deeply self-confident. Paradoxical? Only for those who do not see the ‘journey is the reward’. (Senge 1990: 142)In writing such as this we can see the appeal of Peter Senge’s vision. It has deep echoes in the concerns of writers such as M. Scott Peck (1990) and Erich Fromm (1979). The discipline entails developing personal vision; holding creative tension (managing the gap between our vision and reality); recognizing structural tensions and constraints, and our own power (or lack of it) with regard to them; a commitment to truth; and using the sub-conscious (ibid.: ).
67 Take Home Messages Be strong CHANGE CHAMPIONS & ASSOCIATESTake Home MessagesResistance to change normal, natural, healthyPeople resist/support change for good reasonsChange your mindset to embrace resistance as useful feedbackBe flexible, anticipate feedback, incorporate it into change strategy from the outsetCommunicate constantlyPlan for resistance at implementation, who, what, when, where, whyHow might it manifestWhat are the risksDevelop a proactive management strategyBe strong