Presentation on theme: "Early America. Native Americans O 5000 B.C. O Hunter-gatherers in Northern Mexico develop wild grass into corn. O -It was the size of a penny but would."— Presentation transcript:
Native Americans O 5000 B.C. O Hunter-gatherers in Northern Mexico develop wild grass into corn. O -It was the size of a penny but would eventually grow to the size we know and spread across the Americas. O -Nomadic hunters began to settle and raise corn.
Great Early Groups O 1200 B.C. O The Pueblo people of the Rio Grande had constructed irrigation systems to water their cornfields and were constructing multi- storied, terraced buildings. O 100 A.D. O The Mound Builders of the Ohio River Valley had settlements of 40,000 people. O Most Native Americans were living in small, scattered groups. Native Americans revered the physical world and had no desire to alter it.
Discoverers of the New World O 1100 A.D. O Norse seafarers from Scandinavia landed at Newfoundland and named the land Vinland. O 1492 A.D. O Christopher Columbus persuaded the King and Queen of Spain to give him three ships. O He was trying to find a western route to India. He sailed for six weeks before sighting the Bahamas on October 12, 1492.
Two Worlds Collide O The plants and animals of the Old and New World had been separated for thousands of years. O New World Crops O -Tobacco O -Corn O -Beans O -Tomatoes O -Potato O These crops revolutionized the European diet. 3/5 of the crops grown around the world originated in the Americas. O 1493 O Columbus returned to the Caribbean with 17 ships loaded with Old World animals. The Horse would completely change many Native American cultures.
The Ultimate Weapon: Germs O Europeans brought diseases such as smallpox, yellow fever, and malaria with them to the New World. O These diseases quickly devastated Native American populations. O Some Native American slaves would knead their own infected blood into their master’s bread to try to infect them.
The Conquistadors O Most came to the new world seeking gold and glory. The four most famous conquistadors were: O Juan Ponce de Leon: Explored Florida O Francisco Coronado: Explored parts of Arizona, New Mexico, and Kansas. O Francisco Pizarro: Conquered the Incan Empire. O Hernan Cortes: Conquered the Aztec Empire.
English Colonial Settlements O The coast of Newfoundland was the scene of the first English attempt at colonization. This effort collapsed when its promoter died at sea in 1583. O Sir Walter Raleigh O The deceased promoter’s half-brother, was determined to try again. Raleigh organized an expedition that first landed in 1585 on North Carolina’s Roanoke Island. Raleigh established the colony then returned to England. When Raleigh returned, the colonies inhabitants had mysteriously disappeared.
English Colonial Settlements O In 1588, the English routed the Spanish Armada. This victory for England made it possible for them to safely begin colonization efforts in earnest. O As the 17 th century began, England’s population was mushrooming from around 3 million in 1550 to about 4 million in 1600. Many small English farmers were forced off the land they had farmed due to an economic depression. England’s government began to fear this growing population of poor people. O England also had laws of primogeniture that stated that only the eldest sons were eligible to inherit landed estates. Ambitious younger sons had to look elsewhere to make their fortunes. Joint-stock companies (forerunners of corporations) were invented around this time to allow a number of investors to pool their money.
English Colonial Settlements O England’s colonization efforts began for a number of reasons: O Peace with Spain- Provided opportunity for English colonization. O Population growth- provided growth for the workers. O Unemployment O Thirst for adventure O Establish new markets O Religious freedom
Jamestown O In 1606, the joint-stock company called the Virginia Company of London received a charter from King James I for a settlement in the new world. The main attraction was the promise of finding gold and finding a westward passage to the Indies. O Early colonists were threatened with abandonment if they did not quickly strike it rich for the company. Few colonists planned to stay long term. The charter of the Virginia Company is significant because it guaranteed to the settlers the same rights and protections as Englishmen as they would have enjoyed in England. This became standard for all of the English colonies.
Jamestown O May 24 1607, three ships and 100 men landed near the mouth of the Chesapeake Bay and chose a sight that was easy to defend from attack. Unfortunately it was in a swamp. Mosquitos that carried malaria wreaked havoc on the early colonists’ health. The settlers called this settlement Jamestown. O The early years at Jamestown were terrible. Colonists wasted time searching in vain for gold instead of cultivating crops. Starvation was common as was malnutrition and disease.
Jamestown O Jamestown colony was saved thanks to the efforts of Captain John Smith who arrived in 1608. Smith took a tough approach with the colonists stating that “he who shall not work, shall not eat.” He was kidnapped by the local Powhatan Indians and put through a mock execution. This was meant to show the Indians power and also their desire for peace with their new neighbors. O In 1610, a new governor arrived from England to run the Virginia colony. Lord De La Warr took an aggressive stance with the colonists and the native tribes in the area. Many conflicts with the native tribes aided by European disease helped to weaken the Native population and allow for further English settlement.
Geography Location South of the Mason-Dixon Line Maryland, Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, and Georgia Terrain Coastal area (Tidewater) Flat lowland with many swampy areas Rolling hills (Piedmont) Weather and Resources Climate is warm and humid Hot summers with long growing season Farming: tobacco and rice
Virginia and Tobacco O John Rolf was the father of the tobacco industry and the savior of the Virginia colony. By 1612 he had perfected methods of raising and curing the plant that eliminated much of the bitterness. Soon European demand for the product was insatiable and the Virginia colonists literally planted it wherever they could. This demand, coupled with tobacco’s ruinous effect on the soil, led the colonists to begin seeking more farmland. Tobacco production also directly led to the plantation system and the use of slavery in the colony.
Virginia O Representative self- government was also born in early Virginia. The London Company authorized settlers to create a House of Burgesses to deal with local colony business. This was the first of many “mini Parliaments” to appear in the American colonies. James I grew more and more hostile to the Virginia Company and it colony. Eventually in 1624, Virginia was made a royal colony.
Maryland O Maryland was founded in 1636 by Lord Baltimore, a prominent English Catholic. He founded the colony to make a profit and also as a haven for his fellow Catholics. Huge estates were awarded to his Catholic relatives and friends. Soon the promise of land attracted many settlers to the colony and the Catholics were outnumbered and surrounded by Protestants. Lord Baltimore wisely adopted and permitted freedom of worship in the colony. Later, this freedom was made official in the Act of Toleration passed by the local assembly in 1649. Maryland was a tobacco colony.
The Carolina’s O In 1670, settlers from the West Indies arrived in what became South Carolina. They brought with them African slaves as well as rigid “slave codes” to control their slaves. O Carolina was named for King Charles II and prospered due to close ties with the West Indies. Rice emerged as the principle crop for the colony and West African slaves with the knowledge of rice cultivation were soon in high demand as slaves for the colony. O The Carolina colony became one of the most aristocratic colonies of the original 13.
The Carolina’s O Settlers who came to Carolina later were often poorer than the original settlers and as a result were mistreated by the original settlers. The new settlers were tough and developed a strong resistance to authority. O Following much friction with Carolina’s governors, North Carolina was officially separated from South Carolina in 1712. North Carolina was one of the most independent and least aristocratic of the original 13 colonies.
Georgia O Georgia was founded in 1733 and was the last of the original 13. The English crown intended Georgia to serve as a buffer. It would protect the Carolinas against the Spanish in Florida. Georgia received monetary subsidies from the British government from the outset. O Georgia was named for King George II and was launched by philanthropists who were determined to create a haven for debtors. They were also determined, at first, to exclude slavery. The leader of this colony was James Oglethorpe.
Georgia O The chief settlement of the Georgia colony was Savannah. It was a melting pot community and as such settlers enjoyed religious toleration. Christian missionaries also frequented the colony. The most famous of these was a young John Wesley who later founded the Methodist Church. O Georgia grew extremely slowly and was the least populous of the 13 colonies.
Southern Colonies- Questions Check O Question 1: What is the climate in the Southern Colonies? O A. Cold and rainy O B. Warm and humid