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Slavery, The Civil War & Reconstruction

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Presentation on theme: "Slavery, The Civil War & Reconstruction"— Presentation transcript:

1 Slavery, The Civil War & Reconstruction 1848 - 1877
Chapter 3 Slavery, The Civil War & Reconstruction

2 KWL Complete the first two columns of the Slavery, the Civil War and Reconstruction KWL

3 White Southerners’ Defense of Slaveholding
Work with your teams to read the article you’ve been given and answer the questions on the worksheet (on a separate sheet of paper). Groups should exchange articles (twice) so that you’ve read all 3 articles (you only need to answer the questions for the first article you received). After you’ve read all three articles answer the following questions: Do you think slaveholders really believed what they said and wrote in defense of slavery? Besides the reasons given by the author of article One, what reasons can you think of for the failure of slaves to join John Brown’s uprising? Are there institutions and practices that people defend today that may be considered immoral a hundred years from now?

4 Civil War Generals Working in pairs or alone, research one of the following generals and learn more about his role in the Civil War. is an excellent source. Prepare a brief presentation for the class about his role in the war. Information should include, but is not limited to key battles he was involved in. Presentations are due Friday, October 19th

5 Civil War Generals cont.
Robert E. Lee William Rosecrans P.G.T. Beauregard John C. Fremont Irvin McDowell Joseph Hooker Benjamin Butler George Meade Ulysses S. Grant George E. Picket David G. Farragut William Tecumseh Sherman Braxton Bragg John B. Hood Winfield Scott George McClellan

6 Section 1 – The Civil War Begins
Election of 1860 Republicans nominate Abraham Lincoln Democrats split over slavery issue Southern Democrats nominate John Breckinridge Northern Democrats nominate Stephen Douglas Constitutional Union party nominates John Bell Lincoln is elected with less than 40% of popular votes but with nearly 60% of electoral votes. Southern secession begins December 20, 1860 – South Carolina By February 1, 1861 – Mississippi, Florida, Alabama, Georgia, Texas, and Louisiana February 8, 1861 – Confederate States of America is created – Jefferson Davis President

7 While running for president, Abraham Lincoln said he had no plans to abolish slavery. Why then, even before he took office, did South Carolina and 6 other southern states decide to secede?

8 The Civil War Begins, cont…
Lincoln doesn’t become president until March, in the meantime President Buchanan does NOTHING! What should he have done? The First Shots Fort Sumter Falls Union fort in Charleston Harbor, South Carolina Confederates demand surrender of fort but Union commander refuses. Confederates bombard fort for 33 hours until surrender. No one was killed during bombardment The Upper South Secedes Between April 17 and June 8, 1861 – Virginia, Tennessee, North Carolina, and Arkansas secede. The Border States Kentucky, Missouri, Delaware, Maryland – slave states that don’t secede (but it was close)

9 Strengths and Weaknesses
After having read “The Opposing Sides” in section 1, create an outline of the military, economic, industrial, and political positions of the North and South at the outset of the Civil War. Analyze the strengths and weaknesses of the two sides in the Civil War. Using the information in your outline, write summary statements about the advantages and disadvantages held by the North and South in the conflict ahead. Military Economic Industrial Political North South

10 Strategies for Victory
Now that you have analyzed the strengths and weaknesses of the North and South, you need to apply that knowledge to developing a war strategy for victory. Imagine you a general in charge of developing your countries plan for winning the war. Work with a partner to develop a strategy for victory that best utilizes the strengths of your side and exploits the weaknesses of your enemy. After you have finished your strategy, work with the rest of the team (North or South) to develop a final plan that you will recommend to the to the president. Share this final plan with the class.

11 Strategies for Victory
The South’s Strategy A defensive war of attrition. Minimize casualties Maximize superior military skill Plan required discipline (oops) The North’s Strategy The Anaconda Plan Blockade Confederate ports Cut the Confederacy in two by controlling the Mississippi River Capture the Capital, Richmond Virginia Learning Log – The Northern strategy worked but it took four years. Considering their obvious advantages, what would you have had them do to achieve a quicker victory? What could the South have done differently to achieve victory? (Think about our current wars)

12 Section 2 – Fighting the Civil War
Not an easy victory. What was the goal of the war? Lincoln issue the Emancipation Proclamation effective January 1, 1863 Frees slaves in states at war with the Union. Does not address slavery in border states. Keeps Great Britain from aiding the South. Transforms the conflict over preserving the Union into a war of liberation.

13 Do a SOAPSTone of the letter in a PPt.
Your Assignment Today *in pairs* (Presentations Monday) Do a SOAPSTone of the letter in a PPt. Subject (What is the letter about? Describe at least 3 main points.) Occasion (What event(s) is the letter describing?) Audience (Who is the letter written for?) Purpose (Why is the letter being written? What is the purpose?) Speaker (Who is speaking? What side does he fight for?) Tone (What is the tone of the piece? How do you know?) What impacted you the most about the letter? Choose 3 lines or phrases from the letter that left the biggest impression – include them and explain why you chose them.

14 Key Battles of the Civil War
Working alone, in pairs, or in a group of three, research one of the major battles of the Civil War and prepare a slide show presentation that includes the following information about your battle: Due Friday 10-26 The date of the battle The location of the battle The objective of the battle The strategies used in the battle Key people in the battle (Generals, etc.) A description of the battle The outcome of the battle The casualties from each side The impact the battle had on the rest of the war A great presentation will include all the required information, plus pictures, charts, graphs, maps and any other information you can find to enhance your presentation.

15 The Battles of the Civil War
First Battle of Bull Run (Battle of First Manassas) The Siege of Vicksburg Battle of the Monitor and Merrimac The Battle of Gettysburg Battle of Shiloh The Battle of Chickamauga Battle of New Orleans The Battle of Chattanooga The Battle of Seven Pines The Battle in the Wilderness Battle of Harpers Ferry The Battle of Spotsylvania Courthouse Battle of Antietam The Battle of Cold Harbor The Battle of Fredericksburg The Battle of Atlanta The Second Battle of Bull Run General Sherman’s March to the Sea The Battle of Chancellorsville The Richmond Campaign

16 The South Surrenders Robert E. Lee surrenders to Ulysses S. Grant on April 9, 1865, in Appomattox Courthouse, Virginia Grant offers generous terms of surrender. Confederate soldiers won’t be prosecuted for treason. Officers could keep their side arms Soldiers could keep their horses Lincoln’s Assassination – April 14, 1865 Despite warnings from his advisors, an unescorted Lincoln and his wife attend a play at Ford’s Theater. John Wilkes Booth shoots Lincoln in the back of the head. Lincoln dies the next morning. Booth and his conspirators were trying to re-ignite the war.

17 Impact of the War: Union
111,000 killed in action 250,000 killed by non- military causes (mostly disease) Over 275,000 wounded Estimated cost in today’s dollars: $6.2 billion

18 Impact of the War: the Confederacy
93,000 killed in action 165,000 killed by non- military causes (mostly disease) Over 137,000 wounded Estimated cost in today’s dollars: $2.12 billion


20 Section 3 - Reconstruction
Lincoln had wanted reconcile the South with the Union instead of punishing it for treason. Lincoln’s assassination led to rise of “Radical Republicans” Conflict over how best to deal with former Confederate states Reconstruction brought about great political upheaval The South’s election of former Confederate leaders to Congress caused moderate Republicans to join with Radical Republicans South “punished” for causing the war

21 Section 3 - Reconstruction
President Johnson Impeached 13th Amendment 14th Amendment 15th Amendment Freedmen’s Bureau Carpetbaggers and Scalawags Black Codes Tenant Farmers and Sharecroppers Rise of the Klan Reconstruction ends in 1877

22 Your Reconstruction Plan
You and your group are a committee set up to create a Reconstruction Plan after the Civil War. There are several issues to address when looking at this. You are to present your options to the class tomorrow. When we as a class will debate plans and create a plan that the class approves of. First your group should determine your answers to the following questions. Every person in the group must fill out this sheet to be handed in.

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