2 Research Process It is the entire design of the research project It is said as the research proposalIt involves deciding on all aspects of the research processThat includesPhilosophical assumptionResearch methodData collection techniquesData analysisPublication outlet if possibleIt matters to get your proposal accepted or rejected
3 Research Process Problem Liter., Theory Data Interpretation Research Design (Qnt./Qlt.Data Collection & AnalysisDevelop Instrument
4 Design research process How to KnowledgeProcess IterationsTheoryInferenceIdentify Problem & MotivateDefine ProblemShow ImportanceDefine Objectives of a SolutionWhat would a Better Artifact Accomplish?Design & DevelopmentArtifactDisciplinaryKnowledgeMetrics, AnalysisDemonstrationFind Suitable contextUse Artifact to Solve problemEvaluationObserve How Effective, efficientIterate Back to designCommunica-tionScholarly PublicationsProfessionalPublications
5 choice of a suitable problem is difficult Research ProblemA problem in simple words is some difficulty experienced by the researcher in a theoretical or practical situationE.g. What is the fastest algorithm for multiplication of two n-digit numbers?choice of a suitable problem is difficult
6 Sources to a Research Problem Know the fieldStudy of Relevant Literature on the SubjectDiscussions with persons having rich practical experience in the field of studyDaily problemsTechnological changes
7 Selecting a Research Problem Get from Literature and then replicate the research with modifications – population, geography, method, etcApply an existing technique to a new domain such as borrowing from engineeringPopulation gravity Model from Physics Gravity ModelAddress Contradiction and AmbiguityChallenge existing Findings
8 Things to know about R. Problem Is the problem interesting?Is it new?Will it add to knowledge?Is it feasible?Has anyone else a prior claim to it?
9 Good Qualities of Research Problem Research statement written clearlyProblem stated in grammatically complete sentences.Problem has clearly stated limitationsStatement has potential for leading to important results.The statement will lead to the analysis of data.The problem is focused enough to lead to an answer with reasonable effort.
10 Cont’dBe sure that the topic chosen is neither too vague nor too broad in scope.Define any special terms that must be used in the statement of your problem.Problem has been reviewed by someone else who provided feedback.
11 Research QuestionAfter discussion your research problem, state your problem as a research questions in the form of interrogativeExampleWhat is the impact of ICT on the organization?How do you ICT affects organizational structure?Why employees frequently use Internet to browse news rather to browse contents that solve organizational problems?
12 Conditions for Successful Research Question ImportanceImmediate ApplicationFeasibility or AmenabilityAvailability of DataAvailability of Other Facilities e.g. laboratory facilitiesExperience in the Research Problem
13 Research objectiveResearch objective the end result of the research process.It is the output of the researchDo you develop a theory, an artifact, new perspectives, etcExample forRQ-what is the impact of ICT on organizational structureObjectiveTo identify the different impacts of ICT on the organizationyou can also make it more specific by stating – to identify ICT impact on the organization structure
14 Hypothesis It is a tentative solution of the problem It is proved with empirical dataIt guides the researcher in data collection and data analysis processFor the above questionsWhat is the impact of ICT on the organizationYou can have a hypothesis like this ..Introduction of ICT in the organization will bring flat organizational structureHere the researcher collects data about level of ICT penetration in the organization and the organizational structure changeCheck empirical data collected from field to your hypothesis
16 Purpose of the literature review (Rudestam and Newton) To provide a context for your studyTo explain the importance of your studyTo explain the timeliness of your studyTo clarify the relationship between your study and previous work in the fieldTo demonstrate that your study is worthwhile and distinctive
17 offer new ideas, perspectives, and approaches to your research Literature Review ….offer new ideas, perspectives, and approaches to your researchHelp to know researchers who worked in your research area for advice or contactInform methodological and design issues used by othersIndicate sources of data which are not known to youIntroduce you with measurement tools dealing with problem situationsHelp to develop your argumentation and analytical skills
18 Sources for Literature Review Journal articles published in the last five years, old last 10 years.Internet websites. You find more than 76 billion articles on Internet.Not recommended to use books but only for elaboration purposeLibraries which contains collection of different literaturesReferences of articles being reviewedIndexes and abstracts in your discipline such as computer science indexes.
19 Contents of literature review (Ridley) Historical background to studyDefinition of key terms and use in context of work (could be in introduction)Discussion of relevant theories and concepts underpinning researchContemporary debates, issues and questions in fieldDiscussion of related research, demonstrating how study will extend/challenge thisSupporting evidence for issues you are addressing
20 Planning the literature review Systematic searches by key wordsStart writing informally early: it will help develop plan and save panic later!Cyclical process:SearchingReadingWriting
21 Mapping the literature review Opportunity and motivation in instrumental and singing tuition: why do children take up and give up music lessons?Why study music? Cognitive, social and emotional benefits of music educationMusicMotivation in education and musicChildren’s motivationTheories of motivationMotivationStatus of music educationHistorical perspectiveOpportunityAvailability of tuitionCurrent policy
22 Selecting sources Read widely, then ask: What is the relevance of this piece for my topic/research?What information do I need to get from this piece that feeds into my writing?‘Build an argument, not a library’ (Rudestam 2001: 59)Select literature to serve your purposesto avoid becoming overwhelmedto enhance criticality over description
23 Critical readingThe critical reader evaluates the arguments of others:What evidence does the author produce for their claims?Does the author’s reasoning lead logically to the conclusions drawn?What values or assumptions are made explicitly or implicitly?How do the author’s claims relate to those of others?How do the author’s claims relate to the reader’s own research or knowledge?
24 Code literature you have read Keep records of reading and code for future reference:Return to this for detailed analysisImportant general textOf minor importanceNot relevantEnsure you keep full citations (including page numbers for future reference) from the outset!
25 Critical writing The critical writer constructs their own argument Arguments have 2 components:A set of claims or assertions (conclusions)The warrant (backing) for them (evidence)OPINION = UNWARRANTED CONCLUSIONARGUMENT = CONCLUSION + WARRANT(Wallace and Wray 2006)
26 Developing a coherent argument Rudestam (2001: 57) the literature review is ‘not a compilation of facts but a coherent argument that leads to the description of a proposed study’Anticipate reader’s (or marker’s) comments:What is your evidence for this?What point are you trying to make here?So what? What are the implications?Where is this leading? Why does it matter?
27 Don’t report - critique Assess the status of existing knowledgeGive both or all sides of the argumentTake a stance or positionWhere does weight of argument fall?Where are gaps in the knowledge base?Convince reader of legitimacy of assertions by sufficient logical and empirical evidence
28 Originality: Analysis and synthesis Analysis: systematic extraction of ideas / theories / concepts / assumptions from the literatureSynthesis: making of connections between elements derived from analysis to demonstrate patterns not previously produced
29 Voice and authorship Foregrounding of writer voice Make connections between sources‘X...whilst Y.....’; ‘furthermore, A contends...’Summarize source text(s) and then evaluate‘but B’s research does not extend to consideration of...’‘these examples demonstrate the significance of...’)Summarize state of play at end of section
30 Acknowledging sources APA system of referencingPartial references in text (Fortin 2009: 81)Full references in Reference ListFortin, J. (2009) Children’s Rights and the Developing Law . 3rd ed. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press
31 Structuring the literature review State goal and structure of evolving argument at the startBy end, reader will understand the need for the study to progress knowledge in the areaAt the conclusion, remind reader how each hypothesis/research question emerged from theoretical propositions established in the literature reviewExplain methodology with reference to literature
32 Structure Use headings and sub-headings Maintain Logical flow Structure chapters clearlyUse headings and sub-headingsMaintain Logical flowLink chapters with brief summary and highlight of next aspectBe consistent
33 Literature Review Organization Organize topicsSW usabilityEase of useusefulnessOrganizational supportTrainingOrganization strategytroubleshooting
34 Literature Review conclusion Show deficiencyIs there missing variablesPrevious studies did not see this variableMissing population groupsPrevious study did not address this software typeReplication of the study to a new contextSoftware usability study was not made in Ethiopian contextCan get research gap from previous journal articles
35 Summary Ensures that you are not "reinventing the wheel". Gives credits to those who have laid the groundwork for your research.Demonstrates your knowledge of the research problem.Demonstrates your understanding of the theoretical and research issues related to your research question.Shows your ability to critically evaluate relevant literature information.
36 Cont’dIndicates your ability to integrate and synthesize the existing literature.Provides new theoretical insights or develops a new model as the conceptual framework for your research.Convinces your reader that your proposed research will make a significant and substantial contribution to the literature (i.e., resolving an important theoretical issue or filling a major gap in the literature).