Presentation on theme: "R ESEARCH D ESIGN. R ESEARCH P ROCESS It is the entire design of the research project It is said as the research proposal It involves deciding on all."— Presentation transcript:
R ESEARCH D ESIGN
R ESEARCH P ROCESS It is the entire design of the research project It is said as the research proposal It involves deciding on all aspects of the research process That includes Philosophical assumption Research method Data collection techniques Data analysis Publication outlet if possible It matters to get your proposal accepted or rejected
R ESEARCH P ROCESS Problem Liter., Theory Develop Instrument Research Design (Qnt./Qlt. Data Collection & Analysis Data Interpretation
How to Knowledge Process Iterations Theory Inference Identify Problem & Motivate Define Problem Show Importance Define Objectives of a Solution What would a Better Artifact Accomplish? Design & Development Artifact Disciplinary Knowledge Metrics, Analysis Knowledge Demonstration Find Suitable context Use Artifact to Solve problem Evaluation Observe How Effective, efficient Iterate Back to design Communica- tion Scholarly Publications Professional Publications D ESIGN RESEARCH PROCESS
R ESEARCH P ROBLEM A problem in simple words is some difficulty experienced by the researcher in a theoretical or practical situation E.g. What is the fastest algorithm for multiplication of two n -digit numbers? choice of a suitable problem is difficult
S OURCES TO A R ESEARCH P ROBLEM Know the field Study of Relevant Literature on the Subject Discussions with persons having rich practical experience in the field of study Daily problems Technological changes
S ELECTING A R ESEARCH P ROBLEM Get from Literature and then replicate the research with modifications – population, geography, method, etc Apply an existing technique to a new domain such as borrowing from engineering Population gravity Model from Physics Gravity Model Address Contradiction and Ambiguity Challenge existing Findings
T HINGS TO KNOW ABOUT R. P ROBLEM Is the problem interesting? Is it new? Will it add to knowledge? Is it feasible? Has anyone else a prior claim to it?
G OOD Q UALITIES OF R ESEARCH P ROBLEM Research statement written clearly Problem stated in grammatically complete sentences. Problem has clearly stated limitations Statement has potential for leading to important results. The statement will lead to the analysis of data. The problem is focused enough to lead to an answer with reasonable effort.
C ONT ’ D Be sure that the topic chosen is neither too vague nor too broad in scope. Define any special terms that must be used in the statement of your problem. Problem has been reviewed by someone else who provided feedback.
R ESEARCH Q UESTION After discussion your research problem, state your problem as a research questions in the form of interrogative Example 1. What is the impact of ICT on the organization? 2. How do you ICT affects organizational structure? 3. Why employees frequently use Internet to browse news rather to browse contents that solve organizational problems?
C ONDITIONS FOR S UCCESSFUL R ESEARCH Q UESTION Importance Immediate Application Feasibility or Amenability Availability of Data Availability of Other Facilities e.g. laboratory facilities Experience in the Research Problem
R ESEARCH OBJECTIVE Research objective the end result of the research process. It is the output of the research Do you develop a theory, an artifact, new perspectives, etc Example for RQ- what is the impact of ICT on organizational structure Objective To identify the different impacts of ICT on the organization you can also make it more specific by stating – to identify ICT impact on the organization structure
H YPOTHESIS It is a tentative solution of the problem It is proved with empirical data It guides the researcher in data collection and data analysis process For the above questions What is the impact of ICT on the organization You can have a hypothesis like this.. Introduction of ICT in the organization will bring flat organizational structure Here the researcher collects data about level of ICT penetration in the organization and the organizational structure change Check empirical data collected from field to your hypothesis
L ITERATURE R EVIEW
P URPOSE OF THE LITERATURE REVIEW (R UDESTAM AND N EWTON ) To provide a context for your study To explain the importance of your study To explain the timeliness of your study To clarify the relationship between your study and previous work in the field To demonstrate that your study is worthwhile and distinctive
offer new ideas, perspectives, and approaches to your research Help to know researchers who worked in your research area for advice or contact Inform methodological and design issues used by others Indicate sources of data which are not known to you Introduce you with measurement tools dealing with problem situations Help to develop your argumentation and analytical skills L ITERATURE R EVIEW ….
Journal articles published in the last five years, old last 10 years. Internet websites. You find more than 76 billion articles on Internet. Not recommended to use books but only for elaboration purpose Libraries which contains collection of different literatures References of articles being reviewed Indexes and abstracts in your discipline such as computer science indexes. S OURCES FOR L ITERATURE R EVIEW
C ONTENTS OF LITERATURE REVIEW (R IDLEY ) Historical background to study Definition of key terms and use in context of work (could be in introduction) Discussion of relevant theories and concepts underpinning research Contemporary debates, issues and questions in field Discussion of related research, demonstrating how study will extend/challenge this Supporting evidence for issues you are addressing
P LANNING THE LITERATURE REVIEW Systematic searches by key words Start writing informally early: it will help develop plan and save panic later! Cyclical process: SearchingReadingWriting
M APPING THE LITERATURE REVIEW O PPORTUNITY AND MOTIVATION IN INSTRUMENTAL AND SINGING TUITION : WHY DO CHILDREN TAKE UP AND GIVE UP MUSIC LESSONS ? Music Why study music? Cognitive, social and emotional benefits of music education Motivation Theories of motivation Motivation in education and music Children’s motivation Opportunity Historical perspective Status of music education Current policy Availability of tuition
S ELECTING SOURCES Read widely, then ask: 1. What is the relevance of this piece for my topic/research? 2. What information do I need to get from this piece that feeds into my writing? ‘Build an argument, not a library’ (Rudestam 2001: 59) Select literature to serve your purposes to avoid becoming overwhelmed to enhance criticality over description
C RITICAL READING The critical reader evaluates the arguments of others: What evidence does the author produce for their claims? Does the author’s reasoning lead logically to the conclusions drawn? What values or assumptions are made explicitly or implicitly? How do the author’s claims relate to those of others? How do the author’s claims relate to the reader’s own research or knowledge?
C ODE LITERATURE YOU HAVE READ Keep records of reading and code for future reference: (1) Return to this for detailed analysis (2) Important general text (3) Of minor importance (4) Not relevant Ensure you keep full citations (including page numbers for future reference) from the outset!
C RITICAL WRITING The critical writer constructs their own argument Arguments have 2 components: A set of claims or assertions (conclusions) The warrant (backing) for them (evidence) OPINION = UNWARRANTED CONCLUSION ARGUMENT = CONCLUSION + WARRANT (Wallace and Wray 2006)
D EVELOPING A COHERENT ARGUMENT Rudestam (2001: 57) the literature review is ‘not a compilation of facts but a coherent argument that leads to the description of a proposed study’ Anticipate reader’s (or marker’s) comments: What is your evidence for this? What point are you trying to make here? So what? What are the implications? Where is this leading? Why does it matter?
D ON ’ T REPORT - CRITIQUE Assess the status of existing knowledge Give both or all sides of the argument Take a stance or position Where does weight of argument fall? Where are gaps in the knowledge base? Convince reader of legitimacy of assertions by sufficient logical and empirical evidence
O RIGINALITY : A NALYSIS AND SYNTHESIS Analysis : systematic extraction of ideas / theories / concepts / assumptions from the literature Synthesis : making of connections between elements derived from analysis to demonstrate patterns not previously produced
V OICE AND AUTHORSHIP Foregrounding of writer voice Make connections between sources ‘X...whilst Y.....’; ‘furthermore, A contends...’ Summarize source text(s) and then evaluate ‘but B’s research does not extend to consideration of...’ ‘these examples demonstrate the significance of...’) Summarize state of play at end of section
A CKNOWLEDGING SOURCES APA system of referencing Partial references in text (Fortin 2009: 81) Full references in Reference List Fortin, J. (2009) Children’s Rights and the Developing Law. 3rd ed. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press
S TRUCTURING THE LITERATURE REVIEW State goal and structure of evolving argument at the start By end, reader will understand the need for the study to progress knowledge in the area At the conclusion, remind reader how each hypothesis/research question emerged from theoretical propositions established in the literature review Explain methodology with reference to literature
S TRUCTURE Structure chapters clearly Use headings and sub-headings Maintain Logical flow Link chapters with brief summary and highlight of next aspect Be consistent
Organize topics L ITERATURE R EVIEW O RGANIZATION Ease of use SW usability usefulness Organizationa l support Training troubleshootin g Organizatio n strategy
Show deficiency Is there missing variables Previous studies did not see this variable Missing population groups Previous study did not address this software type Replication of the study to a new context Software usability study was not made in Ethiopian context Can get research gap from previous journal articles L ITERATURE R EVIEW CONCLUSION
Ensures that you are not "reinventing the wheel". Gives credits to those who have laid the groundwork for your research. Demonstrates your knowledge of the research problem. Demonstrates your understanding of the theoretical and research issues related to your research question. Shows your ability to critically evaluate relevant literature information. S UMMARY
Indicates your ability to integrate and synthesize the existing literature. Provides new theoretical insights or develops a new model as the conceptual framework for your research. Convinces your reader that your proposed research will make a significant and substantial contribution to the literature (i.e., resolving an important theoretical issue or filling a major gap in the literature). C ONT ’ D