Walsh, D. et al. Eur J Public Health 2010 20:58-64; doi:10.1093/eurpub/ckp063 Male life expectancy at birth West Central Scotland and 10 post-industrial regions Post industrial regions of Europe
Do social conditions determine the incidence of disease? u For centuries they have and they still do in the developing world –Plague, leprosy, polio, diphtheria, typhoid, tuberculosis –BUT in the developed countries u It is how we respond to social conditions which largely determines our risk of chronic ill health
Standardised mortality rates by cause, all ages: Glasgow relative to Liverpool & Manchester Source: Walsh D, Bendel N., Jones R, Hanlon P. It’s not ‘just deprivation’: why do equally deprived UK cities experience different health outcomes? Public Health, 2010
“.....expresses the extent to which one has a feeling of confidence that the stimuli deriving from one's internal and external environments in the course of living are structured, predictable and explicable, that one has the internal resources to meet the demands posed by these stimuli and, finally, that these demands are seen as challenges, worthy of investment and engagement." Sense of coherence....
For the creation of health........the social and physical environment must be: u Comprehensible u Manageable u Meaningful u......or the individual would experience chronic stress
Health Deficits approach u Focuses on problems, needs and deficiencies in a community such as deprivation, illness and health damaging behaviours. It designs services to fill the gaps and fix the problems. As a result, communities can feel disempowered. People become passive recipients of services rather than active agents in their own lives
Health Assets u A health asset is any factor or resource which enhances the ability of individuals, communities and populations to maintain their health and sustain wellbeing. The assets can operate…as protective and promoting factors to buffer against life’s stresses Morgan 2009
Strengthen Community Actions u Health promotion works through concrete and effective community action in setting priorities, making decisions, planning strategies and implementing them to achieve better health. At the heart of this process is the empowerment of communities - their ownership and control of their own endeavours and destinies.
The pathology of poverty 24 th European Congress of Pathology Prague 11th September 2012
Functions of a system u To allow a few people to control many –eg. Captain of a ship u Allows production of a great deal of the same thing –Goods or services u Needs to create consumers or clients –ie Creates need
Associations of citizens Decide what the problems are Decide how top solve them Organise to implement the solution
Social connectedness u 148 studies comprising 308,849 participants, high levels of social integration conferred a 50% increased likelihood of survival. u Complex patterns of social integration conferred a 90% increase in survival. u Simple indicators such as living alone versus living with others conferred a survival benefit of only 19%.
SG LAs NHS 3 rd Sector Enhancing social connectedness 1. Light the fire 2. Build communities Help to connect people Coproduction
Coproduction The conventional delivery model does not address underlying problems that lead many to rely on public services and thus carries the seeds of its own demise. These include a tendency to disempower people who are supposed to benefit from services, to create waste by failing to recognise service users’ own strengths and assets, and to engender a culture of dependency that stimulates demand. Co-production has the potential to transform public services so that they are better positioned to address these problems and to meet urgent challenges.
u Early years u Youth alcohol and offending u Rehabilitation of offenders u Employment and local entrepreneurism u Physical fitness u Support for the elderly A life course approach?
Improvement science u W Edwards Deming (1900-1993) –“In God we trust, all others must bring data” –“By what method? Only the method counts.” u Don Berwick –“Some is not a number. Soon is not a time.” u Scottish Patient Safety Programme –“By how much and by what method?”
Executing the change u There are many change theories and models. We must choose a small number of improvement methods and stick with them for the long haul. u They must all be based on the simple formula of aims/measures and changes. u Our selection may be; Collaboratives Benchmarking and competition User/ Community empowerment Performance management u The choice must be explicit and evidenced.
u Agree outcomes –For pregnancy, early development and preparedness for school u Agree interventions to achieve these outcomes –Five or six evidence based interventions for each stage u Apply interventions consistently across the whole population u Measure progress and react to the data An early years collaborative
Outcome Aims u Mortality: 15% reduction by 2015 u Adverse Events: 30% reduction u Ventilator Associated Pneumonia: 0 or 300 days between u Central Line Bloodstream Infection: 0 or 300 days between u Blood Sugars w/in Range (ITU/HDU): 80% or > w/in range u MRSA Bloodstream Infection: 30% reduction u Crash Calls: 30% reduction
Rectorial Address “Let me right at the outset define what I mean by alienation. It is the cry of men who feel themselves the victims of blind economic forces beyond their control. It's the frustration of ordinary people excluded from the processes of decision making. The feeling of despair and hopelessness that pervades people who feel with justification that they have no real say in shaping or determining their own destinies....”