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Admin. Review Lesson 16 The US Navy in North Africa, the Mediterranean, and the Atlantic 1941-1942.

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Presentation on theme: "Admin. Review Lesson 16 The US Navy in North Africa, the Mediterranean, and the Atlantic 1941-1942."— Presentation transcript:

1 Admin

2 Review

3 Lesson 16 The US Navy in North Africa, the Mediterranean, and the Atlantic

4 Learning Objectives Comprehend the absolute priority given to keeping the sea lanes to Britain open.Comprehend the absolute priority given to keeping the sea lanes to Britain open. Know the relationship between Roosevelt and Churchill in the establishment of the United Nations and the broad concepts of Allied strategy.Know the relationship between Roosevelt and Churchill in the establishment of the United Nations and the broad concepts of Allied strategy. Comprehend the confrontation between German U-boat strategy versus Allied convoy Antisubmarine (ASW) strategy in the Atlantic.Comprehend the confrontation between German U-boat strategy versus Allied convoy Antisubmarine (ASW) strategy in the Atlantic. Know German surface raider effectiveness.Know German surface raider effectiveness. Comprehend the differences between British “War of Attrition” versus American plans for a direct confrontation with Germany.Comprehend the differences between British “War of Attrition” versus American plans for a direct confrontation with Germany. Comprehend how Allied amphibious landings assisted in ending the war in Europe.Comprehend how Allied amphibious landings assisted in ending the war in Europe.

5 Remember our Themes! The Navy as an Instrument of Foreign PolicyThe Navy as an Instrument of Foreign Policy Interaction between Congress and the NavyInteraction between Congress and the Navy Interservice RelationsInterservice Relations TechnologyTechnology LeadershipLeadership Strategy and TacticsStrategy and Tactics Evolution of Naval DoctrineEvolution of Naval Doctrine

6 British Convoy Strategy Strategy adopted from the outsetStrategy adopted from the outset Recognizes the importance of keeping the lines of communications open with the U.S.Recognizes the importance of keeping the lines of communications open with the U.S. Dönitz organizes U-boats to hunt in “Wolfpacks” to prey on convoys. Was very effective when based out of France and Normandy.Dönitz organizes U-boats to hunt in “Wolfpacks” to prey on convoys. Was very effective when based out of France and Normandy.

7 17 Sep 1939: U-29 sinks carrier HMS Courageous; U-47 sinks Royal Oak.

8 HMS Courageous

9 HMS Courageous sinking

10 HMS Royal Oak

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12 Enlisting American Help British acquire more escorts and the ability to break the German Ultra CodeBritish acquire more escorts and the ability to break the German Ultra Code The U.S. drifts into undeclared war with Germany; attempts to maintain neutrality, The U.S. drifts into undeclared war with Germany; attempts to maintain neutrality, –FDR an internationalist/ interventionist –Congress influenced by isolationist and “America First” propaganda. –FDR runs for third term under isolationist platform. Later passes the first peacetime draft. –FDR knows a German victory would threaten US security because it would destroy British sea power which was thought to be the “Shield of the Republic.”

13 Enlisting American Help US sends “Neutrality Patrols” to help British ASW. “All aid to Britain short of war” includes “destroyer-bases deal” and “Lend-Lease” program. FDR concedes this is not Wilson’s neutrality in thought and deed.

14 U.S. Enters War U.S. officially enters war after attack on Pearl HarborU.S. officially enters war after attack on Pearl Harbor Germany U-boat offensive moves to the U.S. East CoastGermany U-boat offensive moves to the U.S. East Coast As the Convoy Strategy becomes more effective, Doenitz moved his U-boats south (“tonnage strategy”)As the Convoy Strategy becomes more effective, Doenitz moved his U-boats south (“tonnage strategy”) Doenitz shifts U-boats back to North Atlantic in U.S. counteracts with escort carriers and HF/DF locations of WolfpackDoenitz shifts U-boats back to North Atlantic in U.S. counteracts with escort carriers and HF/DF locations of Wolfpack Doenitz forced into Central Atlantic as allies strengthened convoys and developed ASW tactics. Hunter-Killer groups run out of U-boats to sinkDoenitz forced into Central Atlantic as allies strengthened convoys and developed ASW tactics. Hunter-Killer groups run out of U-boats to sink

15 Germany’s Surface Fleet Germany used surface raiders with moderate success. No large surface battles in Atlantic, as German surface fleets had a hard time breaking out into the Atlantic.

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18 Competing Allied Strategies. British preferred a peripheral strategyBritish preferred a peripheral strategy – War of Attrition North Africa Egypt Sicily U.S. preferred direct attack on Germany through western FranceU.S. preferred direct attack on Germany through western France –Op ROUNDUP –Op SLEDGEHAMMER

19 US went with Brits Allowed U.S. to pursue Pacific WarAllowed U.S. to pursue Pacific War Drew German resources off the Western Front, weakening them for an eventual cross channel invasionDrew German resources off the Western Front, weakening them for an eventual cross channel invasion Allies checked German advances in Egypt; stalemated on Russian front; attacked Italy beginning in July 1943Allies checked German advances in Egypt; stalemated on Russian front; attacked Italy beginning in July 1943

20 Competing Allied Strategies Sequence for pursuing peripheral strategy in the Mediterranean –Operation Torch –Operation Husky

21 Operation Torch General Dwight D. EisenhowerGeneral Dwight D. Eisenhower Western Naval Task ForceWestern Naval Task Force – Rear Admiral H. Kent Hewitt –Major General George S. Patton D-Day 8 November 1942D-Day 8 November 1942 Target is CasablancaTarget is Casablanca

22 Jean Bart V. USS Massachusetts

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24 Operation Husky Invasion of SicilyInvasion of Sicily Same General Officers as “Torch”Same General Officers as “Torch” More sophisticated amphibious landingMore sophisticated amphibious landing –LSTs, LCTs, LCIs Night landingNight landing Mussolini falls from powerMussolini falls from power

25 LVT The Landing Vehicle Tracked (LVT)The Landing Vehicle Tracked (LVT) Originally intended solely as cargo carriers for ship to shore operations, they rapidly evolved into assault troop and fire support vehicles as well.Originally intended solely as cargo carriers for ship to shore operations, they rapidly evolved into assault troop and fire support vehicles as well. The types were all widely known as amphtrack, amtrak, amtrac etc.The types were all widely known as amphtrack, amtrak, amtrac etc.

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28 LCVP Landing Craft, Vehicle, Personnel (LCVP) or Higgins boatLanding Craft, Vehicle, Personnel (LCVP) or Higgins boat Similar to larger size LCMSimilar to larger size LCM

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31 LCT / LCI Capable of extended sea voyagesCapable of extended sea voyages

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33 LST

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