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 The Powderkeg explodes  Sarejevo, June 28, 1914- Assassination of Archduke Francis Ferdinand (Heir to Austrian Throne) Killed by Gavrilo Princip.

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Presentation on theme: " The Powderkeg explodes  Sarejevo, June 28, 1914- Assassination of Archduke Francis Ferdinand (Heir to Austrian Throne) Killed by Gavrilo Princip."— Presentation transcript:

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4  The Powderkeg explodes  Sarejevo, June 28, 1914- Assassination of Archduke Francis Ferdinand (Heir to Austrian Throne) Killed by Gavrilo Princip Member of Serbian Nationalist group “The Black Hand”  Opposed Austrian rule

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9  Keeping armed forces prepared for war.  Belligerent (War-like attitude)  Arms race among European powers Ex. Fiercest rivalry between Germany & Britain

10  Military or economic friendship between countries (Ex.Treaties)  Pre-War – Triple Alliance – Triple Entente  During War – Central Powers – Allied Powers

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12 Triple AllianceTriple Entente GermanyBritain Austria-Hungary France ItalyRussia

13  competition among Europeans for colonies in Africa & Asia

14  Pride in one’s country or desire for independence  Balkans – Ethnic Strife – Powder Keg  Germany – Proud of growing military & industrial strength

15 German24% Hungarian20% Czech13% Polish10% Ruthenian8% Romanian6% Croat5% Slovak4% Serb4% Slovene3% Italian3% The ethnic distribution of Austria-Hungary

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17  France Wanted Revenge for losing Alsace & Lorraine  Russia Pan-Slavism- wanted to unite all Slavic Peoples (Ex. Balkans)  Austria – Against all Slavic nationalism

18  Alliance System Kicks in  Germany offers Aust. Carte Blanche  Austrians issue Serbia ultimatum  Austria - Hungary Declares War on Serbia  Russia Mobilizes its forces  Germany declares war on Russia  Germany declares War on France

19  Germany invades Neutral Belgium to gain access to France  In response Britain declares war on Germany

20 “The Lamps are going out all over Europe. We Shall not see them lit again in our lifetime” Sir Edward Grey

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22 Central PowersAllied Powers GermanyBritain Austria-HungaryFrance Ottoman EmpireU.S. (1917) Bulgaria Italy *** ChinaJapan

23  German military plan @ outset of war Rapidly defeat France & than attack Russia German army stalls outside Paris (Marne) Plan failed  Forced to fight a two front war

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27 Marne River- Germans stopped @ outskirts of Paris ending Schlieffen Plan Verdun – German offensive failed Somme River- Allied Offensive failed  Millions of soldiers killed for no gain

28  Located on the French and German border French and British Vs. German and Italian forces Schleifan Plan Fails Trench Warfare Stalemate- Battle lines remained unchanged

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31  opposing armies fight each other from dug in trenches No Mans Land in middle Horrible conditions Trench foot Shellshock

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41  Advances in weaponry =More death & destruction than ever before (8.5 mill. Killed)

42 Submarine Warfare

43 War in the Air

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46 Tanks Original British tank German tank French tank U. S.

47 Heavy Artillery

48 Poison Gas

49 Machine Guns

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51 Flamethrowers Grenade launcher

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53  Fought on 3 continents  Over 30 countries involved  Two oceans

54  Located along the German and Russian border Russian and Serbians Vs. Germans, Austrians, and Turks More mobile than western Front

55 British help Arab nationalists rise up against Turks Lawrence of Arabia leads guerilla raids Allies gain control of Baghdad,Jerusalem, Damascus

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57 Allied plan to attack Ottoman Empire Hoped to take control of Dardanelles Wanted to establish supply lines to Russia  Plan failed

58 Balfour Declaration British support a Jewish national homeland in Palestine  Troubles still exist today

59 Japanese gain control of German possessions in China & the Pacific England & France seize German possessions in Africa British & French colonies support allied war efforts

60 Britain imposes Naval Blockade of Germany German U- Boats attacked Allied ships  Both nations experienced severe food shortages

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63 Taxes were raised & monies borrowed to finance the war War Bonds Government drafted men to fight Woman more involved in the workforce Contributions helped them in gaining right to vote after the war

64 Rationing Limited the amount of goods people could buy Ex. Butter, leather, etc. were needed for the war effort Victory Gardens Censorship Govt. controlled info about the war

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67 I.1917 U.S. Enters War II.1918 Russia withdraws from War

68  Proclaimed neutrality @ outset of hostilities Public opinion divided over loyalties (Central vs. allies?) U.S. traded & lent money to both sides Wilson reelected under slogan”He Kept us out of the war”

69 German policy of unrestricted Submarine Warfare Ex. Lusitania- American lives lost Zimmerman telegram U.S. public outraged Wilson declares war

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76 Not industrialized (lack of supplies) Only strength is #’s Lack of leadership/morale Civil unrest @ home  Shortages, death toll, riots  Russian Revolution of 1917

77 Lenin promises “Peace, Bread, & Land” Signs Treaty of Brest- Litovsk (1918)  Separate peace with Central Powers  Russia leaves war  Harsh(Russia loses enormous amounts of land)

78 U.S. Troops help allies defeat exhauster German army @ the 2 nd Battle of the Marne Allies push towards Germany Kaiser Wilhelm forced to abdicate New German government (Weimer Republic) signs armistice

79 Nov. 11,1918 @ 11 am the armistice is signed  Veterans day is Nov. 11

80  8.5 million killed/17 million wounded  Mass destruction/famine  Huge War debts/reparations  New technology introduced  U.S. becomes creditor nation  End of major empires-A/Hungary, Germany, Russia, OttomanTurks  Treaty of Versailles WWII

81 Held @ The Palace of Versailles, France Decisions made by major Allied powers Germany & its allies not represented but had to abide by decisions Russia not represented  In the midst of Civil War

82 Representatives of the 4 major allied powers U.S.- Woodrow Wilson Great Britain- David Lloyd George France- Georges Clemenceau Italy- Vittorio Orlando ** Each came w/ their own agenda

83  British & French Representatives wanted to punish Germany Strip Germany of War making powers Pay for suffering caused by war  Wilson wanted “Peace without Victory” based on his 14 points

84  Plan for achieving a just & lasting peace End to secret treaties Freedom of Seas Free trade Reduced militaries Self determination for new nations

85  A League of Nations (14 th Point) Organization of Nations that would solve world conflicts through diplomacy Similar to the United Nations today

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89  League of Nations formed  Germany & Russia originally excluded  Territorial losses for Germany Alsace Lorraine French border extended to Rhine All overseas colonies

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91  Military Restrictions  Limited size of German Army  Prohibited manufacturing or purchase of War Materials  Forbid submarines & air Force  Rhineland becomes de- militarized zone

92  War Guilt Clause  Harshest provision  Sole responsibility for war placed on Germany  Germany forced to pay allies $33 billion in reparations  Germans were horrified by treaty

93 Austro Hungarian Empire carved into Austria, Hungary, Czechoslovakia, & Yugoslavia Ottoman lands became Mandates Territories administered by a Western Power Palestine, Iraq, Transjordan,etc.

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95  U.S. rejected Treaty & League of Nations  Mandates in Africa & Asia upset about not gaining independence  Italy & Japan hoped to gain more territory  Treaty left bitterness & hatred in hearts of Germans  Would set the stage for WWII

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97  8.5 million killed/17 million wounded  Mass destruction/famine  Huge War debts/reparations  New technology introduced  U.S. becomes creditor nation  End of major empires-A/Hungary, Germany, Russia, OttomanTurks  Treaty of Versailles WWII


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