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U.S. Air Force Office of Scientific Research International Office (AFOSR/IO) Asian Science & Technology Forum (AST) Organized by Asia Policy Point (APP)

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Presentation on theme: "U.S. Air Force Office of Scientific Research International Office (AFOSR/IO) Asian Science & Technology Forum (AST) Organized by Asia Policy Point (APP)"— Presentation transcript:

1 U.S. Air Force Office of Scientific Research International Office (AFOSR/IO) Asian Science & Technology Forum (AST) Organized by Asia Policy Point (APP) Sponsored by Computer Sciences Corporation (CSC) The New Dynamics of U.S.-Japan Armaments Cooperation Wednesday, October 4, 2006 Framing the Negotiation: “Good intentions, not always observed in the breach.” Paul Giarra Hicks and Associates, Incorporated

2 SIX PARTS A Dozen Stipulations A Dozen Stipulations General Observations on U.S.-Japan Armaments Cooperation General Observations on U.S.-Japan Armaments Cooperation Cross-Cutting and Synthesized Due Diligence and Essential Knowledge Cross-Cutting and Synthesized Due Diligence and Essential Knowledge Specific Recommendations Specific Recommendations A Five Step Process A Five Step Process A History Lesson A History Lesson

3 3 A Dozen Stipulations 1. Take the 10,000 ft. view. Don’t assume anyone else will. There is time for details later in the process. 2. As goes U.S.-Japan Armaments Cooperation, so goes a great alliance. Considering that we are addressing the security futures of two of the world’s great Pacific powers, the prospect of this negotiation is a sobering thought.

4 4 A Dozen Stipulations 3. U.S.-Japan Armaments Cooperation amounts to a negotiation with very high stakes, one that will set many trajectories -- technical, political, doctrinal, strategic, alliance -- for the United States and Japan, for American extended deterrence and power projection, and for effective air and missile defense.

5 5 A Dozen Stipulations 4. Japan is motivated. North Korea’s missile tests in 1998 and again on July 4 th galvanized Japan, just as Sputnik focused the United States. 5. Even more enervating is the rise of China. Furthermore, the challenges of Iran and the global war on terror loom in the background.

6 6 A Dozen Stipulations 6. U.S.-Japan Armaments Cooperation will require extensive preparation, due diligence, and consideration of internal and external factors well beyond technical acquisition issues.

7 7 A Dozen Stipulations 7. Traditional expectations and measures of effectiveness -- i.e., statements of work; work share agreements; budgets framed and expended; hardware developed and delivered -- are insufficient and deceptive.

8 8 A Dozen Stipulations 8. To succeed, U.S.-Japan Armaments Cooperation will require an unnatural act: collaboration between and synthesis of politics, policy, operations, strategy, intelligence, technology, and acquisition. This amounts to a very difficult integration challenge.

9 9 A Dozen Stipulations 9. American negotiators will have to get the U.S. story straight from the outset, which will derive from a variety of often uncoordinated American defense policies and strategies. Allies expect to hear this story, and are reading and listening very carefully. In this regard, don’t wait for perfect information. Get the policy and strategy information you need. Integrate Armaments Cooperation into those policies and strategies.

10 10 A Dozen Stipulations 10. The range of potential outcomes for the U.S. and for the U.S.-Japan alliance -- both positive and negative – is dramatically broad.

11 11 A Dozen Stipulations 11. We are on the cusp of a general recognition of the strategic importance of extended air and missile defense, driven by ballistic and cruise missile proliferation and escalation. This will influence every aspect of R&D and acquisition cooperation with Japan.

12 12 A Dozen Stipulations 12. This is not your father’s JASDF, JDA, or Japan, all of which will bring new capabilities, requirements, and expectations to the negotiating table. Japan is changing fast, with new requirements, expectations, and strategic approaches.

13 13 General Observations on R&D and Acquisition Cooperation with Japan The USG is in the midst of a series of ongoing, increasingly complex, and difficult negotiation. Due diligence, clear objectives, explicit requests, and anticipating and controlling outcomes on the part of the USG -- and American industry partners -- are essential to success.

14 14 General Observations on R&D and Acquisition Cooperation with Japan Agree on goals and objectives up front. Agree on goals and objectives up front. Don’t wait for perfect information. Don’t wait for perfect information. We do not have to know “everything” in order to proceed. We do not have to know “everything” in order to proceed. Expect and be prepared for change. Expect and be prepared for change.

15 15 General Observations on R&D and Acquisition Cooperation with Japan Plan for internal U.S. engagement with two goals: USG leadership alignment at the highest possible levels; and USG leadership alignment at the highest possible levels; and Downward direction provided to the rest of the government. Downward direction provided to the rest of the government. Don’t force or enable freelancing or dissent.

16 16 General Observations on R&D and Acquisition Cooperation with Japan This is a multi-player game internally and externally. Japan is not the only international actor involved, and the approach to Japan cannot be conceived or executed in isolation. (Yes, this includes China.)

17 17 General Observations on R&D and Acquisition Cooperation with Japan Involving Japan and other allies from the earliest possible point in planning for R&D and acquisition cooperation pays great dividends. Other allies have an interest in many of the same acquisition programs, and nevertheless will be interested in outcomes involving Japan.

18 18 General Observations on R&D and Acquisition Cooperation with Japan Be sure to ask for what you want from Japan and other prospective international negotiating partners. This sounds self-evident, but is not always done. Be sure to articulate -- at least internally -- both what you want and what you are not willing to give up.

19 19 General Observations on R&D and Acquisition Cooperation with Japan Remember: You will chase your Japanese counterparts until they catch you.

20 20 General Observations on R&D and Acquisition Cooperation with Japan R&D and acquisition cooperation includes essential internal and external components: Internal (“Traditional”) Alliance relations Alliance relations Industrial base Industrial base Technology base Technology base Bureaucratic relations Bureaucratic relations

21 21 General Observations on R&D and Acquisition Cooperation with Japan External (“Non-Traditional”) (1) The rise of China and Iran The rise of China and Iran North Korea as a Japanese stalking horse for China North Korea as a Japanese stalking horse for China Connectivity and integration as well as interoperability Connectivity and integration as well as interoperability Evolving extended air defense goals, objectives, and doctrines Evolving extended air defense goals, objectives, and doctrines

22 22 General Observations on R&D and Acquisition Cooperation with Japan External (“Non-Traditional”) (2) Geo-strategic competitions involving the United States and Japan Geo-strategic competitions involving the United States and Japan Alliance roles and missions, in particular redressing the split in air defense connectivity Alliance roles and missions, in particular redressing the split in air defense connectivity Changing Japanese defense policy Changing Japanese defense policy Early warning and C4ISR Early warning and C4ISR National missile defense considerations and implications, at least for Japan and more than likely for the United States National missile defense considerations and implications, at least for Japan and more than likely for the United States

23 23 General Observations on R&D and Acquisition Cooperation with Japan Take into account essential operational and strategic factors relevant to Japan and to the rest of the Asia-Pacific.

24 24 General Observations on R&D and Acquisition Cooperation with Japan Technical issues and technology considerations are extraordinarily consequential to all parties. This will require that negotiators forge close partnerships with technical experts and technology leaders. Leverage the available extraordinary U.S. influence and connections with the Japanese civilian science and technology community.

25 25 General Observations on R&D and Acquisition Cooperation with Japan Projecting into the future is fundamental. This negotiation will affect and shape -- and be shaped by -- the future bilateral alliance with Japan and the future security environment in which that alliance and U.S. forces must operate. Take into account intelligence assessments and long term projections that include “non- traditional” exogenous factors.

26 26 General Observations on R&D and Acquisition Cooperation with Japan The key task is to enable successful and integrated USG leadership through careful and authoritative internal U.S. coordination and collaboration.

27 27 Specific Recommendations Centralized leadership is a tide that lifts all boats. OSD’s role is paramount.

28 28 Specific Recommendations Identify U.S. stakeholders and U.S. decisionmakers. Include them in planning and the negotiating process from the beginning. The importance of achieving American consensus cannot be overestimated. This is 99% of the effort.

29 29 Specific Recommendations Establish authoritative U.S. leadership commitment from the outset.

30 30 Specific Recommendations Understand and incorporate in negotiation objectives and strategies the operational and strategic implications of transferring American technology. Engage leadership in these deliberations and decisions.

31 31 Specific Recommendations Coordinate the U.S. interagency position in advance of bilateral and/or multilateral overtures.

32 32 Specific Recommendations Get Congress involved -- not because Congress might be against R&D and acquisition cooperation with Japan, but because Congress has to be for it.

33 33 Specific Recommendations On the one hand, Congress will pay for advanced U.S. defense capability, but must understand and be persuaded of its value. Likewise, Congress will accept the negotiated bargain -- what we will give, and what we will get in return -- if it is consulted early, often, and effectively.

34 34 Specific Recommendations Perhaps it goes without saying, but it should not be left unsaid: Don’t limit consideration of programmatic cooperation to Japan. There are other international partners to be considered. Their interests will affect U.S. and Japanese considerations and objectives.

35 35 Specific Recommendations Some lessons learned in the process of negotiating with Japan will apply to other negotiating partners, if not across the board. Sunk costs in preparing for negotiations with Japan (such as achieving American consensus that is 99% of the effort) will defray effort and expense in other negotiations.

36 36 Cross-Cutting and Synthesized Due Diligence and Essential Knowledge All U.S. stakeholders and players need to know the following: The future technical state of the art of individual and combined U.S. defense technologies and systems contemplated for cooperative R&D and acquisition. The future technical state of the art of individual and combined U.S. defense technologies and systems contemplated for cooperative R&D and acquisition.

37 37 Cross-Cutting and Synthesized Due Diligence and Essential Knowledge U.S. stakeholders and players need to know: Strategic, technical, political, and national defense industrial base implications of technology transfer.Strategic, technical, political, and national defense industrial base implications of technology transfer. The future security environment, strategically and at the operational level of war, on a global and regional basis. The future security environment, strategically and at the operational level of war, on a global and regional basis.

38 38 Cross-Cutting and Synthesized Due Diligence and Essential Knowledge U.S. stakeholders and players need to know: U.S. Air Force strategies, plans and policies vis- à-vis technologies and systems.U.S. Air Force strategies, plans and policies vis- à-vis technologies and systems. Differences of view, perspective, and objectives in the U.S., inter alia: OSD, Air Force, Regional Combatant Commanders, numbered Air Force Commanders, Congress, and industry (systems and production). Differences of view, perspective, and objectives in the U.S., inter alia: OSD, Air Force, Regional Combatant Commanders, numbered Air Force Commanders, Congress, and industry (systems and production).

39 39 Cross-Cutting and Synthesized Due Diligence and Essential Knowledge U.S. stakeholders and players need to know: Japanese stakeholders. Japanese stakeholders. Variegated Japanese expectations and negotiating goals. Variegated Japanese expectations and negotiating goals. Japanese decisionmakers Japanese decisionmakers

40 40 Cross-Cutting and Synthesized Due Diligence and Essential Knowledge U.S. stakeholders and players need to know: Other international stakeholders. Other international stakeholders. Other international expectations. Other international expectations. Other international decisionmakers Other international decisionmakers

41 41 Cross-Cutting and Synthesized Due Diligence and Essential Knowledge Develop, coordinate, and conduct a public information operations campaign. Develop, coordinate, and conduct a public information operations campaign.

42 42 Cross-Cutting and Synthesized Due Diligence and Essential Knowledge Consider the record of Theater Missile Defense with Japan as a possible template. Consider the record of Theater Missile Defense with Japan as a possible template. Assess TMD lessons, successes, and failures, and the future political salience of repeating this approach. Assess TMD lessons, successes, and failures, and the future political salience of repeating this approach. Consider FS-X as a politically expensive lesson. Consider FS-X as a politically expensive lesson.

43 43 Cross-Cutting and Synthesized Due Diligence and Essential Knowledge Incorporate the lessons learned, implications, and precedents set of the UK MOD visit to Washington earlier this year. Incorporate the lessons learned, implications, and precedents set of the UK MOD visit to Washington earlier this year. Press reports indicate that he insisted on technical transparency, SIPRNET access, and technology sharing in the Joint Strike Fighter program.

44 44 Cross-Cutting and Synthesized Due Diligence and Essential Knowledge Objectively gauge Japanese propensity for cooperation, in the fullest sense, from the differing perspectives of each of the Japanese stakeholders and decisionmakers. Objectively gauge Japanese propensity for cooperation, in the fullest sense, from the differing perspectives of each of the Japanese stakeholders and decisionmakers. The willingness and ability to cooperate is very conflicted in some quarters in Japan.

45 45 A Five Step Process STEP 1. By program and technology (for each step): Assess who will be interested in R&D and acquisition cooperation: the Japanese and others, and Assess who will be interested in R&D and acquisition cooperation: the Japanese and others, and Determine what they want. Determine what they want.

46 46 A Five Step Process STEP 2. Decide what DoD needs/wants technically, financially, and politically from the Japanese and others. Decide what DoD needs/wants technically, financially, and politically from the Japanese and others. Don’t limit the set of requirements to symmetric exchange. Don’t limit the set of requirements to symmetric exchange.

47 47 A Five Step Process STEP 3. Decide what we will not give away to Japan and others. Discriminate as necessary.

48 48 A Five Step Process STEP 4. Assess what the Japanese and others can offer in assistance. Assess what the Japanese and others can offer in assistance.

49 49 A Five Step Process STEP 5. Determine the overlap between 1, 2, 3, and 4. Determine the overlap between 1, 2, 3, and 4. Establish U.S. objectives. Establish U.S. objectives. Determine the negotiating space. Determine the negotiating space.

50 50 History Lesson History does not repeat, but it does rhyme. The Washington Naval Conference of provides a number of useful historical lessons regarding negotiations with Japan at a crucial historical juncture.

51 51 History Lesson The Washington Naval Conference set the strategic trajectory for naval competition in the Pacific in the inter-war years. Japan was ambitious, ambivalent, competitive, anxious, defensive, and resentful of its treatment by the Great Powers after World War I.

52 52 History Lesson Generally, American and Japanese negotiators were on very different pages throughout the conference. Failure to discern the extent and significance of this dichotomy was the manifestation of and led to continued strategic divergence.

53 53 History Lesson American negotiators profited greatly throughout the process from very effective intelligence support.

54 54 Summary Frame the negotiation, but prepare for change. Frame the negotiation, but prepare for change. U.S. first: U.S. first: - Leadership engaged - American interests Think out of the box. Think out of the box. Re-define success. Re-define success.

55 55 Summary Coordinate, coordinate, coordinate. Coordinate, coordinate, coordinate. Five Steps = Clear Objectives. Five Steps = Clear Objectives. Identify internal and external stakeholders. Identify internal and external stakeholders. Due diligence = Information dominance Due diligence = Information dominance Information dominance = Success. Information dominance = Success.

56 56 Summary The stakes are very high The stakes are very high -- potentially as high as they’ve ever been. History rhymes, and the historical record holds valuable lessons. History rhymes, and the historical record holds valuable lessons. Asa meshi mae ni dekimasu

57 57 We’ll have time for questions and discussion after Jeff Bloom’s presentation.


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