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Introduction to Study Skills

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1 Introduction to Study Skills
Dr. Sarwet Rasul

2 Who is your instructor? My introduction

3 Introduction to the Course
Title: Study Skills Objectives of the course: To provide the students the knowledge of study skills To help them know how they are related to their study as a distance learner, and how they can use study skills as tools to perform efficiently in different subjects To give them practice in the use of study skills To enable them to use these study skills in their academic contexts

4 Cont… Introduction to the Course
Breakdown of the course contents The course contents are divided into 32 lectures or sessions. They are sequenced logically, thus each session leads towards the next. Most of the sessions are complete and independent in themselves. However, since some topics can not be covered in one session, they are extended to two or three sessions. In case a session is a continuation of the previous session/s it is mentioned clearly at the outset of the session. Pattern followed in the sessions Almost the same pattern of presentation is followed in each session. The topic is introduced, defined and explained at the outset of the lecture. Its significance is addresses. Then the contents of covered under the topic are broken into small pieces of information to be shared. This break down of the session is shared at the beginning of the session. Almost each session has exercises and activities that are included to give the students some hands on practice. Review of the session is presented at the end.

5 Preview of the Session Study Skills What are study skills?
Study Skills: A Wider Perspective Why the development of study skills is important? Study Skills for Distance Learners Role of Study Skills in Distance Learning Knowing yourself as a distance learner What do You Generally Find in Study Skills Courses/ Books? Your study Skills Course and its Contents Which study skills are important for you? What are different types of study skills? How to improve your distance learning study skills?

6 Introduction to the Term Study Skills
What are study skills? Study skills or study strategies are approaches applied to learning. They are generally critical to academic success Study skills are generally considered essential for acquiring good grades, and useful for learning in academic as well as other contexts. There is a wide range of study skills, which are involved in the process of organizing and taking in new information, retaining information, or dealing with assessments. In today’s academic context, unlike the traditional approach, these study skills are not left up to the student. Rather these skills are increasingly taught in schools, colleges and universities. A number of books, materials, websites and other resources are available ranging from specific techniques to general guide lines to successful study.

7 What are study skills? Historical context Roots in Psychology

8 Study Skills: A Wider Perspective
In a broader sense any skill which enables, helps or boosts a person's ability to study and pass exams can be termed a study skill. This implies that study skills include a wide range of array from time management to stress management, language skills to efficient use of memory, vocabulary development to presentation skills. Study Skills are distinct techniques that can be learned, usually in a short time. Study skills are and can be applied to almost all fields of study, irrespective of which subject or course you are studying. Thus, study skills are to be distinguished from strategies that are specific to a particular field of study.

9 Study Skills and Distance Learning
The trend of Distance Learning is increasing day by day.

10 Knowing yourself as a distance learner

11 Study Skills for Distance Learners

12 Study Skills for Distance Learners
Study skills for distance learners are very similar to those for classroom learners. 
 Students often take courses through distance education because of the flexibility it offers. As a distance student you may have an extra challenge because you are often juggling your courses, plus other responsibilities such as work and family.


14 Cont… Role of Study Skills in Distance Learning


16 What do You Generally Find in Study Skills Courses/ Books?
Study Skills Strategies : Your Guide to Critical Thinking   by Lengefeld, Uelaine Crisp, Michael Mapson, Ralph. Course Technology Crisp 1994 TIME CONTROL NOTE TAKING TECHNIQUES CRITICAL READING SKILLS MEMORY TRAINING EXAM STRATEGIES MATHEMATICS STUDY SKILLS Regis Study Skills Guide   by Walsh, Frank   Reisig, Chris, International Debate Education Association 2008 Environment and Concentration in Study Organizing Time Reading Speed and Comprehension Vocabulary and Spelling Memory of Details and Factual Information Taking Notes Participating in Class Discussions Taking Tests Writing Papers and Essays Using Advisors and Counselors

17 Study Skills Guide : Essential Strategies for Smart Students   by Forsyth, Patrick   Connelly, Mark   Connelly, Jacqueline, Kogan Page Ltd. 2010 Managing your time Effective study Information gathering and absorption Analysis Getting support from academic staff and others The written word: making it work for you Presenting successfully Studying at a Distance : A Guide for Students (2nd Edition)   by Talbot, Christine J. , Open University Press, 2007 Preparing for distance learning Know yourself as a learner Practicalities of studying Getting support E-learning Resources for studying Reading and note-making Essays and written examinations Other forms of learning and assessment Doing a research project

18 Types of study skills Study skills based on memorization
Study skills based on memorization use rehearsal and rote learning One of the most basic approaches to learning any information is simply to repeat it by rote. Typically this will include reading over notes or a textbook, and re-writing notes. Source: Adapted from www. wikipidea

19 Cont… Study skills based on Communication skills
Study skills based on Communication skills include reading and listening skills etc. The weakness with rote learning is that it implies a passive reading or listening style. Educators such as John Dewey have argued that students need to learn critical thinking - questioning and weighing up evidence as they learn. This is done through lectures or reading.

20 Cont… Study skills based on Methods based visual Aids
Flash Cards are visual cues on cards. These have numerous uses in teaching and learning, but can be used for revision. Students often make their own flash cards, or more detailed index cards - cards designed for filing, often A5 size, on which short summaries are written. Being discrete and separate, they have the advantage of allowing students to re-order them, pick a selection to read over, or choose randomly for self-testing.

21 Study skills based on condensing information
Study skills based on condensing information use summarizing and the use of keywords Summary methods vary depending on the topic, but most involve condensing the large amount of information from a course or book into shorter notes. Often these notes are then condensed further into key facts. Organized summaries: Such as outlines showing keywords and definitions and relations, usually in a tree structure. Spider diagrams: Using spider diagrams or mind maps can be an effective way of linking concepts together. They can be useful for planning essays and essay responses in exams. These tools can give a visual summary of a topic that preserves its logical structure, with lines used to show how different parts link together.

22 Cont… Study skills Methods based on Visual Imagery
Some learners are thought to have a visual learning style, and will benefit greatly from taking information from their studies which is often heavily verbal, and using visual techniques to help encode and retain it in memory. Diagrams are often underrated tools. They can be used to bring all the information together and provide practice reorganizing what has been learned in order to produce something practical and useful. They can also aid the recall of information learned very quickly, particularly if the student made the diagram while studying the information. Pictures can then be transferred to flash cards that are very effective last minute revision tools rather than rereading any written material.

23 Cont… Study Skills based on Examination Strategies
The Black-Red-Green method (developed through the Royal Literary Fund) helps the student to ensure that every aspect of the question posed has been considered, both in exams and essays.The student underlines relevant parts of the question using three separate colors (or some equivalent). BLAck denotes 'BLAtant instructions', i.e. something that clearly must be done; a directive or obvious instruction. REd is a REference Point or REquired input of some kind, usually to do with definitions, terms, cited authors, theory, etc. (either explicitly referred to or strongly implied). GREen denotes GREmlins, which are subtle signals one might easily miss, or a ‘GREEN Light’ that gives a hint on how to proceed, or where to place the emphasis in answers.

24 Cont… Study Skills based on Management and Organization
Study Skills based on Time Management, Organization and Lifestyle Changes Often, improvements to the effectiveness of study may be achieved through changes to things unrelated to the study material itself, such as time-management, boosting motivation and avoiding procrastination, and in improvements to sleep and diet. Time management in study sessions aims to ensure that activities that achieve the greatest benefit are given the greatest focus. A traffic lights system is a simple way of identifying the importance of information, highlighting or underlining information in colours: Green: topics to be studied first; important and also simple Amber: topics to be studied next; important but time-consuming Red: lowest priority; complex and not vital.

25 Course Contents 1. Introduction to Study Skills
2. Development of Listening Skill 3. Development of Speaking Skill 4. Development of Speaking Skill Part 2 Public Speaking 5 Development of Reading Skill 6. Development of Reading Skill Part 2 7 Skimming 8 Scanning 9 Reading Comprehension 10 Reading Comprehension Part 2 11 Vocabulary Building 12 Vocabulary Building Part 2 13 Vocabulary Building Part 3 14 Efficient use of Memory 15 Introduction to Development of Writing 16. Sentence Structure

26 Cont… Course Contents 17 Sentence Connectors 18 Use of Articles
19 Punctuation 20 Punctuation Part 2 21 Use of Prepositions 22 Features of Academic Writing 23 Features of Academic Writing Part 2 24 Features of Academic Writing Part 3 25 Sentence Transformation 26 Paragraph Development 27 Types of Paragraph 28 Developing an Outline AND Using a Dictionary 29. Notes Taking 30 Presentation Skills 31 Doing Research 32 Managing Distance Learning

27 Starting Work on Your Study Skills: Understanding Your Needs at the Outset



30 Study Skills: What is it that Distance Learners Need More?

31 Difficulties that may hinder

32 Keeping a Balance: How far you are Satisfied with Your Time Management?


34 Accessing Information as a Distance Student: Judge how do you handle information?

35 Activity

36 A few more possibilities!

37 Cont… A few more possibilities!

38 Study Skill Checklist Read each statement and consider how it applies to you. If it does apply to you, check Y. If it does not apply to you, check N. The purpose of this inventory is to find out about your own study habits and attitudes. 1. Y__ N__ I spend too much time studying for what I am learning. 2. Y__ N__ I usually spend hours cramming the night before an exam. 3. Y__ N__  If I spend as much time on my social activities as I want to, I don't have enough time left to study, or when I study enough, I don't have time for a social life. 4. Y__ N__  I usually try to study with the radio and TV turned on. 5. Y__ N__  I can't sit and study for long periods of time without becoming tired or distracted. 6. Y__ N__  My study notes are sometimes difficult to understand later. 7. Y__ N__  I usually seem to get the wrong material into my notes. 8. Y__ N__  I don't review my notes periodically throughout the semester in preparation for tests. 9. Y__ N__  When I get to the end of a chapter, I can't remember what I've just read.

39 Cont… Study Skill Checklist
10. Y__ N__  I don't know how to pick out what is important in the text. 11. Y__ N__  I can't keep up with my reading assignments, and then I have to cram the night before a test. 12.Y__ N__   I lose a lot of points on essay tests even when I know the material well. 13. Y__ N__  I study enough for my test, but when I get there my mind goes blank. 14. Y__ N__  I often study in a haphazard, disorganized way under the threat of the next test. 15. Y__ N__  I often find myself getting lost in the details of reading and have trouble identifying the main ideas. 16. Y__ N__  I rarely change my reading speed in response to the difficulty level of the selection, or my familiarity with the content. 17. Y__ N__  I often wish that I could read faster. 18. Y__ N__  When my teachers assign papers I feel so overwhelmed that I can't get started. 19. Y__ N__  I usually write my papers the night before they are due. 20. Y__ N__  I can't seem to organize my thoughts into a paper that makes sense.

40 Cont… Study Skill Checklist
If you have answered "yes" to two or more questions in any category, it means you need to work seriously on that area If you have one or no "yes" in a category, you are probably proficient enough in these areas but you can always improve. Time Scheduling - 1, 2, and 3. Concentration - 4, and 5. Listening & Note taking – 6,7, and 8. Reading – 9, 10, and 11. Exams – 12, 13, 14, and 15. Reading – 15, 16, and 17. Writing Skills – 18, 19, and 20. Adapted from:

41 Getting Started: making your schedule
The value of a schedule Before you even begin to think about the process of studying, you must develop a schedule. If you don't have a schedule or plan for studying, then you will not have any way of allocating your valuable time when the unexpected comes up. A good, well thought out schedule can be a lifesaver. It's up to you to learn how to develop a schedule that meets your needs, revise it if necessary, and most important, follow it. A schedule saves time All schedules should be made with the idea that they can be revised. A good schedule keeps you from wandering off course. A good schedule, if properly managed, assigns time where time is needed, but you've got to want to do it!

42 Cont… Getting Started: making your schedule
Making every hour count A schedule should take into account every class, laboratory, lecture, social event, and other work in which you engage. There are givens such as classes and so on that have to be incorporated. You must focus on the other "free time" available and how you will use it. Make a weekly schedule and block off the 24 hour day in one hour increments. Indicate times for study, lectures, social, and work time. Also block off a period for sleeping each day. With what is left over, plan time for study. This gives you a rough road map of the time available. Of course, you can revise your schedule as circumstances warrant. When to study The problem of when to study is critical. A good rule of thumb is that studying should be carried out only when you are rested, alert, and have planned for it. Last minute studying just before an exam is usually a waste of time.

43 Cont… Getting Started: making your schedule
Revising a schedule Don't be afraid to revise your schedule. Schedules are really plans for how you intend to use your time. If your schedule doesn't work, revise it. You must understand that your schedule is to help you develop good study habits. Once you have developed them, schedule building becomes easier. Adapted from:

44 Study Space Your study space should be as quiet and comfortable as possible. Avoid studying in noisy places such as cafeterias, recreation rooms, or lounges. When studying, keep a waste basket handy. Have a consistent place for everything, and above all, keep it there! Have everything needed for studying handy beforehand. Don't waste valuable time looking for books, notes, of other information. After you have assembled the items you need, put them where you can reach them easily.

45 Suggestions to help you improve your distance learning skills
Here are some suggestions to help you improve your distance learning skills: 1. Your motivation As a distance student you’ll need to be a self-directed learner. To ensure that you can do this, you need to be highly motivated.
The best way to stay sharp is to have a clear goal in mind for what you want to achieve through your education. If you are working toward a degree, your goal may be to finish your degree and change careers. 2Your Time Time-management skills are essential in distance learning. Before signing up for your distance course, ensure you have enough time to spend on the course. A general rule is to allow two hours of study for every hour of class. For example, if you have 2 hours of class time a week, you should plan to spend about 4 hours studying, approximately 6 hours per week.  Once you
know how much time you need to spend, create a schedule.

46 Cont… Suggestions to help you improve your distance learning skills
3. Your Target A good way to stay successful is to set goals. The more you do now, the easier it will be at the end. Break large pieces of work into small pieces. It will make life easier. 4.  Knowing your material One great advantage of distance courses is that you are able to view and review your courses and materials.

47 Review of the Session Study Skills What are study skills?
Study Skills: A Wider Perspective Why the development of study skills is important? Study Skills for Distance Learners Role of Study Skills in Distance Learning Knowing yourself as a distance learner What do You Generally Find in Study Skills Courses/ Books? Your study Skills Course and its Contents Which study skills are important for you? What are different types of study skills? How to improve your distance learning study skills?

48 Thank you very much!

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