3Introduction to the Course Title: Study SkillsObjectives of the course:To provide the students the knowledge of study skillsTo help them know how they are related to their study as a distance learner, and how they can use study skills as tools to perform efficiently in different subjectsTo give them practice in the use of study skillsTo enable them to use these study skills in their academic contexts
4Cont… Introduction to the Course Breakdown of the course contentsThe course contents are divided into 32 lectures or sessions.They are sequenced logically, thus each session leads towards the next.Most of the sessions are complete and independent in themselves. However, since some topics can not be covered in one session, they are extended to two or three sessions. In case a session is a continuation of the previous session/s it is mentioned clearly at the outset of the session.Pattern followed in the sessionsAlmost the same pattern of presentation is followed in each session. The topic is introduced, defined and explained at the outset of the lecture. Its significance is addresses. Then the contents of covered under the topic are broken into small pieces of information to be shared. This break down of the session is shared at the beginning of the session. Almost each session has exercises and activities that are included to give the students some hands on practice. Review of the session is presented at the end.
5Preview of the Session Study Skills What are study skills? Study Skills: A Wider PerspectiveWhy the development of study skills is important?Study Skills for Distance LearnersRole of Study Skills in Distance LearningKnowing yourself as a distance learnerWhat do You Generally Find in Study Skills Courses/ Books?Your study Skills Course and its ContentsWhich study skills are important for you?What are different types of study skills?How to improve your distance learning study skills?
6Introduction to the Term Study Skills What are study skills?Study skills or study strategies are approaches applied to learning.They are generally critical to academic successStudy skills are generally considered essential for acquiring good grades, and useful for learning in academic as well as other contexts.There is a wide range of study skills, which are involved in the process of organizing and taking in new information, retaining information, or dealing with assessments.In today’s academic context, unlike the traditional approach, these study skills are not left up to the student. Rather these skills are increasingly taught in schools, colleges and universities.A number of books, materials, websites and other resources are available ranging from specific techniques to general guide lines to successful study.
7What are study skills?Historical contextRoots in Psychology
8Study Skills: A Wider Perspective In a broader sense any skill which enables, helps or boosts a person's ability to study and pass exams can be termed a study skill.This implies that study skills include a wide range of array from time management to stress management, language skills to efficient use of memory, vocabulary development to presentation skills.Study Skills are distinct techniques that can be learned, usually in a short time.Study skills are and can be applied to almost all fields of study, irrespective of which subject or course you are studying.Thus, study skills are to be distinguished from strategies that are specific to a particular field of study.
9Study Skills and Distance Learning The trend of Distance Learning is increasing day by day.
12Study Skills for Distance Learners Study skills for distance learners are very similar to those for classroom learners. Students often take courses through distance education because of the flexibility it offers. As a distance student you may have an extra challenge because you are often juggling your courses, plus other responsibilities such as work and family.
16What do You Generally Find in Study Skills Courses/ Books? Study Skills Strategies : Your Guide to Critical Thinking by Lengefeld, Uelaine Crisp, Michael Mapson, Ralph. Course Technology Crisp 1994TIME CONTROLNOTE TAKING TECHNIQUESCRITICAL READING SKILLSMEMORY TRAININGEXAM STRATEGIESMATHEMATICS STUDY SKILLSRegis Study Skills Guide by Walsh, Frank Reisig, Chris, International Debate Education Association 2008Environment and Concentration in StudyOrganizing TimeReading Speed and ComprehensionVocabulary and SpellingMemory of Details and Factual InformationTaking NotesParticipating in Class DiscussionsTaking TestsWriting Papers and EssaysUsing Advisors and Counselors
17Study Skills Guide : Essential Strategies for Smart Students by Forsyth, Patrick Connelly, Mark Connelly, Jacqueline, Kogan Page Ltd. 2010Managing your timeEffective studyInformation gathering and absorptionAnalysisGetting support from academic staff and othersThe written word: making it work for youPresenting successfullyStudying at a Distance : A Guide for Students (2nd Edition) by Talbot, Christine J. , Open University Press, 2007Preparing for distance learningKnow yourself as a learnerPracticalities of studyingGetting supportE-learningResources for studyingReading and note-makingEssays and written examinationsOther forms of learning and assessmentDoing a research project
18Types of study skills Study skills based on memorization Study skills based on memorization use rehearsal and rote learningOne of the most basic approaches to learning any information is simply to repeat it by rote. Typically this will include reading over notes or a textbook, and re-writing notes.Source: Adapted from www. wikipidea
19Cont… Study skills based on Communication skills Study skills based on Communication skills include reading and listening skills etc.The weakness with rote learning is that it implies a passive reading or listening style. Educators such as John Dewey have argued that students need to learn critical thinking - questioning and weighing up evidence as they learn. This is done through lectures or reading.
20Cont… Study skills based on Methods based visual Aids Flash Cards are visual cues on cards. These have numerous uses in teaching and learning, but can be used for revision. Students often make their own flash cards, or more detailed index cards - cards designed for filing, often A5 size, on which short summaries are written. Being discrete and separate, they have the advantage of allowing students to re-order them, pick a selection to read over, or choose randomly for self-testing.
21Study skills based on condensing information Study skills based on condensing information use summarizing and the use of keywords Summary methods vary depending on the topic, but most involve condensing the large amount of information from a course or book into shorter notes. Often these notes are then condensed further into key facts.Organized summaries: Such as outlines showing keywords and definitions and relations, usually in a tree structure.Spider diagrams: Using spider diagrams or mind maps can be an effective way of linking concepts together. They can be useful for planning essays and essay responses in exams. These tools can give a visual summary of a topic that preserves its logical structure, with lines used to show how different parts link together.
22Cont… Study skills Methods based on Visual Imagery Some learners are thought to have a visual learning style, and will benefit greatly from taking information from their studies which is often heavily verbal, and using visual techniques to help encode and retain it in memory.Diagrams are often underrated tools. They can be used to bring all the information together and provide practice reorganizing what has been learned in order to produce something practical and useful. They can also aid the recall of information learned very quickly, particularly if the student made the diagram while studying the information. Pictures can then be transferred to flash cards that are very effective last minute revision tools rather than rereading any written material.
23Cont… Study Skills based on Examination Strategies The Black-Red-Green method (developed through the Royal Literary Fund) helps the student to ensure that every aspect of the question posed has been considered, both in exams and essays.The student underlines relevant parts of the question using three separate colors (or some equivalent). BLAck denotes 'BLAtant instructions', i.e. something that clearly must be done; a directive or obvious instruction. REd is a REference Point or REquired input of some kind, usually to do with definitions, terms, cited authors, theory, etc. (either explicitly referred to or strongly implied). GREen denotes GREmlins, which are subtle signals one might easily miss, or a ‘GREEN Light’ that gives a hint on how to proceed, or where to place the emphasis in answers.
24Cont… Study Skills based on Management and Organization Study Skills based on Time Management, Organization and Lifestyle ChangesOften, improvements to the effectiveness of study may be achieved through changes to things unrelated to the study material itself, such as time-management, boosting motivation and avoiding procrastination, and in improvements to sleep and diet.Time management in study sessions aims to ensure that activities that achieve the greatest benefit are given the greatest focus. A traffic lights system is a simple way of identifying the importance of information, highlighting or underlining information in colours:Green: topics to be studied first; important and also simpleAmber: topics to be studied next; important but time-consumingRed: lowest priority; complex and not vital.
25Course Contents 1. Introduction to Study Skills 2. Development of Listening Skill3. Development of Speaking Skill4. Development of Speaking Skill Part 2 Public Speaking5 Development of Reading Skill6. Development of Reading Skill Part 27 Skimming8 Scanning9 Reading Comprehension10 Reading Comprehension Part 211 Vocabulary Building12 Vocabulary Building Part 213 Vocabulary Building Part 314 Efficient use of Memory15 Introduction to Development of Writing16. Sentence Structure
26Cont… Course Contents 17 Sentence Connectors 18 Use of Articles 19 Punctuation20 Punctuation Part 221 Use of Prepositions22 Features of Academic Writing23 Features of Academic Writing Part 224 Features of Academic Writing Part 325 Sentence Transformation26 Paragraph Development27 Types of Paragraph28 Developing an Outline AND Using a Dictionary29. Notes Taking30 Presentation Skills31 Doing Research32 Managing Distance Learning
27Starting Work on Your Study Skills: Understanding Your Needs at the Outset
38Study Skill ChecklistRead each statement and consider how it applies to you. If it does apply to you, check Y. If it does not apply to you, check N. The purpose of this inventory is to find out about your own study habits and attitudes.1. Y__ N__ I spend too much time studying for what I am learning.2. Y__ N__ I usually spend hours cramming the night before an exam.3. Y__ N__ If I spend as much time on my social activities as I want to, I don't have enough time left to study, or when I study enough, I don't have time for a social life.4. Y__ N__ I usually try to study with the radio and TV turned on.5. Y__ N__ I can't sit and study for long periods of time without becoming tired or distracted.6. Y__ N__ My study notes are sometimes difficult to understand later.7. Y__ N__ I usually seem to get the wrong material into my notes.8. Y__ N__ I don't review my notes periodically throughout the semester in preparation for tests.9. Y__ N__ When I get to the end of a chapter, I can't remember what I've just read.
39Cont… Study Skill Checklist 10. Y__ N__ I don't know how to pick out what is important in the text.11. Y__ N__ I can't keep up with my reading assignments, and then I have to cram the night before a test.12.Y__ N__ I lose a lot of points on essay tests even when I know the material well.13. Y__ N__ I study enough for my test, but when I get there my mind goes blank.14. Y__ N__ I often study in a haphazard, disorganized way under the threat of the next test.15. Y__ N__ I often find myself getting lost in the details of reading and have trouble identifying the main ideas.16. Y__ N__ I rarely change my reading speed in response to the difficulty level of the selection, or my familiarity with the content.17. Y__ N__ I often wish that I could read faster.18. Y__ N__ When my teachers assign papers I feel so overwhelmed that I can't get started.19. Y__ N__ I usually write my papers the night before they are due.20. Y__ N__ I can't seem to organize my thoughts into a paper that makes sense.
40Cont… Study Skill Checklist If you have answered "yes" to two or more questions in any category, it means you need to work seriously on that area If you have one or no "yes" in a category, you are probably proficient enough in these areas but you can always improve.Time Scheduling - 1, 2, and 3.Concentration - 4, and 5.Listening & Note taking – 6,7, and 8.Reading – 9, 10, and 11.Exams – 12, 13, 14, and 15.Reading – 15, 16, and 17.Writing Skills – 18, 19, and 20.Adapted from:
41Getting Started: making your schedule The value of a scheduleBefore you even begin to think about the process of studying, you must develop a schedule. If you don't have a schedule or plan for studying, then you will not have any way of allocating your valuable time when the unexpected comes up. A good, well thought out schedule can be a lifesaver. It's up to you to learn how to develop a schedule that meets your needs, revise it if necessary, and most important, follow it.A schedule saves timeAll schedules should be made with the idea that they can be revised. A good schedule keeps you from wandering off course. A good schedule, if properly managed, assigns time where time is needed, but you've got to want to do it!
42Cont… Getting Started: making your schedule Making every hour countA schedule should take into account every class, laboratory, lecture, social event, and other work in which you engage. There are givens such as classes and so on that have to be incorporated. You must focus on the other "free time" available and how you will use it. Make a weekly schedule and block off the 24 hour day in one hour increments. Indicate times for study, lectures, social, and work time. Also block off a period for sleeping each day. With what is left over, plan time for study. This gives you a rough road map of the time available. Of course, you can revise your schedule as circumstances warrant.When to studyThe problem of when to study is critical. A good rule of thumb is that studying should be carried out only when you are rested, alert, and have planned for it. Last minute studying just before an exam is usually a waste of time.
43Cont… Getting Started: making your schedule Revising a scheduleDon't be afraid to revise your schedule. Schedules are really plans for how you intend to use your time. If your schedule doesn't work, revise it. You must understand that your schedule is to help you develop good study habits. Once you have developed them, schedule building becomes easier.Adapted from:
44Study SpaceYour study space should be as quiet and comfortable as possible. Avoid studying in noisy places such as cafeterias, recreation rooms, or lounges.When studying, keep a waste basket handy.Have a consistent place for everything, and above all, keep it there!Have everything needed for studying handy beforehand. Don't waste valuable time looking for books, notes, of other information. After you have assembled the items you need, put them where you can reach them easily.
45Suggestions to help you improve your distance learning skills Here are some suggestions to help you improve your distance learning skills:1. Your motivationAs a distance student you’ll need to be a self-directed learner. To ensure that you can do this, you need to be highly motivated. The best way to stay sharp is to have a clear goal in mind for what you want to achieve through your education. If you are working toward a degree, your goal may be to finish your degree and change careers.2Your TimeTime-management skills are essential in distance learning. Before signing up for your distance course, ensure you have enough time to spend on the course. A general rule is to allow two hours of study for every hour of class. For example, if you have 2 hours of class time a week, you should plan to spend about 4 hours studying, approximately 6 hours per week. Once you know how much time you need to spend, create a schedule.
46Cont… Suggestions to help you improve your distance learning skills 3. Your TargetA good way to stay successful is to set goals. The more you do now, the easier it will be at the end. Break large pieces of work into small pieces. It will make life easier.4. Knowing your materialOne great advantage of distance courses is that you are able to view and review your courses and materials.
47Review of the Session Study Skills What are study skills? Study Skills: A Wider PerspectiveWhy the development of study skills is important?Study Skills for Distance LearnersRole of Study Skills in Distance LearningKnowing yourself as a distance learnerWhat do You Generally Find in Study Skills Courses/ Books?Your study Skills Course and its ContentsWhich study skills are important for you?What are different types of study skills?How to improve your distance learning study skills?