Why we need RtI What RtI is and isn’t 5 essential components of RtI What RtI could look like at iMiddle
RtI is likely the single best opportunity we have had to improve education for ALL students. RtI was developed in public schools, not in the research literature. RtI works. It makes a huge difference in learning. RtI reflects much of what we all know about reality: in any group of students within our school, instructional needs will vary. It is required by SDUSD.
In 2006, SDUSD contracted with Thomas Hehir and Associates to conduct an overview of the special education service delivery system. Thomas Hehir served as director of the U.S. Department of Education's Office of Special Education Programs from 1993 to 1999. He was responsible for federal leadership in implementing the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA). After a 15 month comprehensive review of SDUSD, Thomas Hehir published a 30 page report. The report can be accessed at: http://old.sandi.net/depts/specialed/hehir_issues.pdf http://old.sandi.net/depts/specialed/hehir_issues.pdf
“The disproportionate identification of African American students and English language learners in SDUSD stems from the lack of systemic behavioral and academic interventions for students in general education settings.” “The lack of a response to intervention (RtI) system of academic and behavior supports in general education has resulted in special education becoming the default intervention for at-risk students. In summary, the SDUSD’s current system focuses on identification rather than prevention, and punishment rather than support.” “It is recommended that SDUSD develop a comprehensive Response to Intervention (RtI) program incorporated into a revised SST process with district-wide academic and behavioral interventions.”
RtI is a logical structure for allocating instructional resources efficiently and targeting them specifically to ALL student needs. RtI is a commitment to use the best findings from our current and emerging knowledge base (research) as we go about our instruction. RtI is a commitment to use a logical, decision- making framework to guide our instruction.
RtI is not an instructional program, a curriculum, a strategy, or an intervention. RtI is not an educational revolution or fad. RtI is not a “new initiative,” “bright idea,” or “reform.” RtI is not a panacea. It will not wash the dishes or mow the lawn. RtI is not special education.
1.High-quality, scientifically based classroom instruction. All students receive high-quality, research- based instruction in the general education classroom. 2.Tiered instruction. A multi-tier approach is used to efficiently differentiate instruction for all students. The model incorporates increasing intensities of instruction offering specific, research- based interventions matched to student needs. 3.Problem solving. Problem solving is an ongoing process that utilizes a data based decision making approach to define school, grade level, class, and/or student progress. The problem solving team then analyzes the concerns, develops and implements appropriate interventions, monitors progress, graphs the results, and evaluates the outcomes. 4.Ongoing student assessment. Universal screening and progress monitoring provide information about a student’s learning rate and level of achievement, both individually and in comparison with the peer group. These data are then used when determining which students need closer monitoring or intervention. Throughout the RtI process, student progress is monitored frequently to examine student achievement and gauge the effectiveness of the curriculum. Decisions made regarding students’ instructional needs are based on multiple data points taken in context over time. 5.Parent involvement. Schools implementing RtI will frequently provide parents information about their child’s progress, the instruction and interventions used, the staff delivering the instruction, and the academic or behavioral goals for their child.
Personal Supports Instructional and Assistive Technology Curriculum Accommodations And Modifications
Co-teachers Paraeducators Related Service Providers such as School Psychologists, Mental Health Intervention Team, Speech Language Pathologists, Occupational Therapists, English Learner Support Teachers, etc. Natural classroom supports such as partner work, cooperative learning groups, and cues from other students Direct instruction in an on-site Learning Center Direct instruction in a support class Tutors
Computer access CAI software such as Learning Upgrade, Read 180, System 44, We All Can Read, FASTT Math, Fraction Nation Comprehensive reading, writing, and learning software such as Kurzweil Text to voice and voice to text such as Dragon Naturally Speaking Web mapping software such as Inspiration or Writer’s Companion Reader Software such as (free) Microsoft Reader and Natural Reader Audio Books and eBooks through sources like Bookshare Word prediction software such as Co-writer
Knowing that <20% of students are auditory learners, we differentiate instruction Gather facts about the students: strengths, interests, learning style(s), background, goals, etc. Look at content demands (what students need to learn), process demands (how they learn it), and product demands (how they show what they’ve learned) for each student Approach instruction with a Universal Design for Learning: curriculum should be designed from the outset to accommodate all kinds of learners
Academic Systems 5-10% 10-15% Tier 3: Intensive, Individual Interventions Individual students Intense, Prolonged Intervention Intensive literacy/math programs & classes Tier 3: Intensive, Individual Interventions Individual students Intense, Prolonged Interventions Individual counseling; home visits; mental heath support; behavior contracts Tier 2: Targeted Group Interventions Some students (at-risk) Standard protocol interventions In-class small group instruction Support classes for students up to 2 grades below grade level Tier 2: Targeted Group Interventions Some students (at-risk) Counseling groups; mentoring; use of student contracts; regular monitoring; parent groups 80-85% Tier 1: Universal Interventions All subjects, all students Preventive, proactive Data driven instruction Collaboration with site experts Universal Design for Learning approach Tier 1: Universal Interventions All settings, all students School-wide PBIS Preventive, proactive Effective classroom management Teachers model and explicitly teach behaviors 80-85% Behavioral Systems
Don’t we already have a tiered system: general education, Title I, and special education? In the past we have organized our resources by categorical program or funding stream (Title I, special education, English language learners, gifted and talented, etc.). In the RtI tiered system, resources are not allocated based on broad generalities like economic condition or the catch-all “learning disability.” They are allocated and specifically matched to exact needs that students have demonstrated based on their performance on efficient diagnostic assessments.
The majority of students in a school should be experiencing academic and behavioral success at Tier 1. Tier 2 is designed to supplement, support, and enhance Tier 1 instruction/intervention rather than replace it. In Tier 3, students receive a greater degree of intensive interventions (frequency, duration, and/or teacher-student ratio).
Within RTI, a problem-solving approach is used to individually tailor an intervention. It typically has four stages: problem identification problem analysis plan implementation plan evaluation
DEFINE THE PROBLEM Is there a problem? What is it? DEVELOP A PLAN What should we do about it? EVALUATE Did our plan work? ANALYZE Why is it happening?
Who? Student assessment and grouping When? Scheduling What? Intervention matched to student needs How long? Time frame How much? Costs Is it happening? Supervision Is it working? Progress monitoring
Tier 1 End of chapter tests Writing samples Benchmarks Work samples Tier 2 and Tier 3 Curriculum Based Measurements tied to student’s goal(s) High quality tools such as DIBELS
Tier I and Tier II Parents should be informed about their child’s progress and any appropriate proposed interventions. Tier III, and at times at Tier II Parents or guardians should be partners in developing an intervention plan. Parents can provide valuable information about their child’s learning, experiences, difficulties and strength, and have an opportunity to ask questions about their child’s progress. Special care must be taken to inform parents or guardians about the steps in the process to ensure engagement.
It’s what we’ve been doing at iMiddle with our own resources. PLCs who support: students, each other, interactive instructional practices, and technology to support instruction. Grade level teams who further provide flexibility and ownership of students. An ILT who is willing to tackle tough issues and focus on student achievement for all.
A structured format for problem solving. Knowledge of and access to a range of scientifically based interventions that address common reasons for school failure. The ability and access to use various methods of assessment to monitor student progress in academic and behavioral areas. The logistics of reorganizing resources: who will do it and when?
Screen Students Problem Solve Involve Parents Provide Interventions Monitor Progress Reorganize Resources
CST Benchmarks GMRT ARI Brigance Math Cumulative Review At, Above, or Close To Grade Level Below Basic or Far Below Basic PLCs and GLTs determine Tier 1 Supports and/or Interventions Students are placed on a possible at-risk Watch List Universal Screening (Level 1)
PLCs and GLTs monitor students: End of chapter tests Writing samples Benchmarks Work samples Behavior At, Above, or Close To Grade Level Determine Area of Need Tier 1 Supports PLC and/or GLT creates RtI problem Solving Team Universal Screening (Level 2)
Teacher and/or PLC determines area of need Academic or Behavioral More than 20% of class exhibit same problem One or a few students exhibit the problem Teacher and/or PLC determines Tier 1 Interventions Teacher creates a Tier 2 Request for Assistance RtI Tier 1 Problem Solving
Teacher brings Request(s) for Assistance to Grade Level Team Meeting Problem unique to one class Others see the same problem PLC identifies RtI problem solving team GLT identifies RtI problem solving team RtI Tier 2 Problem Solving
RtI Problem Solving Team identifies interventions, who will provide them, when, where, for how long, and who will monitor them. Tier 2 interventions successful Tier 2 interventions not successful Continue Tier 1 and possibly Tier 2 interventions Consider Tier 3 intensive interventions RtI Tier 2 Targeted Instruction
Dedicate PLC meeting time to define class progress, screening methods, analyze concerns, and determine an RtI team to develop and implement interventions and monitor progress. Dedicate Grade Level meeting time to define student and grade level progress, screening methods, analyze concerns, and determine an RtI team to develop and implement interventions and monitor progress. Dedicate ILT meeting time to define school-wide progress, analyze concerns, and develop a school plan for instructional improvement and monitor progress on the plan.
Tier 1 Parent Connect Blackboard calls iMiddle Website and ConnectED Open houses and assemblies Tier 2 and Tier 3 Speed conferences Parent-teacher conferences Individual conferences
High quality research based instruction by highly qualified teachers Co-teaching model (Content Expert and Differentiation Expert) Natural classroom supports such as partner work, cooperative learning groups, and cues from other students Access to grade level material through technology such as audio books and Kurzweil Previewing strategies such as advance reading of titles, graphics, headings, and key words or ideas in a passage Modeling "think aloud" strategies Advance organizers or semantic maps to help students organize, understand, and remember the content Strategic grouping (start with their learning style, choose one other) Explicitly taught and consistent classroom expectations Mini lessons on skill deficits Character education
In-class small group instruction with general education teacher or intervention team member Cross-grade or cross-classroom grouping (homogeneous and flexible) Additional literacy and/or math instruction via support classes Computer based instruction Lunchtime and after school tutoring Behavior strategies such as: counseling groups social skills class mentoring programs parent groups student behavior contracts regular monitoring
On-site Learning Centers for reading, written language, and math Individual or small group instruction and/or practice with intervention team member Functional Behavior Assessment Behavior Intervention Plan Individual Counseling
Use EXCEED Student Achievement Manager (district-provided software) https://exceed.sandi.net/Exceed/exceed.html# Receive training (on-site by iMiddle staff) Trial run with one or more students this year place one student on your "watchlist“ experiment with one intervention plan for that watchlist student. Go live in 2011-2012
ProcessResources Screen1.VP or Office staff can run Data Director reports 2.VP, Ed Specialist, Paraeducator, SLP, School Psych, or ELL Resource Teacher can assess students without Standardized test results Problem Solve1.PLC and GLT meetings are dedicated to problem solving and identifying RtI team members 2.Admin also provides release time for RtI teams to meet (regularly or as needed) Provide Interventions and ongoing assessments 1.Ed Specialists in the classroom and teaching learning center classes 2.Paraeducators in the classroom 3.Related providers in and outside of the classroom (SLP, OT, School Psych, MHIT, School Counselor) 4.General education teachers arrange cross-class groupings 5.Principal and Vice Principal in and outside of the classroom Monitor progress1.SURGE is a “homeroom” for students to complete work. a.Time for teachers to review and enter RtI data into Exceed software. b.SURGE RtI groups are not conducted by classroom teachers. c.Students are pulled for Tier II and Tier III group or individual interventions that are not provided in the classroom or as an elective. d.Social skills taught as a Tier II intervention. e.Character education is taught throughout the school day. f.iMiddle News/Announcements once a week.
A structured format for problem solving. Dedicated time for PLCs, GLTs, ILT meetings, where RtI teams are created. Knowledge of and access to a range of scientifically based interventions that address common reasons for school failure. Some will be district-provided; some will be site-provided. District interventions will be available in September. The ability and access to use various methods of assessment to monitor student progress in academic and behavioral areas. District-wide software, Exceed RtI, will go live in September. iMiddle is a pilot school, and can use it on a small scale before it is rolled out. The logistics of reorganizing resources: who will do it and when? RtI teams will determine who will problem solve and monitor. ILT will determine infrastructure and scheduling.
RtI works. It’s not a fad. RtI is what we intuitively do anyway. It provides the logical system to guide instruction. RtI is based on student needs rather than student labels or funding sources. It is flexible and different at every site. Our district is evaluating and will provide interventions. SDUSD is providing RtI software for all schools effective September, 2011. Data will transfer with the student. Our district supports and expects RtI.