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Second War for Independence

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1 Second War for Independence

2 War of 1812 No burning national anger at outset
Country divided over the battle Yet outcome is renewed sense of nationalism Also results in Protective manufacturing and road building

3 Canada Army was ill-prepared and consisted of old Revolutionary War vets. Lost many land battles, then tried their success on the water Battled on the Great Lakes Oliver Hazard Perry-Lake Erie Battle of Thames October 1813 Lost support of France due to Napoleon’s exile

4 Washington is Burning! 4,000 Redcoats advanced on Washington August 1814 Set fire to the Capitol and the White House Americans did not allow the capture of Ft. McHenry Francis Scott Key- Star Spangled Banner

5 New Orleans British attack in 1814
Jackson pleas with governor of LA. to enlist his free blacks to battle the British (extends them equal rights and privileges) 7,000 Sailors, regulars, pirates, Frenchmen 400 Free Blacks vs. 8,000 British vets. Jan killed 2000 British in 1st half hour Compared to 70 Americans

6 Treaty of Ghent Mediated by Tsar Alexander I of Russia
Wanted to keep their British allies against Napoleon British wanted neutralize Indian buffer state in Great Lakes region. Americans flat refuse and Britain retreats due to European Conflicts Treaty was an armistice both sides stopped fighting and gave back their conquered territories

7 Federalists and Hartford Convention
New England prospers during conflict Illicit trade with enemy in Canada Some want a separate treaty with New England “Blue Light” Federalists Dec 1814-Jan 1815 Hartford Convention-before New Orleans victory Massachusetts, Connecticut, Rhode Island, Vermont, New Hampshire Demand financial assistance from Washington for loss of trade Want 2/3 vote before an Embargo, War, or New State admitted

8 Continued Demands of Hartford
Want to abolish 3/5 compromise due to Fear of falling to agrarian South and West Prohibit the election of two successive presidents from the same state ( Virginia Dynasty) Arrive in torched Washington same time as News of victory from New Orleans End of the Federalists- nominate last candidate but was defeated by James Monroe Jeffersonian Embargo and war effort continued to support New England’s ideas of Nullification and secession

9 Second War for Independence
War of 1812 won Americans great respect and recognition Sectionalism identified with New England Main casualty of war- Federalists War heroes emerged- later become Presidents Jackson Harrison Indians give up lands in the North of Ohio River Canada feels betrayed 1817 Rush-Bagot Agreement (Brit and US) Limited naval armament on lakes Largest unfortified boundary 5,527 miles

10 Nascent Nationalism International renown writers
Washington Irving James Fenimore Copper School Books written by Americans not British Bank of US 1816 voted by congress Army expands to 10,000 and Navy continues being dominant (Africa and Mediterranean)

11 American System Manufacturing became nationalized
Self-Imposed Embargoes led to American made products 1815 British had an oversupply of goods and wanted to dump them on Americans Sold at low prices in order to hurt the infant American businesses Congress passes Tariff of % used to protect business

12 Henry Clay’s 3 Part Plan 1. Strong Bank System 2.Protective tariff
Provide abundant credit 2.Protective tariff Eastern manufacturing will flourish 3.Network of roads and canals Especially in Ohio Valley and West Leading to flow of food and raw materials with return of manufactured products Wanted $1.5 Mil to be spent on road construction President Madison vetoes this and leaves it up to the states to build on their own Erie Canal (New York 1825)

13 New England’s Fear of Roads!
Does not want a federal intrastate program Roads and Canals would lead to: Population drain Creation of competing states

14 Era of Good Feelings???? 1816 James Monroe (R) elected-continued Virginia Dynasty Not a “showy” president, but welcomed in all parts of the country he visited- Boston newspapers labeled it the “Era of Good Feelings” Hot Issues on the Back Burner Tariffs The Bank Internal Improvements Sale of public lands Sectionalism

15 Panic of 1819- Hard Times Paralyzing Economic Panic
Deflation, depression, bankruptcies, unemployment, soup kitchens.. Sound Familiar?? Reasons: Over speculation of frontier lands in the west by government “outdoor gambling” Poor classes imprisoned for debt Mothers torn from children for a few dollars Remedial legislation in increasing states

16 Growing Pains of the West
9 Westward States join the 13 from Maintain North/South sectional balance Why this explosive expansion? Continuation of older generations westward expansion Cheap land “Ohio Fever” for European Immigrants Land exhaustion in tobacco states Small down payments accepted by Glib speculators Defeat of Indians in Northwest/South by Jackson/Harrison Building of Highways- Cumberland Rd Maryland-Illinois Use of Steamboats 1811 – upstream navigation

17 Minuses of the West Weak in population and political influence
Forced to ally with other sections Land Act of 1820 80 Acres for $1.25/acre Cheap transportation Cheap Money “wildcat” banks

18 Slavery and the Sectional Balance
Missouri becoming a state Congress wanted to use as a Slave state House of Representatives passed the Tallmadge amendment No more slaves Children born to slaves are free Pushed by Federalists to hurt the “Virginia Dynasty” Northerners dominated House of Reps. Senate had 2 reps from each state and at this moment 11 slave and 11 free- Missouri would upset balance Northerners argued against this “peculiar institution”

19 Missouri Compromise Henry Clay..once again interjects
1. Missouri admitted as slave state 2. Maine becomes its own free state separate of Mass. 3. Future bondage prohibited in the remainder of the Louisiana Purchase north of the southern boundary of Missouri No real solution to the “peculiar institution” Slavery was not desired in prairie lands in the north Monroe re-elected almost unanimously- got all but 1 vote

20 John Marshall and Judicial Nationalism
McCullough v. Maryland 1819 Maryland tried to destroy bank with taxes on notes Bank is constitutional by implied powers Denied the right of Maryland to tax the bank “The power to tax involves the power to destroy” “that a power to create implies a power to preserve” Increasing federal authority “Intended to endure for the ages to come and, consequently to be adapted to the various crises of human affairs” “let the end be legitimate”

21 John Marshall continued…
Cohens v Virginia 1821 Supreme Court has the right to review state supreme court decisions on federal government matters (loto tix) Gibbons v Ogden 1824 New York to grant steamboat monopoly between NY and NJ. Constitution conferred on Congress alone for Interstate Commerce Another blow at State Rights!!!

22 Marshall kicking states in the face
Fletcher v Park 1810 Georgia grants 35 mil acres to private speculators Angry public tried to get legislature to cancel the illegal transaction Marshall interjects and rules that “Constitution forbids state laws “impairing” contracts” no matter how fraudulent Dartmouth v Woodward 1819 Granted as a charter by King George III in 1769; New Hampshire wanted it changed Marshall rushes in and says byahh!! Or “Constitution protected contracts against state encroachments”

23 Oregon and The Sunshine State
Monroe and Secretary of State JQA come up with Treaty of Britain and US share the territory in Oregon country for 10 years Wrath of Jackson US had West Florida already then grabbed Mobile and ratified it by 1812 Many revolutions took place in South America and Spain was pre-occupied Jackson took this chance to search for runaway slaves and Seminole Indians in Spanish Florida 1818 Jackson hung 2 Indian chiefs, then 2 British subjects and almost the Spanish governor

24 Florida Purchase Treaty of 1819
Monroe and his cabinet wanted to stop/punish Jackson JQA did not, actually wanted concessions from Spain Spain gave up Florida and Oregon as long as they kept Texas….(until we again take more land from them…)

25 Menace of Monarchy in America
After Napoleon we have the Congress of Vienna: Russia, Austria, Prussia and France They are trying to go back to the good ol days of despots and want to stop democracy. Specifically by restoring the revolted colonies in South America America is endangered due to proximity Russian Bear barreling South from Alaska mainly occupying from British Columbia to San Francisco Bay August 1823 British foreign secretary Canning meets with American minister in joining forces against Europe

In December 1823, in a message to Congress, Monroe set forth the following principles, which would later become known as the Monroe Doctrine: The Western Hemisphere was no longer open for colonization The political system of the Americas was different from Europe The United States would regard any interference in Western hemispheric affairs as a threat to its security The United States would refrain from participation in European wars and would not disturb existing colonies in the Western Hemisphere

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