Presentation on theme: "The Road to Revolution, 1763-1775 Theme: Tension between the colonies and Britain centered around the issues of mercantilism and its implementation. The."— Presentation transcript:
The Road to Revolution, 1763-1775 Theme: Tension between the colonies and Britain centered around the issues of mercantilism and its implementation. The British Empire attempted to more strictly enforce laws aimed at maintaining a system of mercantilism while colonists objects to this change from the earlier “salutary neglect.” Theme: The American Revolution occurred between the American colonists, who had long been developing a strong sense of autonomy and self-government, furiously resisted British attempts to impose tighter imperial controls and higher taxes after the end of the French and Indian War in 1763. The sustained conflict over political authority and taxation, enhanced by American agitators and British bungling, gradually moved Americans from asserting rights within the British Empire to openly warring with the mother country. Theme: At the outset of the Revolutionary War, Britain appeared to be a mighty empire, but it was weaker than it seemed at first glance. Poor leadership in London along with second- rate generals in the colonies reduced the impact of the larger British population and its naval supremacy. Americans, on the other hand, had many advantages such as George Washington’s leadership and fighting a defensive war. However, the colonists also faced disorganization, jealousy, and economic difficulties.
I. Imperial Controls A.British Colonial Policy, pre-1763 1.Economic Policy: Unregulated Mercantilism a.Navigation Acts, 1650 2.Political Policy: Decentralized government a.Royal Veto used sparingly b.Whig influence B.British Colonial Policy, post-1763 1.Economic Policy: Regulated Mercantilism a.Restricted lax bankruptcy laws b.Sugar Act raised but lowered c.Currency Act addressed currency crisis d.Quartering Act to house troops 2.Political Policy: Centralized government a.Royal veto (used sparingly 469/8563) b.Virtual representation
II. Crisis in Colonies A.Stamp Act, 1765 1.Purpose: Raise revenue to pay for troop deployment a. Admiralty courts 2.Colonial Reaction a.Legislation v. taxation b.Stamp Act Congress c.Nonimportation of British goods d.Sons and Daughters of Liberty 3.British Reaction a.Declaratory Act B.Townsend Acts, 1767 1.Colonial Reactions a.Boston Massacre, 1770 b.Gaspee Incident, 1771 c.Committee of Correspondence, 1772
II. Crisis in Colonies (cont.) C.Tea Act, 1773 and Boston Tea Party 1.British Response a.Intolerable (Coersive Acts), 1773 -Boston Port Act -MA Government Act -Administration of Justice Act -Boston Quartering Act b.Quebec Act, 1773 2.Colonial Response a.Continental Congress, 1774 -Declaration of Rights and Resolves -The Association b.Colonial Militias c.Lexington, April 20, 1775 d.Concord (273 v. 95)
Great Britain by 1775 STRENGTHS Pop favored GB (7.5 to 2.5) GB had more $ Slaves joined GB Indians joined GB GB had 50,000 army GB hired 30,000 army GB enlisted 50,000 Loyalists WEAKNESSES Overcome enormous distances America too large Poor leadership GB had to win Ireland & France Whigs cheering American victory
American Colonies by 1775 STRENGTHS Outstanding leadership $ from France Military aid from France Defensive war Agriculturally self- sustaining Better marksman Moral advantage WEAKNESSES Badly organized Colonial rivalry Economic difficulties Military problems Low morale in Revolutionary Army Greed among profiteers Only select few truly committed
Memory Aid Pretty Silly Tammy Baked Tea Cookies Inside Freshly Layered Spicy Dough
Matching Cause and Effect Cause 1.America’s distance from Britain and the growth of colonial self-government 2.British mercantilism 3.The large British debt incurred defending the colonies in the French and Indian War 4.Passage of the Stamp Act 5.British troops sent to enforce order in Boston 6.The British government’s attempt to maintain the East India Company’s tea monopoly 7.The Boston Tea Party 8.The Intolerable Acts 9.A British attempt to seize the colonial militia’s gunpowder supplies 10.The Continental Congress’s reluctance to tax Americans for war Effect a.Prompted the summoning of the First Continental Congress b.Led Grenville to propose the Sugar Act, Quartering Act, and Stamp Act c.Precipitated the Battle of Lexington and Concord d.Fired on colonial citizens in the Boston Massacre e.Prompted passage of the Intolerable Acts, including the Boston Port Act f.Resulted in the printing of large amounts of paper currency and skyrocketing inflation g.Enforced restrictions on colonial manufacturing, trade, and paper currency h.Led to gradual development of a colonial snese of independence years before the Revolution i.Spurred patriots to stage Boston Tea Party j.Was greeted in the colonies by the nonimportation agreements, the Stamp Act Congress, and the forced resignation of stamp agents
Cause and Effect Answers 1.H 2.G 3.B 4.J 5.D 6.I 7.E 8.A 9.C 10.F
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