Presentation on theme: "Jordi Isern Institut de Ciències de l’Espai (CSIC-IEEC)"— Presentation transcript:
1Jordi Isern Institut de Ciències de l’Espai (CSIC-IEEC) MSc in Economics of Science & Innovation Innovation & Challenges: Nanotechnology & Space (4)LaunchersJordi IsernInstitut de Ciències de l’Espai(CSIC-IEEC)
2abcForces balanceA jet appearsNozzle improves the performance
3Change of momentum = impulse M·Δ v = F·ΔtChange of momentum = impulseM·Δ v /Δt = FM·a = FK = ½ Mv2The kinetic energy has to beprovided by somebodyConservation of linear momentum M·V = m·vLarger v, smaller mK increases quadratically with vNo universal solution!
4Chemical rocketsThe diference between a rocket and an aircraft jet is that the rocket has to carry out the fuel and the oxidizerThey are classified as liquid, solid and hybridsLiquid: cryogenic (i.e., liquid oxygen, liquid hydrogen) non-cryogenic (hydrogen peroxide, kerosene)Solid: they are usually a mixture fuel (i.e., polyuretane) and oxydizer (i.e., crystalline ammonium perchlorat)Monopropellants (a single chemical component or a mixture of two stable components) and bipropellants (two components stored in separate tanks.
5Liquid engines They provide an important force for a reasonable large time! The eshaust velocity is about 5 km/sUnder gravity conditions (Earth or acceleration) theyremain at the bottom of the tank but under zero-gdrops that float. A “piston” is necessary to push theliquid towards the outlet
6Solid rocketsThey provide a strong force in a short timeextremely useful during the launch timeThe eshaust velocity is about 1 km/sThe thrust depends on the shape of thecentral cavity
12Ariane success storyESA is responsible for the development of all Ariane launchers and for the production and testing facilities.Ariane maiden launch on Christmas eve 1979• To date (August 2006) 172 Ariane flights have launched satellites.Ariane Family• 1st generation, :Ariane 1 (11 flights), Ariane 2 (6 flights), Ariane 3 (11 flights)Modular Ariane 4 concept (116 flights, 113 successes).• 2nd generation, :Ariane 5 Generic (today’s workhorse)Ariane 5 ECA (qualified in 2005).
14Designed from the outset to meet the needs of the future launch market: • Increased GTO mission payload lift capability• Cost-effective dual launch of 3t class satellites or more• More economic• Launched from Europe’s Spaceport (CSG) in French Guiana.First qualification flight Ariane 5: 4 June 1996 (failure)Second qualification flight: 30 October 1997Third qualification flight: 21 October 1998Production/exploitation phase started in December with first Arianespace commercial flight.Ariane 5: a new launcher generationfor the new century.120 M$
16Ariane 5: architecture. VEHICLE EQUIPMENT BAY MAIN CRYOGENIC STAGE EPC FAIRINGSPELTRAAriane 5: architecture.ARIANE 5STORABLEPROPELLANTSTAGEVULCAINENGINESOLIDPROPELLANT STAGEEAP
17Ariane 5: missions Main Ariane 5 missions : DOUBLELAUNCHMain Ariane 5 missions :Launch of communications, Earth observation and scientific satellites on to Geostationary Transfer Orbit (GTO), High Earth Orbit (HEO), Sun-Synchronous Orbits (SSO).Launch of ATVs (Automated Transfer Vehicles) to service the International Space Station (Low Earth Orbit at 51,6° inclinaison).SINGLELAUNCHSPACESTATIONMISSIONSDevelopment of the Ariane 5 launcher, its production facilities and new launch site (ELA-3) in Kourou were financed by ESA.Near ELA-3, ESA has built manufacturing facilities for the solid propellant boosters.10/
18Expected price : 20 M$ Small launcher programs VEGA • Low Earth Orbit, Polar, Sun Synchronous Orbit• Lift capability: 1500 kg in 700 km Polar orbit• Launch from Europe’s spaceport (CSG) in French Guiana• Three solid stages P80, Zefiro 23, Zefiro 9• A liquid upper module (Avum) to improve accuracy, reach transfer orbit, circularize the orbit and perform the de-orbiting• Qualification flight in 2008.The P80 solid stage is designed to meet two objectives:• Develop an advanced technology first stage for Vega• Demonstrate technologies to improve Ariane 5 booster performances and competitiveness.Expected price : 20 M$
20Launched from Europe’s spaceport (CSG: Guiana Space Centre), in French Guiana as from 2008.LEO (Low Earth Orbit), Polar,SSO (Sun Synchronous Orbit) orbits (4.5 – 4.9 t),GTO ( Geostasionary Transfert orbit) orbit (2.7 – 3.1 t).Exclusive commercialisation by Arianespace which extends its launch service range to complement Ariane 5 and Vega.This Euro-Russian endeavour is part, alongside with a planned cooperation on future launchers, of an ESA-Rosaviakosmos agreement on cooperation and partnership in the field of launchers.Soyuz launched from the CSGTypical cost 35 M$
21Location: Sites: Launch capacity: Europe’s spaceport Advantages: • French Guiana, South America.Sites:• ELA (Ensemble de Lancement Ariane) - Ariane 5• ELV (Ensemble de Lancement Vega) - Vega (2008)• ELS (Ensemble de Lancement Soyuz) - Soyuz (2008)Launch capacity:• 8 Ar5 per year from ELA• 4 Vega per year from ELV• 4 Soyuz per year from ELSAdvantages:• Payload mass gain for geostationary satellites because of proximity to the equator• Launch to polar and geostationary orbits without overfly of populated aeras.Europe’s spaceport(CSG, Guiana Space Centre).
37It can only work in the void! Solar Sails#Radiation pressure atthe Earth orbit 10-5 Pa#It decreases as r2 but provides a continuous push#Technology of deployingsails is still under development#Membrane mirrorFirst attempt Cosmos 1 (21 june 2005)Launched from a Russian submarine, butthe Volna missile failedIt can only work in the void!