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Jordi Isern Institut de Ciències de l’Espai (CSIC-IEEC)

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Presentation on theme: "Jordi Isern Institut de Ciències de l’Espai (CSIC-IEEC)"— Presentation transcript:

1 Jordi Isern Institut de Ciències de l’Espai (CSIC-IEEC)
MSc in Economics of Science & Innovation Innovation & Challenges: Nanotechnology & Space (4) Launchers Jordi Isern Institut de Ciències de l’Espai (CSIC-IEEC)

2 a b c Forces balance A jet appears Nozzle improves the performance

3 Change of momentum = impulse
M·Δ v = F·Δt Change of momentum = impulse M·Δ v /Δt = F M·a = F K = ½ Mv2 The kinetic energy has to be provided by somebody Conservation of linear momentum M·V = m·v Larger v, smaller m K increases quadratically with v No universal solution!

4 Chemical rockets The diference between a rocket and an aircraft jet is that the rocket has to carry out the fuel and the oxidizer They are classified as liquid, solid and hybrids Liquid: cryogenic (i.e., liquid oxygen, liquid hydrogen) non-cryogenic (hydrogen peroxide, kerosene) Solid: they are usually a mixture fuel (i.e., polyuretane) and oxydizer (i.e., crystalline ammonium perchlorat) Monopropellants (a single chemical component or a mixture of two stable components) and bipropellants (two components stored in separate tanks.

5 Liquid engines They provide an important force for a reasonable
large time! The eshaust velocity is about 5 km/s Under gravity conditions (Earth or acceleration) they remain at the bottom of the tank but under zero-g drops that float. A “piston” is necessary to push the liquid towards the outlet

6 Solid rockets They provide a strong force in a short time extremely useful during the launch time The eshaust velocity is about 1 km/s The thrust depends on the shape of the central cavity

7 The Space Shuttle

8 Hybrid rockets Reliable Restarteble Efficient SpaceShip One (Virgin galactic)

9 Multistage rockets Each time a stage is removed the efficiency
improves Each stage can be adapted to the specic ambient and purpose Delta III with 9 solid rockets

10 Complementary Launch Capacity
VEGA MISSIONS Scientific Satellites Earth Observation Satellites Technology Satellites 10/

11 Europe’s Launchers fleet

12 Ariane success story ESA is responsible for the development of all Ariane launchers and for the production and testing facilities. Ariane maiden launch on Christmas eve 1979 • To date (August 2006) 172 Ariane flights have launched satellites. Ariane Family • 1st generation, : Ariane 1 (11 flights), Ariane 2 (6 flights), Ariane 3 (11 flights) Modular Ariane 4 concept (116 flights, 113 successes). • 2nd generation, : Ariane 5 Generic (today’s workhorse) Ariane 5 ECA (qualified in 2005).

13 Modular Ariane 4 (1986-2003) 40- 50 M$ -- 1.2 – 1.6 t 55- 65 2.0 - 2.5
65 – – 3 90 – Strap-on boosters: P: Solid propellant / L: Liquid propellant *Launch failure 10/

14 Designed from the outset to meet the needs of the future launch market:
• Increased GTO mission payload lift capability • Cost-effective dual launch of 3t class satellites or more • More economic • Launched from Europe’s Spaceport (CSG) in French Guiana. First qualification flight Ariane 5: 4 June 1996 (failure) Second qualification flight: 30 October 1997 Third qualification flight: 21 October 1998 Production/exploitation phase started in December with first Arianespace commercial flight. Ariane 5: a new launcher generation for the new century. 120 M$

15 Ariane 5: Architecture 10/


17 Ariane 5: missions Main Ariane 5 missions :
DOUBLE LAUNCH Main Ariane 5 missions : Launch of communications, Earth observation and scientific satellites on to Geostationary Transfer Orbit (GTO), High Earth Orbit (HEO), Sun-Synchronous Orbits (SSO). Launch of ATVs (Automated Transfer Vehicles) to service the International Space Station (Low Earth Orbit at 51,6° inclinaison). SINGLE LAUNCH SPACE STATION MISSIONS Development of the Ariane 5 launcher, its production facilities and new launch site (ELA-3) in Kourou were financed by ESA. Near ELA-3, ESA has built manufacturing facilities for the solid propellant boosters. 10/

18 Expected price : 20 M$ Small launcher programs VEGA
• Low Earth Orbit, Polar, Sun Synchronous Orbit • Lift capability: 1500 kg in 700 km Polar orbit • Launch from Europe’s spaceport (CSG) in French Guiana • Three solid stages P80, Zefiro 23, Zefiro 9 • A liquid upper module (Avum) to improve accuracy, reach transfer orbit, circularize the orbit and perform the de-orbiting • Qualification flight in 2008. The P80 solid stage is designed to meet two objectives: • Develop an advanced technology first stage for Vega • Demonstrate technologies to improve Ariane 5 booster performances and competitiveness. Expected price : 20 M$


20 Launched from Europe’s spaceport (CSG: Guiana Space Centre),
in French Guiana as from 2008. LEO (Low Earth Orbit), Polar, SSO (Sun Synchronous Orbit) orbits (4.5 – 4.9 t), GTO ( Geostasionary Transfert orbit) orbit (2.7 – 3.1 t). Exclusive commercialisation by Arianespace which extends its launch service range to complement Ariane 5 and Vega. This Euro-Russian endeavour is part, alongside with a planned cooperation on future launchers, of an ESA-Rosaviakosmos agreement on cooperation and partnership in the field of launchers. Soyuz launched from the CSG Typical cost 35 M$

21 Location: Sites: Launch capacity: Europe’s spaceport Advantages:
• French Guiana, South America. Sites: • ELA (Ensemble de Lancement Ariane) - Ariane 5 • ELV (Ensemble de Lancement Vega) - Vega (2008) • ELS (Ensemble de Lancement Soyuz) - Soyuz (2008) Launch capacity: • 8 Ar5 per year from ELA • 4 Vega per year from ELV • 4 Soyuz per year from ELS Advantages: • Payload mass gain for geostationary satellites because of proximity to the equator • Launch to polar and geostationary orbits without overfly of populated aeras. Europe’s spaceport (CSG, Guiana Space Centre).


23 Ares system

24 Zenit launch from the sea
Proton For many years launches at GSO for just 50 M$ but this is gone Zenit launch from the sea


26 India PSLV, 1600 kg, 30 M$ (1999 Polar synchronus orbit PSLV3

27 How to reduce costs? SpaceShipOne-WhiteKnight Pegasus

28 MIR STATION A spaceport is necessary!


30 Ionic Engines XIPS Deep Space NASA

31 Smart 1 ESA

32 10-12 m

33 VASIMIR (Variable Specific Impulse Magnetoplasma Rocket) Radiowaves to ionize plasma Magnetic field to accelerate the plasma

34 Nuclear propulsion

35 Matter antimatter propulsion


37 It can only work in the void!
Solar Sails #Radiation pressure at the Earth orbit 10-5 Pa #It decreases as r2 but provides a continuous push #Technology of deploying sails is still under development #Membrane mirror First attempt Cosmos 1 (21 june 2005) Launched from a Russian submarine, but the Volna missile failed It can only work in the void!

38 NASA 1 km wide

39 GUNS HARP: 180 km, 84 kg, $3000 shot

40 Project SHARP

41 The ramjet accelerator
They expect to put 2000 kg in a LEO for 500 $/kg instead of the conventional 5000 $/kg Improves if launched from a tall mountain! The main problem is the noise!


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