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School of Humanities First Year Tutor Training 2011 Ass Prof Jock Macleod (Head of School) Prof Keithia Wilson (National Fellow for the FYE) HUM FY Tutor.

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Presentation on theme: "School of Humanities First Year Tutor Training 2011 Ass Prof Jock Macleod (Head of School) Prof Keithia Wilson (National Fellow for the FYE) HUM FY Tutor."— Presentation transcript:

1 School of Humanities First Year Tutor Training 2011 Ass Prof Jock Macleod (Head of School) Prof Keithia Wilson (National Fellow for the FYE) HUM FY Tutor Training 2011

2 Session 1 ( ) Welcome & Introductions Place/Country Leaders/Facilitators Participants Task Process & Roles GBS Tutor Training 2011

3 Acknowledgment of Country In the Spirit of Reconciliation Following on from Sorry Day We acknowledge the Traditional Custodians of the land that we are meeting on today, and pay respect to their Elders past & present Our Nathan campus is situated on the lands of the Yuggera, the Yugarabul, the Jagera & the Turrbal Peoples Our Gold Coast campus is situated on the lands of the Kombumerri & the Yugambeh Peoples GBS Tutor Training 2011

4 Facilitators/Leaders & Participants Ass Prof Jock Macleod (Head of School) Prof Keithia Wilson (School of Psychology, 2010 National Fellow for the FYE, 2007 Australian University Teacher of the Year) Margaret Macleod, Assessment Consultant, First Year Enhancement Project School Tutor Development Coordinator Campus First Year Advisor School Course Convenors (academic staff) School Head Tutors (academic sessional staff) School Tutors (academic sessional staff) GBS Tutor Training 2011

5 Workshop Overview 1.Coffee on arrival; welcome and introductions ( ) 2.Brief overview of relevant admin issues and roles ( ) 3.Teaching for diversity and transition in the first year ( ) 4.Assessment issues ( ) Lunch arrives at 12.00; continue working over lunch 5. Facilitating and managing small group teaching (including problem- sharing, workshopping difficult scenarios) ( ) 6. Evaluating sessional teaching for professional development (ITRs; mid- semester review; SETs for tutors) & Workshop evaluation ( ) GBS Tutor Training 2011

6 Session 2 ( ) Overview of Admin issues & Roles GBS Tutor Training 2011

7 Griffith University context Large metropolitan university in Brisbane (1 of 7 in S-E Qld, & 1 of 4 in Brisbane, 1 of 2 at the Gold Coast) Large metropolitan university in Brisbane (1 of 7 in S-E Qld, & 1 of 4 in Brisbane, 1 of 2 at the Gold Coast) Multi-campus - 5 campuses x 60 k corridor Multi-campus - 5 campuses x 60 k corridor Student enrolment of 40,000 Student enrolment of 40,000 70% of students are first-in-family at uni 70% of students are first-in-family at uni 6 th largest low SES student intake in Australia (16%) 6 th largest low SES student intake in Australia (16%) 3 rd largest Indigenous student intake in Australia 3 rd largest Indigenous student intake in Australia 30% International student enrolment (e.g., China, Indonesia, India, Arab Emirates) mostly in Business Group 30% International student enrolment (e.g., China, Indonesia, India, Arab Emirates) mostly in Business Group GBS Tutor Training 2011

8 Key Resource for Tutors at Griffith You will all have a copy of the - Good Practice Framework for the Management and Development of Sessional Academic Teaching at Griffith (2010)  read at your leisure in your own time HUM FY Tutor Training 2011

9 The Tutor Role General role: Providing a quality learning experience to facilitate student engagement & success Providing opportunities for students to clarify & discuss course material & address their needs & concerns Enhancing students’ understanding of the lecture material (application of theory to practical skills and exercises) and course requirements Enhancing students’ understanding of the standards & requirements of all course assessment tasks Preparing students to undertake assessment tasks

10 Tutor Working Time  Meetings with the convenor/other tutors  Preparation for tutes  In class teaching  Student consultation  Marking & feedback to students

11 The Head Tutor (HT) Role Supporting tutors to provide a quality learning experience to facilitate student engagement & success Providing administrative duties to support course convenor May facilitate tutor meetings on a campus in place of the course coordinator on another campus Assisting with tutorial designs Collecting and collating any resource materials for the tutorials Assisting tutors to provide consistent information to students on all assessment tasks Assisting tutors to design processes to prepare students to undertake their assessment tasks Providing mentoring & problem-solving for the teaching team

12 The Course Convenor Role & responsibilities with their Teaching Team Guiding & supporting tutors to provide a quality learning experience to facilitate student engagement & success Organising tutor staff arrangements and ensuring their attendance at appropriate entry-level training and induction Clarifying the roles and responsibilities of tutors within the course Establishing strategies for maintaining contact with tutors and integrating them into the teaching team Leading, and coordinating the teaching activities of all members of their teaching team GBS Tutor Training 2011

13 The Course Convenor Role & responsibilities with their Teaching Team Arranging initial meetings of the teaching team to discuss the purpose of the course in the context of the program Conducting regular meetings of the teaching team to review curriculum issues, teaching practices and learning activities within the course (optimally every fortnight, minimum of 4 in a semester) Overseeing the process of teaching evaluations for all tutors in their teaching team Providing detailed criteria for each assessment item for student advising & marking Providing guidance to tutors re the type & quantity of feedback to be provided on assessment tasks Conducting a process for moderating all assessment marks GBS Tutor Training 2011

14 Meetings Your convenor will organise at least 4 meetings with tutorial teams during semester (see Good Practice Framework p.8) – 1.An initial orientation & team building meeting before teaching commences 2.A briefing meeting on assessment criteria & marking practices for each assessment item in advance of marking 3.A moderation meeting following marking of each assessment to ensure consistency & reliability of grades 4.A course evaluation & de-briefing meeting HUM FY Tutor Training 2011

15 The Tutor Development Coordinator (TDC) Role Prof Kay Ferres (Nathan & GC) Involved in training new tutors Mentoring new and experienced tutors – quality assurance Assists with formative evaluation of tutes (weeks 2 & 6) to ensure tutor quality & support Guidance with Professional Development along a teaching and learning pathway

16 The First Year Advisor (FYA) Role Student support Student Advocacy One stop shop for referral information Design, management and evaluation of the first year co-curricular activities (e.g. Orientation) Friendly face to connect students to services Helps with the transition of students into university Tutors can refer “at-risk”/struggling students to their FYA for assistance

17 Session 3 ( ) Teaching for Diversity & Transition in the First Year GBS Tutor Training 2011

18 Understanding the Current Context for the FYE FY Transition Practice Student Diversity Student Transition * Course Design * Course Delivery * Course Assessment

19 Understanding the Current Context for the FYE FY Transition Practice Student Diversity Student Transition * Course Design * Course Delivery * Course Assessment

20 Federal Gov’t reform agenda in Higher Education Aims to - Widen student participation in Higher Education – A FAIR GO! Increase the access of students from low SES & disadvantaged backgrounds to university (higher numbers - Target increase from 12% to 20% by 2012) Increase the success of students from low SES & disadvantaged backgrounds at university (higher retention) Moving from an elite model of HE (0-15% participation) to a mass model of HE (16-50%) (Trow, 2004) 25% participation of non-Indigenous Australians (50% USA) 1.3% of Indigenous Australians attend university GBS Tutor Training 2011

21 What is Student Diversity? Traditional Students (TS) medium-high SES higher entry levels second generation full-time on-campus Elite Model Non-Traditional Students (NTS) low SES background lower entry levels first-in-family to attend uni full-time & working limited time on-campus Indigenous NESB/ESL – International, refugee disability mature age with home care responsibilities rural/remote Mass Model

22 GBS Tutor Training 2011 What do we know about the profile of our Griffith Students? Compared to most other universities in Australia: Are more likely to be the ‘first in their family’ (FIF) to attend University * Brisbane = 70% approx * Logan = 80% approx * Gold Coast = 60% approx FIF correlates with low SES & lower entry scores/OPs More of our students work in paid employment & they work longer hours in paid employment than the national average(reality of low SES/FIF students paying their own way through uni) GU has the 6 th highest intake of low SES students nationally (16%) 50% of Qld Indigenous student enrolments (600 students in total across the university) – small numbers in Humanities 30% International student enrolment overall (making up to 60% of classes in Griffith Business School)

23 GBS Tutor Training 2011 Assumed entry level Knowledge First Year Attributes First Year Attributes students will acquire in their first year Discipline-specific First Year Attributes Generic First Year Attributes ASSUMED FY KNOWLEDGE= a firm foundation First Year Attributes Students bring to uni

24 GBS Tutor Training 2011 The reality of Assumed Knowledge First Year Attributes ASSUMED KNOWLEDGE Generic First Year Attributes Discipline-specific FY Attributes

25 Assumed Knowledge Two types – 1.Academic Skills – foundational to academic curriculum 2.Academic/Social/Cultural Capital – the “Hidden Curriculum” GBS Tutor Training 2011

26 What is assumed Knowledge? Academic Skills – The formal curriculum Information Literacy Computer Literacy Reading Skills Written Communication Numeracy Skills Critical thinking & analysis Independent Learning (self-regulation & self management)

27 Assisting students to develop self- regulation skills Study-work-social/family life balance & effective time management Providing reminders of upcoming assessment items Providing reminders for exam revision Providing reminders for milestones for tasks with no direct assessment component (readings, problem-solving exercises, reflective journals, computer tasks) Providing weekly/regular homework tasks assist the development of a study routine GBS Tutor Training 2011

28 What is assumed knowledge? Cultural/Social & Academic Capital – “The Hidden Curriculum” 1.Understanding student role expectations & appropriate & effective behaviour 2.Reading the academic context to accurately determine performance requirements re studying & assessment 3.Capacity for help-seeking without fear of negative labelling (dumb/stupid) 4.Sense of belonging & personal fit with university (overcome the “outsider within” phenomenon – “A stranger in a foreign land”)

29 Can Non-Traditional students be successful at university - the research evidence shows…. Despite low access rates, the success rate (or tendency to pass their year’s subjects) of low SES (non-traditional) students is 97% of the pass rates of their medium & high SES peers & has been stable over the last 7 years. (Bradley et al, 2008:30) However, this success rate is premised on the provision of a range of support systems GBS Tutor Training 2011

30 It’s not about ability - Non-Traditional students need support to succeed! Once students from disadvantaged backgrounds have entered university, the likelihood of them completing their course of study is broadly similar to that of the general higher education population. Often, however, they require higher levels of support to succeed, including financial assistance & greater academic support, mentoring & counselling services. (Transforming Australia’s Higher Education System, Commonwealth of Australia, 2009:14) GBS Tutor Training 2011

31 Therefore....implications of student diversity for our teaching practice Being aware of what we are assuming is entry level knowledge in our course content & assessment, checking this for accuracy, & being explicit with students about entry level knowledge assumptions Providing clear explanations of course material & assessment Being prepared to have multiple discussions about key concepts & especially about assessment tasks & standards Not assuming commencing students are independent, self- regulating learners but assisting them to develop these skills Creating a class culture that values diversity in all of its forms (age, gender, race, sexual orientation etc.)

32 Understanding the Current Context for the FYE FY Transition Practice Student Diversity Student Transition * Course Design * Course Delivery * Course Assessment

33 GBS Tutor Training 2011 The ‘Five-Senses’ of Student Success Lizzio (2006) Sense of Student Identity Sense of Connectedness Sense of Capability Sense of Purpose Sense of Resourcefulness

34 GBS Tutor Training 2011 STUDENT PROCESS : What do we know from research about success in first year? Students are more likely to succeed if they: Invest time on task  time spent studying each week is the strongest predictor Regularly attend lectures & tutorials  increased learning opportunities also a strong predictor Develop a social network at uni  knowing one person’s name is a protective factor against dropping out Have a clear goal or purpose for attending uni (sense of vocational direction & purpose especially)  a strong predictor of success Engage with the online environment  moderates success at university Balance commitments (working not more than 15 hours a week in paid employment if FT)  making appropriate time for study predicts success Have some sense of academic self-confidence  predicts success (self-efficacy & an expectation of success is foundational to success in life)

35 GBS Tutor Training 2011 STUDENT PROCESS : What do we know from research about risk factors in first year? Students are more likely to drop-out or fail if they: Don’t spend time studying for courses/subjects each week Don’t develop a social network at university Don’t have a sense of purpose (esp vocational purpose) in their degree Don’t regularly attend lectures & tutorials (with the exception of a small group of young, very intellectually bright males) Don’t have access to or engage with the online environment Do work more than 25 hours per week while studying full time

36 GBS Tutor Training 2011 STUDENT PROCESS : What do we know from research about risk factors in first year? Students are also more likely to drop-out if they: Are a member of a minority or disadvantaged group (e.g., Indigenous, rural, disability, refugee, international, primary caregiver in family, single parent) Are the ‘first in their family’ to attend university If not handled sensitively, this information has the potential to disempower commencing students because they can’t change this. To be empowering, this information needs to be explained in terms of low social/ academic capital which simply means that they need to engage with the support systems offered at the School/Program & University level from the outset, until they “find their feet”. Their role also needs to be described as “Pathfinders” & “Trailblazers” for their families & social groups, as part of a bigger social justice issue of equality & equity in terms of access to & success at university.

37 What predicts commencing students’ satisfaction with their Griffith degree program? GBS Tutor Training 2011 Sense of Purpose Sense of Capability Good Teaching Sense of Connection Perceived Effectiveness of Orientation Strongly Enhances Enhances Time on Task/Study Enhances Commencing Student Satisfaction

38 What predicts commencing students academic outcomes? GBS Tutor Training 2011 Semester 1 GPA Academic Capital Low SES First in Family ESL Competing Demands Time in employment Time as carer Prior Academic Achievement Entry OP Task Uni Attendance at Orientation Time on task/study Strongly Enhances Enhances Reduces

39 What predicts commencing students’ retention into year 2? GBS Tutor Training 2011 Semester 1 GPA Academic Capital - Competing Demands - Prior Academic Achievement + Task Uni + Sense of Purpose Student Satisfaction + Student Retention

40 Generalisability of findings There were no differences as a function of – Gender Age (high school leaver vs mature age) Domestic vs International Discipline Thus, these findings can be considered robust for commencing students GBS Tutor Training 2011

41 So what are the take-away messages? Entry OP score is influential but this is significantly outweighed by ‘time on task’ (our tutors & students need to know this) Lower academic capital at entry does not make a difference to ‘student satisfaction’ but does negatively predict ‘early GPA’. (The window of risk and opportunity is early on in semester 1/year 1 & semester 2/year1 with mid-year intake – early intervention & assistance by convenors & tutors optimises student success) Lower academic capital/’at risk’ social demographics does not predict GPA in later years. (Once students get off to a good start their present is more important than their past & FIF students graduate at the same rate as second generation students) GBS Tutor Training 2011

42 So what are the other take-away messages? Sense of purpose and academic achievement (GPA) are the key factors in predicting Year 1 student retention. Sense of purpose functions as a protective factor for student retention  Strategies for Tutors to encourage a sense of purpose in FY students Effectiveness of and attendance at orientation is a ‘sleeper/underlying factor’ in both soft (satisfaction) & hard student outcomes (GPA)  Encouraging attendance at School/Program Orientation events GBS Tutor Training 2011

43 Defining Sense of Purpose 3 domains – 1.Program & course level coherence viz. vertical & horizontal integration 2.Disciplinary engagement 3.Vocational outcomes GBS Tutor Training 2011

44 Strategies for building Sense of Purpose Identifying personal relevance Enquiring of students at the outset – Why are you doing this course? How does this course fit with your degree program? How does this course fit with your vocational interests? GBS Tutor Training 2011

45 Strategies for building Sense of Purpose Making Program & course level coherence explicit at the outset Identifying how this course/subject fits within a program of study viz. Part of a major/stream linked to other courses of potential study Identifying how this course is similar or different (complementary) to other courses the student may be undertaking GBS Tutor Training 2011

46 Strategies for building Sense of Purpose Disciplinary engagement Identifying the unique contribution of your course in terms of developing knowledge & skills for the student for the future GBS Tutor Training 2011

47 Strategies for building Sense of Purpose Vocational Outcomes Relevance - Identifying from the outset how the knowledge & skills may be useful to the student in a range of possible future careers Application - Providing field examples of concepts studied viz. Making links from the academic/study context to the field/work context GBS Tutor Training 2011

48 Session 4 ( ) Assessment Issues GBS Tutor Training 2011

49 Functions of Assessment 1.Summative Degree of knowledge, understanding or skill against set criteria Assign as grade or mark which allows students to be norm referenced in their cohort 2.Formative/developmental Assessing students’ personal strengths Identifying areas for improvement for future learning & achievement Tutor & Student PARTNERSHIP with Tutor as learning facilitator This type of assessment is key to first year 3.Assessment as Learning More than a grade Ultimately assessment = learning from the experience (skills, knowledge, understanding, confidence)

50 Setting Assessment  Convenor’s responsibility  Research evidence of strong relationship between learning & type of assessment  exams, especially multiple choice = Surface Learning  essays, reports, practical assessment = Deep Learning This is why the quality of the comments on essays can make a real difference to a student’s learning & development = TUTOR AS CHANGE AGENT

51 Effective feedback – a Reflective Task! Discuss briefly in pairs: Did you read the feedback on your written assessment? What type of feedback did you most appreciate & find most useful for your learning? What type of feedback did you find “less than useful”?

52 Strategies for providing useful Written Feedback on Essays etc. AIMS 1.Enhance student learning & understanding 2.Provide justification for mark (my comments must match the mark I have given) 3.By giving progressive feedback throughout the body of the essay (ticks, words, phrases etc.) * must not be in a red pen * must not be negatively critical or judgmental (e.g., ! or “honestly!”) * must be clearly understandable by the student (e.g., don’t just circle or ? something)

53 Providing Written Feedback on Essays, Reports etc. 4.By giving a concluding paragraph that – Summarises the achievements & strengths of the piece of work * “What you did well is...” Identifies specific learning gaps & areas for improvement * “You could improve this essay/report by...” It is important to frame these in terms of what the student needs to do to improve their work for the future, rather than what they didn’t do. The former leads to learning & the latter to feeling judged & a sense of inadequacy. This quality of feedback is expected from our tutors in the School

54 Challenges with Assessment – a Reflective Task What are some of the challenges you have either experienced already as a tutor, or expect to experience as a tutor with assessment processes that you would like to explore & problem-share, with the aim of seeking other options? Have a chat in small groups to identify a key challenge & prepare to share from your group for further discussion & problem-solving. GBS Tutor Training 2011

55 Session 5 ( ) Facilitating & Managing Small Group Teaching GBS Tutor Training 2011

56 Prof Keithia Wilson - Feb 8 th 2010 Student Perceptions of Teaching The big idea: Students’ perceptions of the quality of their learning environment are a powerful influence on how they will approach study in a course what academic outcomes they will achieve Whether or not they will drop out in their first year of study

57 Prof Keithia Wilson - Feb 8 th 2010 A Consistent Finding: When students perceive that they are receiving “good teaching” : they increase their understanding approaches do better academically feel more satisfied about learning Are more likely to persist with their studies at university & to graduate

58 Prof Keithia Wilson - Feb 8 th 2010 Good Teaching – a Reflective Task! If you reflect on your experience as a learner, what are the indicators that you would identify as evidence of “good teaching” in tutorial contexts? Chat to the person beside you, or in small groups for 2 minutes Be prepared to share 2-3 key indicators with the whole group

59 Good Teaching – so what does the research literature say? How well do you know the material? Content mastery – demonstrating a sound understanding of the course content / material How well do you explain it to us? Providing clear explanations matched to the learners - balancing simplicity vs complexity. Tutor role is to break down complex concepts from the lectures  simplify concepts & translate lecture material How interesting do you make it for us? Personal energy, enthusiasm & demonstrated interest in both the material & your role as tutor Stimulating student’s interest through variety in process – e.g., discussion, visual aids, setting tasks to apply concepts to practice etc. Systematic use of Kolb’s Experiential Learning Cycle of experience, reflection, input & application  inspiring learning GBS Tutor Training 2011

60 Good Teaching continued….. How well do you manage the learning experience? Setting clear goals & processes for each tute – being organised Keeping group discussions focused & on track Sharing the air time & participation between individual students Getting through the identified goals for each tute Encouraging students to show respect for each others’ ideas How rewarding and encouraging are you? Giving positive feedback & praise to students in class for their contributions How responsive to our needs are you? Establishing a working alliance means working with and responding to students and their needs vs “doing a pre-planned set piece” Making opportunity for students to ask questions or make comments Actively seeking & using student feedback to improve your teaching process (simply asking for feedback at the end of a tute, or using the Initial Tutorial Review or the Weekly Tutorial Review to evaluate content & process) Showing concern for students & their learning GBS Tutor Training 2011

61 Good teaching is relational… A CULTURE OF RESPECTFUL PARTNERSHIP Motivating expectations Stimulating learning designs Helpful feedback Accessible explanations Empathy and fairness GBS Tutor Training 2011

62 Students tell us over and over again..…respectful dialogue with us is at the heart of their learning GBS Tutor Training 2011

63 Facilitating & managing small group teaching – a small group discussion Task! What are some of the challenges you have either experienced already as a tutor, or expect to experience as a tutor that you would like to explore & problem-share, with the aim of seeking other options? Have a chat in small groups to identify a key challenge & prepare to share from your group for further discussion & problem-solving. GBS Tutor Training 2011

64 Session 6 ( ) Evaluating sessional teaching for professional development GBS Tutor Training 2011

65 School Policy on Evaluation The School is committed to 2 types of evaluation & 3 evaluation points in a semester The purpose of this evaluation strategy is three-fold – 1.For Students, to provide a quality learning experience which facilitates engagement & success, 2.For Tutors, to provide feedback to enhance personal & professional effectiveness in the role, & thus professional development 3.For the School System, to provide mechanisms for quality assurance of tutorial teaching as well as for improving the quality of small class teaching in the School For these reasons, participation by tutors in these 3 evaluation points is mandatory GBS Tutor Training 2011

66 2 Types of evaluation 1.Formative/developmental evaluation aimed at helping you as tutors to get feedback on your early practice in order to improve both the quality of the learning environment & student learning, as well as further developing your effectiveness in the role  hot data 2.Summative/end of semester evaluation aimed at ensuring you get feedback on your overall effectiveness in the tutor role  warm-cold data GBS Tutor Training 2011

67 3 Evaluation points in each semester 1.Week 2 of each semester – use the Initial Tutorial Review (ITR) survey to gather early data on your effectiveness with student engagement (Quality Assurance & Improvement) 2.Week 6 of each semester – use the Mid-course/Semester Tutorial Review survey to gather data on the effectiveness of your class learning environment with the aim of listening to students & potentially making changes to enhance that environment (Quality Assurance & Improvement) Payment of 1 hour for tutors per semester to summarise data to feedback to students. 3.End of semester – students fill out an on-line Student Evaluation of Teaching (SET) containing quantitative as well as qualitative data evaluating your effectiveness in the tutor role (Quality Assurance) GBS Tutor Training 2011

68 Formative Evaluation Surveys For information on these tools, please refer to Tutors as teachers and Learners: Resources to facilitate learning, evaluation & professional development 2011 (GU, Lizzio & Wilson) GBS Tutor Training 2011

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