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English Reformation. Background Lollards: stressed individuals reading the Bible – ANTI: clerical (wealth), veneration of saints, war, p for dead Tyndale.

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Presentation on theme: "English Reformation. Background Lollards: stressed individuals reading the Bible – ANTI: clerical (wealth), veneration of saints, war, p for dead Tyndale."— Presentation transcript:

1 English Reformation

2 Background Lollards: stressed individuals reading the Bible – ANTI: clerical (wealth), veneration of saints, war, p for dead Tyndale (1524) translates the Bible to English Henry VIII is considered “Defender of the Faith” by the Pope and marries Catherine of Aragon (dead brothers widow…thanks Pope for the solid)

3 Reformation in England Henry VIII (r ) -secretly marries Anne Boleyn 1533 (Archbishop Cranmer pronounces Katherine of Aragon's marriage to Henry as invalid and legitimates the Boleyn marriage) Princess Elizabeth born Sept Act of Supremacy also Act for the Submission of the Clergy; Treason Act; Act for First Fruits and Tenths - Dissolution of Monasteries Pilgrimage of Grace – revolt against Protestantism *Recusancy - Six Articles very traditional interpretation of religion - Reign of Edward VI Act of Uniformity imposes Book of Common Prayer - Reign of Mary Tudor Reign of Elizabeth

4 Popular Culture Perspective – The English Reformation succeeded because the real resistance of popular classes was overcome slowly but surely: Basic continuity in experience of worship for many people – Many changes took place, but they happened in the familiar setting of the parish church and with traditional rituals until 1547 when under Edward VI and his regents, real changes in parish worship were enforced – thus the original break occurred without the massive changes that would later pile up – the slow pace of the Reformation at its outset was a major reason for its later success

5 Series of Events No male heirs (sorry Mary) Henry petitions Clement VII for annulment – War of Roses struggle if Mary in allowed to inherit Clement refuses – can’t fuel anti papal attacks during Lutheran reformation 1527 HRE Charles V (Catherine’s nephew) sacks Rome… pope is forced to deny Henry divorces Catherine and marries Anne Boleyn (3N with Calvinist ideas) Series of acts limiting papal influence/clergy 1534 – Supremacy Act: king and head of English Church

6 On the Chopping Block Scholars who criticized Henry’s actions – More and Fisher 1536 – Anne Boleyn – Charged with adulterous incest… NO MALE HEIRS! Catherine Howard eventually

7 Children Edward is sickly and raised by radical Protestant advisors (king at 9… died at 16) – Is a puppet for radicalism Mary (Bloody) is a devoted Catholic and tries to reinstall Catholicism… married to Philip of Spain (Charles V’s son) Elizabeth reemphasis Protestantism (politique?) – Fights Spain, supports Dutch revolts… not generously – More deaths than “Bloody” Mary

8 Political Action Chief minister Thomas Cromwell – Confiscate monastery lands/shut down – Lands sold to middle/upper class Creates wealth and loyalty Pilgrimage of Grace (1536) – Multiclass rebellion – Truce ends in arrest and execution Centralized bureaucracy – Budget surpluses shifted to deficits – Great efficiency – Increases war chest

9 Scotland Weak monarchy vs. independent nobles (Germany…) King James V & his daughter Mary, Queen of Scots – Catholic allies of France – Nobles & John Knox promote reform Knox is inspired by Calvin and Geneva Knox uses the reform-minded Parliament to end papal authority and forbid the Mass Presbyterian “minister” church

10 Other areas Ireland – Forced to accept Protestant/English control – Church land confiscated, mass forbidden, underground Scandinavia – Denmark (Christian III) lost authority of Sweden but not Norway – All established state Lutheran churches… Swedish nationalism booms – leads to German reforms


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