Presentation on theme: "ES2307: Progressive Education Week 1 Introduction to Progressive Education Tutor: Joan Walton."— Presentation transcript:
ES2307: Progressive Education Week 1 Introduction to Progressive Education Tutor: Joan Walton
Aim of the Module The aim of this module is that you develop and increase your knowledge and understanding of progressive education. This will include historical, theoretical and experiential perspectives, and should enable you to develop an informed position on its significance and relevance as a concept and practice.
Show evidence of engagement with texts and ideas concerned with progressive education Show engagement with primary sources Show a knowledge of theoretical perspectives and/or works Show an understanding of abstract concepts within theoretical perspectives Show an ability to work with theorists and their concepts in various forms of assessment as appropriate
Presentation 40% Essay 60%
Small groups of students will prepare 25 minute interactive presentations to be delivered to other students on the module. The purpose of the presentations will be to explain and discuss the content of journal articles dealing with the theory and practice of progressive education (the list of articles to choose from is below) The presentations will be in weeks 9 and 10.
Present an essay under the title ‘A Theory of Progressive Education’. You must use at least one of the essential readings, supplemented by your own research. (2000-2,500 words) Due Week 13.
Progressive education is at the same time a historical movement, and a set of concepts which mean different things to different people at different times. This module discovers the roots of progressive education in the 18 th & 19 th centuries, explores its development as a concept through the 20 th century, and enquires into its relevance and significance in present times.
Most theories of progressive education include an emphasis on the active learning of students, and their preparation for active participation in a democratic society. It is intended that these principles are explored and reflected in how this module develops. Your involvement in the planning, running and evaluation of the sessions will be encouraged from the outset. Hence the content of each session is open to negotiation, in keeping with your interests as the semester progresses.
1870 Elementary Education Act (Forster Act) Board schools set up to provide primary (elementary) education Elementary Education Act Attendance at school compulsory from 5-10 years (raised to 1902 Balfour Act Ended divide between church schools and those run by school boards. Introduction of local education authorities Fisher Act Leaving age raised to 14 years Education Act (Butler Act) Introduced the tripartite system 1967 Plowden Report Children and their Primary Schools Promoted child centred education; criticised by traditionalists Education Reform Act Introduced the National Curriculum
Comenius ( ) a Czech teacher, scientist, educator and writer, was one of the earliest advocates of universal education 1690 John Locke Essay Concerning Human Understanding Challenged idea of original sin: children could be positively influenced and changed through education. Emphasised the need to adapt education to suit the child. EUROPEAN ROMANTICISM 1762 Jean-Jacques Rousseau Emile Believed that children were born naturally good, and that this goodness could be nurtured and developed using his model of education. 1801 Johann Pestalozzi Swiss educational reformer, emphasized power of nature, importance of motherhood, and advocated teaching methods designed to strengthen the child’s own abilities. Wrote How Gertrude teaches her children (1801) Friedrich Froebel ( ) German educational reformer, influenced by Pestalozzi, known as the originator of the ‘kindergarten’. 1789 William Blake Songs of Innocence 1807 William Wordsworth Intimations of Immortality
AMERICAN PROGRESSIVISM LATE 19TH – MID 20 TH CENTURY Francis Parker ( A founder of progressive elementary education. Believed in children learning through experience with nature. Organised first teacher-parent group. John Dewey Leader of progressive movement in America 1902 The Child and the Curriculum 1916 Education and Democracy: An introduction to the philosophy of education 1933 How We Think. A restatement of the relation of reflective thinking to the educative process. An exploration of experience, interaction and reflection in the learning process – and challenging linear models of thinking. 1938 Education and Experience Rudolph Steiner ( ) Austrian philosopher Ideas based on anthroposophy, a holistic approach which sees person as integration of body, soul and spirit. Influence development of Waldorf (Steiner) schools). Maria Montessori ( ) Italian physician and educator. Pioneer of child-centred early years education. Took scientific approach - based her work on observations of children, experimenting with how they could learn from their natural environment. New Education Fellowship (founded 1921) small group of progressive educationists and liberal thinkers, involved with the British Theosophical Society (Beatrice Ensor) A.S Neil ( ) Scottish educator Founder of Summerhill, renowned for its liberal and anti-authoritarian philosophy and teaching methods
Despite many differences in views and approaches, there is a general consensus that education should: Prepare students for active participation in a democratic society. Take a more holistic approach, and focus on students' social, emotional, academic, cognitive and physical development. Nurture and support students' natural curiosity and innate desire to learn. Foster internal motivation in students. Be responsive to students’ developmental needs of students. Foster respectful relationships between teachers and students. Encourage the active participation of students in their learning, which arises from previous experience. Progressive educators should play an active role in guiding the educational vision of our society. https://progressiveeducationnetwork.com/history / /
Michael Gove: For an analysis of those forces which do stand in the way of liberating young people from the chains of ignorance, I would recommend close attention to..the ideology of…progressive education Progressive educational theory stressed the importance of children following their own instincts, rather than being taught. It sought to replace an emphasis on acquiring knowledge in traditional subjects with a new stress on children following where their curiosity led them. And that was usually away from outdated practices such as reading, writing and arithmetic.
This approach was deemed democratic - because it replaced the rigid formality of the traditional schoolroom with the teacher as authority figure and placed everyone in the classroom - teacher and child - on the same footing as co-creators of learning. It was called progressive because it moved towards a new emphasis on “learning to learn”. And one did not need to study a subject discipline to acquire these abstract skills. Progressive educational theory had its roots in the teachings of Rousseau and other Romantics But far from being progressive or democratic - this new approach to education risked depriving the working classes of the tools they needed to emancipate themselves from ignorance. (Speech at Social Market Foundation 5 Feb 2013
“How and why we should educate children has always been a central concern for governments around the world, and there have long been those who have opposed orthodoxy, challenged perception and called for a radicalization of youth. Progressive Education draws together Continental Romantics, Utopian dreamers, radical feminists, pioneering psychologists and social agitators to explore the history of the progressive education movement. Beginning with Jean Jacques Rousseau's seminal treatise Emile and closing with the Critical Pedagogy movement, this book draws on the latest scholarship to cover the key thinkers, movements and areas where schooling has been more than just a didactic pupil-teacher relationship”. John Howlett (2013) London: Bloomsbury Academic details_o00_s00_i00?ie=UTF8&psc=1