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Exploring Online University Instruction Edward C. Robeck, Ph.D. Salisbury University, Salisbury, Maryland Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Bangi.

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Presentation on theme: "Exploring Online University Instruction Edward C. Robeck, Ph.D. Salisbury University, Salisbury, Maryland Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Bangi."— Presentation transcript:

1 Exploring Online University Instruction Edward C. Robeck, Ph.D. Salisbury University, Salisbury, Maryland Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Bangi

2 Batteries and Bulbs You have three objects in your set. battery battery bulb bulb wire wire Make the bulb light using just the battery and the wire.

3 Learning Activities 1. What makes this a good learning activity? 2. What would have to be added to make a whole class out of activities like this? 3. What would need to change if we moved that class to an online format?

4 5 Key Elements to Consider Learning Goals Assessment CommunicationExpectations Learning Activities

5 5 Key Elements to Consider 1.Learning Goals Normal course goals Goals directly related to online format 2.Expectations Clarity at outset is more important than F2F More dimensions must be considered e.g., Extent, Quality, Timing 3.Communication Multiple options—a blessing and a curse 4.Learning Activities Making use of online options—not lecture Extent to which modeling is important 5.Assessment Conventional assumptions do not apply

6 Normal course goals Normal course goals I.“Students will be able to make effective use of primary sources of educational research“ AccessingReferencingSummarizing Comparing and contrasting To what extent will this be different because the course is taught online ? To what extent will this be different because the course is taught online ? 1. Learning Goals

7 Normal course goals Normal course goals II.“Students will be able to effectively critique primary and secondary source material in educational research” OrganizationSubstanceMechanics To what extent will this be different because the course is taught online? To what extent will this be different because the course is taught online? 1. Learning Goals

8 2. Expectations In what areas will you establish specific expectations for students? In what areas will you establish specific expectations for students? Discussions, Assignments, Peer-to-peer, Leadership, Off-line work, Readings & responses Clarity at outset is more important than with F2F Typically addressed through rubrics Holistic Analytic More dimensions must be considered Online instruction tends toward more open-endedness, which creates ambiguity e.g., Extent, Quality, Timing What’s really important & necessary? What’s really important & necessary?

9 3. Communication Multiple options—a blessing and a curse Multiple options—a blessing and a curse What pattern are you comfortable with? What pattern is necessary for success? What pattern is expected? How will you make your expectations clear? How will you socialize students into the pattern of communication for the course? “Netiquette” as a special form of etiquette Supportiveness Frequency Focus Rubrics often help here even if you are not marking the interactions

10 4. Learning Activities Making use of online options Making use of online options Why is the course online? Logistical (timing, travel) Audience (distance, lifestyle) Instruction (specialization, expertise) How do the reasons for it being online affect instruction? Extent to which modeling is important Extent to which modeling is important What behaviors should students be able to do? How can those be made part of the class? Use of resources (e.g., social book-marking site) Style of teaching (e.g., collaborative—wikis) Specific strategies (e.g., webquests, photo-essay) How does modeling involve online and offline approaches?

11 5. Assessment Conventional assumptions do not apply Conventional assumptions do not apply Questions of identityQuestions of identity Who is posting? Who is posting? How much individual vs. sharing of work? How much individual vs. sharing of work? How much image management is going on? How much image management is going on? Questions of timingQuestions of timing Time on task? Time on task? Deadlines vs. Guidelines? Deadlines vs. Guidelines? Questions of Teacher-Student interactionsQuestions of Teacher-Student interactions “Immediacy” of response? “Immediacy” of response? Individual vs. whole group facilitation? Individual vs. whole group facilitation? Open-endedness of outcome—modeling vs. mimicry? Open-endedness of outcome—modeling vs. mimicry?

12 Modeling—instruction matches expectation Modeling—instruction matches expectation Coordination—meaning across and between Coordination—meaning across and between Flexibility—logistics allow different patterns Flexibility—logistics allow different patterns Scaffolding—part-to-whole teaching Scaffolding—part-to-whole teaching Transformation—change the format of ideas Transformation—change the format of ideas Accountability—structured guidance Accountability—structured guidance Personalization—open-ended using own ideas Personalization—open-ended using own ideas Interactivity—networking and evocation Interactivity—networking and evocation Collaboration—share and develop skills together Collaboration—share and develop skills together Nine Principles of Instruction

13 Changing Culture of Studenting Consider this assignment Choose one educational researcher who has published at least three peer-reviewed journal articles in your field. (Note: Avoid very prolific researchers for this assignment.)Choose one educational researcher who has published at least three peer-reviewed journal articles in your field. (Note: Avoid very prolific researchers for this assignment.) Write a one-page profile of that person’s work based on a selection of three to five articles.Write a one-page profile of that person’s work based on a selection of three to five articles. In the profile, look for themes, commonalities and contrasts in the person’s work, don’t just summarize each article separately.In the profile, look for themes, commonalities and contrasts in the person’s work, don’t just summarize each article separately. Consider the “5 Key Elements” discussed. 1.What issues might emerge in using this in an online class? Consider the “9 Principles of Instruction” discussed 2.How could those principles shape the presentation of the assignment?

14 Which Web? Web 1.0 Web 1.0 Basic model is to get information from Internet sites and basic communication—”just in time” content; filing, asynchronous messaging, online catalogs and purchasesBasic model is to get information from Internet sites and basic communication—”just in time” content; filing, asynchronous messaging, online catalogs and purchases Web 2.0 Web 2.0 Expanded model that facilitates individual authoring of Internet content and interaction—”peer to peer (P2P)”; “social _____”, online marketplace, profiles, maps, taggingExpanded model that facilitates individual authoring of Internet content and interaction—”peer to peer (P2P)”; “social _____”, online marketplace, profiles, maps, tagging Web 3.0 Web 3.0 Virtual worlds—avatars, caching, in-world commerce,Virtual worlds—avatars, caching, in-world commerce,

15 The Basic Web 1.0 Tool Online Discussions Why you want them to use online discussion (explore new ideas, review concepts, compare experiences …) Why you want them to use online discussion (explore new ideas, review concepts, compare experiences …) What you want them to base their discussion on (readings, in-class discussion, personal opinion …) What you want them to base their discussion on (readings, in-class discussion, personal opinion …) How you expect them to use it (when, how often, types of postings: original vs. response …) How you expect them to use it (when, how often, types of postings: original vs. response …) From:http://www.westga.edu/~distance/ojdla/spring51/edelstein51.htmlhttp://www.westga.edu/~distance/ojdla/spring51/edelstein51.html 1.“Discuss the article by Fletcher about moving from research to practice.” 2.“Discuss your own experiences with the challenges that Fletcher describes in the article for this week.” 3.“As you read the article by Fletcher on moving from research to practice, think about the challenges that the author describes. Which of these challenges are most significant in your own setting? How can you overcome those challenges to moving research into practice?” “

16 The Basic Web 1.0 Tool Online Discussions Posts tend to fit into one of three types: (1) "cheerleading," or posting reinforcement, such as "Great job!," that added no new information;(1) "cheerleading," or posting reinforcement, such as "Great job!," that added no new information; (2) adding new information; and(2) adding new information; and (3) questioning or challenging.(3) questioning or challenging. “This leads to the conclusion that cheerleading tends only to create more cheerleading, while questioning leads to more new information added. Basically, cheerleading doesn't move the conversation forward at all.” From:

17 The Basic Web 1.0 Tool Online Discussions “Another way to encourage more meaningful online discussions is by choosing discussion topics that lead to what Lowes calls "exploratory talk." This kind of talk is characterized by an assertion followed a challenge and counter-challenge (or differences in answers), by new information accompanied by elaboration and explanation, by different ideas discussed before an agreement is reached, and by new information being added after a challenge.” The value of educational research is decreased by what Fletcher calls the “research to practice divide”. Some have suggested that ONLY research with direct classroom application should be pursued within schools, since doing other research can distract from teaching and learning without providing any benefit. Discuss what types of research should and should not be conducted in schools. (To be added later: How does this relate to “Action Research”.)

18 The Basic Web 1.0 Tool Online Discussions In this posting, please offer a rationale for why educational research is important. Why should people take the time to do research? What benefits might come from it? In this posting, please offer a rationale for why educational research is important. Why should people take the time to do research? What benefits might come from it? Relate what you say to at least a few entries posted by other students, referring to them by name in your post and being clear how their ideas relate to yours. If you are one of the first to post on this topic, it would be best if you return to the topic later to add to what has been said by others. Relate what you say to at least a few entries posted by other students, referring to them by name in your post and being clear how their ideas relate to yours. If you are one of the first to post on this topic, it would be best if you return to the topic later to add to what has been said by others.

19 Online Discussions Category1234 PromptnessandInitiative Does not respond to most postings; rarely participates freely Responds to most postings several days after initial discussion; limited initiative Responds to most postings within a 24 hour period; requires occasional prompting to post Consistently responds to postings in less than 24 hours; demonstrates good self- initiative

20 The Basic Web 1.0 Tool Online Discussions CIDR Teaching & Learning Bulletin Engaging Students in Discussion Online If You Build It, They Will Come: Building Learning Communities Through Threaded Discussions Online insight: Challenges beat cheerleading Educators consider how to foster meaningful interaction among students in online courses FSU Best Practices for Online Delivery of Instruction very_of_Instruction very_of_Instruction

21 Web 2.0 Tools There are many free tools available. Three very important* ones are…(*I think so, anyway) Wikis – Wikis – Social Bookmarking – Social Bookmarking – Online Surveys – Online Surveys – More… More… Go to Go to Click on “Learning Tools” under Zaid Alsagoff’s photoClick on “Learning Tools” under Zaid Alsagoff’s photo

22 Consider Alternative Formats Consider Alternative Formats Add Ons—Instructor posts a “stem file”, which students add to: ExplanationsExplanations PowerPointPowerPoint Concept mapsConcept maps Note: the amount each students are to add should be indicated. The student additions may be collective, sequential or independent

23 Concept Map Download this file. Add one concept to the map. Be sure to include a verb/phrase on the arrow connecting your concept to those already on the map. In addition, you can add relationships (arrows) between concepts. Can be Qualitative Can be Quantitative Surveys Ethnographic Educational Research Can make us of Can make use of Methods may Include those that are

24 Consider Alternative Formats Photo Files – Send students to an online photo library where they can download photos. Have them choose a photo that illustrates a concept. The concept may be one of several, or it may be that all students are to find an illustration for the same concept.

25 Earth Systems This photo illustrates “Earth systems” by showing…

26 Consider Alternative Formats Scrambled Notes Grid—Students are given a grid of information, some of which has been rearranged. The students are to unscramble the information on the grid. At least two columns must be in the correct positions to guide the unscrambling. It is helpful if at least one row is also intact. This works well for complex material where several attributes are considered with respect to several similar topics.

27 Getting Started 1. Try something 2. Try something 3. Try something 4. Start with a “blended” format 5. Set goals—e.g., one new tool a term 6. Make full use of the LMS available 7. Make use of formative assessment and student input 8. Get advice—make use of all your support, admit ignorance

28 Terima Kasih

29 ID : K Password : HC3192 ID : K Password : HC3192


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