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Welcome to class of Microcredit / Microfinance in Emerging Markets Dr. Satyendra Singh University of Winnipeg Canada www.uwinnipeg.ca/~ssingh5.

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Presentation on theme: "Welcome to class of Microcredit / Microfinance in Emerging Markets Dr. Satyendra Singh University of Winnipeg Canada www.uwinnipeg.ca/~ssingh5."— Presentation transcript:

1 Welcome to class of Microcredit / Microfinance in Emerging Markets Dr. Satyendra Singh University of Winnipeg Canada

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4 How does it work?

5 What is Microcredit Different from Conventional Banks 5 features –Loan size is small  b/w $100-$500  average $100 –Customers are rural poor, particularly women –Income activities  Self-employment, non-formal sector –No collateral required –Must have saving account linked to MC

6 Microcredit – Different from Informal $ Lenders MC  No profit motives NGO’s approach to poverty alleviation Before the poor was blamed for personal failing Now, poverty  deprive the poor of access to social resources  human rights issue Non-judgemental MC leaders  inspire social and economic revolutions in the EM by organizing the poor under the banner of MC organization (NGOs)

7 Microcredit (MC) – Small loans Why is MC important? –Four billion poor people need access to financial services –Social justice –Only philanthropy is not enough –Women suffering the most –Development of informal sector  farmers, tailors… –Need to remove poverty in EM –↑ Demand  $50 billion per year for MC –↑ 15-30% growth annually –Moral responsibility of businesses

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9 What is Microfinance: It is broad Loan, saving, insurance, money txfr…

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11 Debate: Microfinance Sustainability ↑ interest is ok to cover admn cost and be profitable Attract ↑ people to open MF venture ↑ competition  ↑ innovation ↓ interest rate for clients Able to serve the 3 b people Poverty alleviation ↑ interest is NOT ok because it exploits poor ↑ profit will attract ↑ MF investors Growth of new and uncertain sector Profit-making venture

12 Microfinance (MF) Venture Microfinance  Profit-making venture –But serve the poor Self-financed  Savings/borrowing > lending –Share Capital  collected from the public –Equity Capital  supplied by owners of the MF venture Owners have little equity capital Public has little interest in investing in the business Problem of seed capital  not profitable at outset Assistance from private firms, donors agencies for seed capital Donors  World bank, development banks, CIDA, USAID…

13 Justification for Assistance to MF venture 2 reasons for the justification –Social Vast differences in wealth and education among people MF Owners are not as greedy as banks (↑ interest rate from poor) So, MF owners are different from traditional bankers –Economic Need help/grants/seed  ↓ interest loan MF entrepreneurs  able to deliver appropriate services & make $ Infant industries  subsidize initial phase of operation ↑ productivity  ↑ $  ↑ money mgmt skills  resource mgmt  ↓ transaction costs  ↑ MF entrepreneur’s skills to be market oriented  sound business decision  contributes to economy

14 Dr Yunus, President Clinton

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18 Social Consciousness-Driven Capitalism Theory Psychological Component  Dr. Md. Yunus –Capitalism  premise  we are selfish by nature  ↑ $ –So, ok to develop capitalist enterprise (financial return) if fair to customers (social return/consciousness) This premise creates 3 types of entrepreneurs –Traditional capitalist  maximize financial return/profit –Philanthropic organisations  traditional credit/NGOs –Microfinance enterprises  combine both returns while making decisions subject to financial return cannot be negative  social consciousness-driven capitalist enterprise –F

19 SHG  Self Help Group  women

20 Social consciousness-driven Microfinance… Reasons for investing in the MF –Large market size –Unfulfilled demand –↑ return on investment despite ↑ admin cost –↓ default rate of borrowers  1-5% –Success or failure is not linked to world political events –Appealing due to altruism –Helping poor directly and avoiding corrupt government –Feeling good by doing good –Investors may like the reasons to invest in MF venture

21 These firms donate X% to microfinance venture IShop4Microfinance

22 Social consciousness-driven Microfinance But investors need to see sustainability of MF Means of Entry  Mainly motivated by ↑ rate of return Equity stakes –For-profit orgn buys equity in MF  difficult  ↓ confidence Securitization –Ability to securitize loans and sell  access to cheaper capital for MF venture  pass on the savings to clients Service provision partnerships  Insurance for loans Donors  self-sufficient  $ should exit –Capacity building  leverage other successful MF venture –Regulatory infrastructure  credit bureau, rating, legal framework

23 How Kiva works?www.kiva.org How Kiva works?

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