2 Before we start – three quick things 1STORYTELLING>POWERPOINTThe primary focus of this workshop is storytelling, not PowerPoint. The principles described on pages 6-10 can be applied to any medium. PowerPoint happens to be a very effective medium for storytelling.2POWERPOINT≠PRESENTATIONSPowerPoint can be a perfect substitute for Microsoft Word in developing comprehensive, complex reports/materials. This workshop is designed to show you how. It is not a workshop on presenting or communicating to an audience.3THESE MATERIALS=GOOD TEMPLATEThese PowerPoint materials are organised and designed according to the rules taught in this workshop. Please feel free to use this document as a template for future reports you write. It has been used this way by numerous Treasury teams.
3 AGENDA Agenda Item Timing Telling stories with PowerPoint 30 min Focus of sectionAgenda ItemTimingTelling stories with PowerPoint30 minExercise #1: The Story40 minExercise #2: The Slide20 min
4 Why we tell stories, and how PowerPoint can help Every piece of Treasury advice tells a story. The question is whether or not it’s a good one.In a good story, everything makes sense. Good stories, for our purposes, have a beginning, middle and end. They are easy to understand and easy to remember.PowerPoint is a useful storytelling tool. It allows more room for creative expression than other common communications mediums (e.g., Microsoft Word); for the uninitiated, this is also its curse.There are a couple rules and tricks that can make PowerPoint highly effective and easy to use.The purpose of this presentation is to offer some guidelines on how to tell a story, and share some advice on how PowerPoint can help.
5 Every piece of Treasury advice tells a story Source: Treasury
6 In a good story, everything makes sense Four things every story should have:Logical flowRational contentEvery story is different, but many follow a similar SCR structure:Situation (context)Complication (problem)Resolution (solution)Frameworks can simplify storytelling, linking together different sections.Every bit of content in your slides should be included consciously, e.g.,:Consistent font, text size, colourParallel languageLayout left-to-right , typically (as people read).“MECE” argumentEfficient productionYour argument should be “Mutually Exclusive” (i.e., non-overlapping/redundant) and “Collectively Exhaustive” (i.e., covering everything).“Issue Trees” are an effective scoping tool to use at the outset (see page 11).You should take every possible shortcut in creating materials:Reuse old slidesLearn keyboard shortcutsFollow 3 step storytelling processDivide and conquer the work.Source: Treasury analysis
7 Examples of story structure ILLUSTRATIVEVision-led (followed by SCR)Purpose-led (responding to request)Logical flow (no strict structure)Our vision is to create a prosperous and inclusive New Zealand that is confident, connected and innovative.New Zealand is already a great place to live. However, some people are struggling to get ahead and economically we lag behind.These issues are linked to four interconnected challenges we face.We have identified four priorities to overcome these challenges. Success will depend on government working in partnership with business to foster international connections.Adopting this strategy will help us to drive enduring and inclusive economic growth – and realise higher living standards for all Kiwis.The purpose of this report is to offer clarity on short-term housing supply projections for Auckland, and to evaluate options that might augment those projections.We worked with MBIE and Auckland Council to develop and test our estimates.We anticipate that between 5,750 and 5,900 new houses will be built in Auckland from Nov 2013 to Nov 2014.Government has few direct levers that might affect these supply numbers in the short term.Every piece of Treasury advice tells a story. The question is whether or not it’s a good one.In a good story, everything makes sense. Good stories, for our purposes, have a beginning, middle and end. They are easy to understand and easy to remember.PowerPoint is a useful storytelling tool. It allows more room for creative expression than other common communications mediums (e.g., Microsoft Word); for the uninitiated, this is also its curse.There are a couple rules and tricks that can make PowerPoint highly effective and easy to use.The purpose of this presentation is to offer some guidelines on how to tell a story, and share some advice on how PowerPoint can help.Source: Treasury analysis
8 How to write your story PowerPoint Example STEP 1: Write the story down(by hand)*Write the story in bullet form. Then test it with others. This will serve as a tool for scoping your work, and can be a great team whiteboarding exercise.STEP 2:Draw the story out(by hand)On a blank sheet of white paper, draw the pages that tell your story. Include the analysis and exhibits that will support your argument. Identify likely data sources upfront. Then test it with others. This will save a lot of time you might otherwise spend writing PPT slides that don’t matter.STEP 3:Convert the story(into PPT)Write the headline of each slide first. Then add the analysis that supports it. If you don’t yet have the analysis done, insert a blank slide with the heading at the top, as a placeholder.*Note: Step 1 should be applied no matter what medium you use to write your storySource: Treasury analysis
9 “Everything should be made as simple as possible, but not simpler.” Be concise...“I didn’t have time to write a short letter, so I wrote a long one instead.”– Mark Twain“Everything should be made as simple as possible, but not simpler.”– Albert EinsteinSource: Google; Treasury analysis
10 ...because every additional word hurts all the others ILLUSTRATIVETradeoff between number and impact of wordsIf you have one word on the page, the full impact of that word is felt.As you add more, the power of each individual word is diminished.At a certain tipping point, all of your words lose all of their value – the point at which people stop reading.MaxThe point at which it doesn’t matter what you say, because no one is going to read it.Impact of wordsZero1…more than 1…too many# of wordsSource: Treasury analysis
11 PowerPoint is a useful storytelling tool ProsConsIdeal useTreasury reportRequires no explanation beyond report itselfEasy way to communicate text-heavy storiesPresents clear, well-understood action itemsLends itself to wordiness/ overcommunication, and therefore ignorabilityDifficult to present in personPoorly suited to sharing charts, graphs, frameworksCodifying and sharing info remotelyAnnotated agendaShort and sweetEasily structured (by agenda topic, timeframe)Rarely tells a storyPoorly suited to sharing charts, graphs, frameworksPre-meeting prepStructuring a meeting agendaPowerPointHighly versatile (can be tailored for in-person presentation, or for sharing info remotely)Well-suited to sharing charts, graphs, frameworksTakes longer to structure and format (typically)Easy to misuse and render illegibleTelling a story in person, or guiding a discussionCommunicating visuallyA3Only one pageRarely tells a storyLends itself to vague, confusing, cluttered messagingSharing informational snapshotsSource: Treasury analysis
12 See Appendix for other slide templates Slide rulesTitle: The thesis of your slide. Everything fits underneath. Only one point per slide.When the Treasury tells clear, compelling stories, the MoF can make better, faster decisionsLegendToo longToo shortDescription of analysis, with units includedDistribution of the MoF’s time*PercentKey takeaways from analysisThe MoF is very busy and cannot possibly learn everything about everything.Given his limited time and information, he depends on the Treasury to advise him as clearly as possible on the correct decision to take.The more time he can spend making decisions rather than listening, the more time he will have available for speeches, etc.Giving speechesListening to adviceHugging babiesMaking decisionsLegislating* These proportions are illustrativeFootnoteSee Appendix for other slide templatesSource: Treasury analysisSourceSource: Treasury analysis; McKinsey & Co.
13 Slide tricks Shortcut Hotkeys Drag in line; increase object size while holding proportions constantHOLD: Click + Shift + DragCopyHOLD: Click + Ctrl + DragDrag in line while copyingHOLD: Click + Shift + Ctrl + DragView: Slide SorterAlt + W + IAlign selected: LeftCentreRightTopMiddleBottomVerticallyHorizontallyAlt + H + V + A + LCRTMBVHGroup itemsUngroup itemsAlt + H + G + GAlt + H + G + UEnter text box (without clicking)F2Paste specialAlt + E + SSource: Treasury analysis
14 AGENDA Agenda Item Timing Telling stories with PowerPoint 30 min Focus of sectionAgenda ItemTimingTelling stories with PowerPoint30 minExercise #1: The Story40 minExercise #2: The Slide20 min
15 Exercise #1: The StoryNote: For the exercises, you should have brought along a copy of a PowerPoint slide pack you made in the past, or are currently working on.*InstructionsTimingWrite down the story of your slide pack – one bullet for each headline.Rewrite the story in no more than 5 bullets in line with the guidelines of this training. Imagine you just got into an elevator with the MoF and Gabs, and you have until the 12th floor to tell them everything that matters (and nothing that doesn’t).Share your reflections with the group5 min15 min20 min*If you do not have your own slide pack, you can borrow from existing Treasury materials for this exercise.
16 AGENDA Agenda Item Timing Telling stories with PowerPoint 30 min Focus of sectionAgenda ItemTimingTelling stories with PowerPoint30 minExercise #1: The Story40 minExercise #2: The Slide20 min
17 Exercise #2: The SlideNote: For the exercises, you should have brought along a copy of a PowerPoint slide pack you made in the past, or are currently working on.*InstructionsTimingPick a slide from your story and rewrite it by hand.Share your reflections with the group10 minExample – sketching nine slides per page*If you do not have your own slide pack, you can borrow from existing Treasury materials for this exercise.
20 “The Gant Chart”: Tool for workplanning Plan for XYZWorkstreamsWeek 1Week 2Week 3Week 4Week 5Week 6OwnerWorkstream #1Name 1Workstream #2Name 2Workstream #3Name 1Workstream #4Name 3MoF meetingDateSource: Treasury analysis; McKinsey & Co.
21 “The 2x2”: Tool for intervention prioritisation ILLUSTRATIVECreate list of interventions or policy options…List of interventionsImpactFeasibility…and map to 2x2 matrix in order to prioritiseFix housing affordabilityBigLow$ costMore frequent happy hoursVery bigHighStorytelling in PowerPointMediumMediumPICK AND CHOOSENO BRAINERImpact# people affected Xliving standards opportunityLOW HANGING FRUITAVOIDFeasibilityLikelihood of successSource: Treasury analysis
22 “The Issue Tree”: MECE approach to problem solving Example from Housing Narrative project scopingDescriptionData sourceOwnerRaw landServiced land w/ infrastructureZoningSupplyResource constraintsNote: Some sections might be further broken down into subcategories (e.g., “building consents”, “construction sector efficiency”, “raw materials costs”, “infra/dev. contributions”, “credit markets”)AucklandConstruction issuesInvestment in owner-occupied housingChristchurchOther metrosDemandInvestment in non-owner-occupied housingRest of NZConsumption through rentingSource: Treasury analysis