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© The Treasury Storytelling in PowerPoint January, 2014
© The Treasury Before we start – three quick things 2 STORYTELLING1POWERPOINT > The primary focus of this workshop is storytelling, not PowerPoint. The principles described on pages 6-10 can be applied to any medium. PowerPoint happens to be a very effective medium for storytelling. POWERPOINT2PRESENTATIONS ≠ PowerPoint can be a perfect substitute for Microsoft Word in developing comprehensive, complex reports/materials. This workshop is designed to show you how. It is not a workshop on presenting or communicating to an audience. THESE MATERIALS3GOOD TEMPLATE = These PowerPoint materials are organised and designed according to the rules taught in this workshop. Please feel free to use this document as a template for future reports you write. It has been used this way by numerous Treasury teams.
© The Treasury AGENDA 3 Telling stories with PowerPoint Exercise #1: The Story Exercise #2: The Slide 30 min 40 min 20 min Agenda ItemTiming Focus of section
© The Treasury Why we tell stories, and how PowerPoint can help 4 Every piece of Treasury advice tells a story. The question is whether or not it’s a good one. In a good story, everything makes sense. Good stories, for our purposes, have a beginning, middle and end. They are easy to understand and easy to remember. PowerPoint is a useful storytelling tool. It allows more room for creative expression than other common communications mediums (e.g., Microsoft Word); for the uninitiated, this is also its curse. There are a couple rules and tricks that can make PowerPoint highly effective and easy to use. The purpose of this presentation is to offer some guidelines on how to tell a story, and share some advice on how PowerPoint can help.
© The Treasury Every piece of Treasury advice tells a story 5 Source: Treasury
© The Treasury In a good story, everything makes sense 6 Source: Treasury analysis Logical flowRational content Every bit of content in your slides should be included consciously, e.g.,: ‒ Consistent font, text size, colour ‒ Parallel language ‒ Layout left-to-right, typically (as people read). “MECE” argument Your argument should be “Mutually Exclusive” (i.e., non- overlapping/redundant) and “Collectively Exhaustive” (i.e., covering everything). “Issue Trees” are an effective scoping tool to use at the outset (see page 11). Efficient production You should take every possible shortcut in creating materials: ‒ Reuse old slides ‒ Learn keyboard shortcuts ‒ Follow 3 step storytelling process ‒ Divide and conquer the work. Every story is different, but many follow a similar SCR structure: ‒ Situation (context) ‒ Complication (problem) ‒ Resolution (solution) Frameworks can simplify storytelling, linking together different sections. Four things every story should have:
© The Treasury Examples of story structure 7 Every piece of Treasury advice tells a story. The question is whether or not it’s a good one. In a good story, everything makes sense. Good stories, for our purposes, have a beginning, middle and end. They are easy to understand and easy to remember. PowerPoint is a useful storytelling tool. It allows more room for creative expression than other common communications mediums (e.g., Microsoft Word); for the uninitiated, this is also its curse. There are a couple rules and tricks that can make PowerPoint highly effective and easy to use. The purpose of this presentation is to offer some guidelines on how to tell a story, and share some advice on how PowerPoint can help. Our vision is to create a prosperous and inclusive New Zealand that is confident, connected and innovative. New Zealand is already a great place to live. However, some people are struggling to get ahead and economically we lag behind. These issues are linked to four interconnected challenges we face. We have identified four priorities to overcome these challenges. Success will depend on government working in partnership with business to foster international connections. Adopting this strategy will help us to drive enduring and inclusive economic growth – and realise higher living standards for all Kiwis. The purpose of this report is to offer clarity on short-term housing supply projections for Auckland, and to evaluate options that might augment those projections. We worked with MBIE and Auckland Council to develop and test our estimates. We anticipate that between 5,750 and 5,900 new houses will be built in Auckland from Nov 2013 to Nov 2014. Government has few direct levers that might affect these supply numbers in the short term. Vision-led (followed by SCR)Purpose-led (responding to request)Logical flow (no strict structure) ILLUSTRATIVE Source: Treasury analysis
© The Treasury How to write your story 8 Write the story in bullet form. Then test it with others. This will serve as a tool for scoping your work, and can be a great team whiteboarding exercise. On a blank sheet of white paper, draw the pages that tell your story. Include the analysis and exhibits that will support your argument. Identify likely data sources upfront. Then test it with others. This will save a lot of time you might otherwise spend writing PPT slides that don’t matter. Write the headline of each slide first. Then add the analysis that supports it. If you don’t yet have the analysis done, insert a blank slide with the heading at the top, as a placeholder. Write the story down (by hand)* Draw the story out (by hand) Convert the story (into PPT) STEP 1: STEP 2: STEP 3: Source: Treasury analysis *Note: Step 1 should be applied no matter what medium you use to write your story PowerPoint Example
© The Treasury Be concise... 9 Source: Google; Treasury analysis “I didn’t have time to write a short letter, so I wrote a long one instead.” – Mark Twain “Everything should be made as simple as possible, but not simpler.” – Albert Einstein
© The Treasury...because every additional word hurts all the others 10 Source: Treasury analysis Impact of words Max Zero # of words 1more than 1……too many The point at which it doesn’t matter what you say, because no one is going to read it. Tradeoff between number and impact of words If you have one word on the page, the full impact of that word is felt. As you add more, the power of each individual word is diminished. At a certain tipping point, all of your words lose all of their value – the point at which people stop reading. ILLUSTRATIVE
© The Treasury 11 PowerPoint is a useful storytelling tool Source: Treasury analysis Requires no explanation beyond report itself Easy way to communicate text-heavy stories Presents clear, well- understood action items Treasury reportAnnotated agendaPowerPointA3 Pros Lends itself to wordiness/ overcommunication, and therefore ignorability Difficult to present in person Poorly suited to sharing charts, graphs, frameworks Cons Codifying and sharing info remotely Ideal use Short and sweet Easily structured (by agenda topic, timeframe) Rarely tells a story Poorly suited to sharing charts, graphs, frameworks Pre-meeting prep Structuring a meeting agenda Highly versatile (can be tailored for in-person presentation, or for sharing info remotely) Well-suited to sharing charts, graphs, frameworks Rarely tells a story Lends itself to vague, confusing, cluttered messaging Telling a story in person, or guiding a discussion Communicating visually Only one pageSharing informational snapshots Takes longer to structure and format (typically) Easy to misuse and render illegible
© The Treasury Slide rules 12 When the Treasury tells clear, compelling stories, the MoF can make better, faster decisions Distribution of the MoF’s time* Percent * These proportions are illustrative Listening to advice The MoF is very busy and cannot possibly learn everything about everything. Given his limited time and information, he depends on the Treasury to advise him as clearly as possible on the correct decision to take. The more time he can spend making decisions rather than listening, the more time he will have available for speeches, etc. Making decisions Hugging babies Giving speeches Too long Too short Source: Treasury analysis Title: The thesis of your slide. Everything fits underneath. Only one point per slide. Legend Key takeaways from analysis Footnote Source Description of analysis, with units included Source: Treasury analysis; McKinsey & Co. Legislating See Appendix for other slide templates
© The Treasury Slide tricks 13 Source: Treasury analysis Shortcut Drag in line; increase object size while holding proportions constant HOLD: Click + Shift + Drag Hotkeys CopyHOLD: Click + Ctrl + Drag Drag in line while copyingHOLD: Click + Shift + Ctrl + Drag View: Slide SorterAlt + W + I Align selected: Left Centre Right Top Middle Bottom Vertically Horizontally Alt + H + V + A + L C R T M B V H Enter text box (without clicking)F2 Paste specialAlt + E + S Group items Ungroup items Alt + H + G + G Alt + H + G + U
© The Treasury AGENDA 14 Telling stories with PowerPoint Exercise #1: The Story Exercise #2: The Slide 30 min 40 min 20 min Agenda ItemTiming Focus of section
© The Treasury Exercise #1: The Story 15 Note: For the exercises, you should have brought along a copy of a PowerPoint slide pack you made in the past, or are currently working on.* *If you do not have your own slide pack, you can borrow from existing Treasury materials for this exercise. Write down the story of your slide pack – one bullet for each headline. Rewrite the story in no more than 5 bullets in line with the guidelines of this training. Imagine you just got into an elevator with the MoF and Gabs, and you have until the 12 th floor to tell them everything that matters (and nothing that doesn’t). Share your reflections with the group 5 min 15 min 20 min InstructionsTiming
© The Treasury AGENDA 16 Telling stories with PowerPoint Exercise #1: The Story Exercise #2: The Slide 30 min 40 min 20 min Agenda ItemTiming Focus of section
© The Treasury Exercise #2: The Slide 17 Note: For the exercises, you should have brought along a copy of a PowerPoint slide pack you made in the past, or are currently working on.* *If you do not have your own slide pack, you can borrow from existing Treasury materials for this exercise. Pick a slide from your story and rewrite it by hand. Share your reflections with the group 10 min InstructionsTiming Example – sketching nine slides per page
© The Treasury APPENDIX 18
© The Treasury Common types of slides 19 Source: McKinsey & Co.
© The Treasury “The Gant Chart”: Tool for workplanning 20 Week 1Week 2Week 3Week 4Week 5Week 6Owner Plan for XYZ Workstreams Workstream #1 Source:Treasury analysis; McKinsey & Co. Name 1 Workstream #2 Name 2 Workstream #3 Name 1 Workstream #4 Name 3 MoF meeting Date
© The Treasury 21 “The 2x2”: Tool for intervention prioritisation Impact # people affected X living standards opportunity $ cost Feasibility Likelihood of success List of interventionsImpactFeasibility Fix housing affordabilityBigLow More frequent happy hours Very bigHigh Storytelling in PowerPoint Medium ILLUSTRATIVE Source: Treasury analysis Create list of interventions or policy options… …and map to 2x2 matrix in order to prioritise AVOID LOW HANGING FRUIT NO BRAINER PICK AND CHOOSE
© The Treasury 22 “The Issue Tree”: MECE approach to problem solving Auckland Source: Treasury analysis Christchurch Other metros Rest of NZ Supply DemandRaw land Serviced land w/ infrastructure Zoning Resource constraints Construction issues Investment in owner-occupied housing Consumption through renting Investment in non-owner- occupied housing Example from Housing Narrative project scoping DescriptionData sourceOwner Note: Some sections might be further broken down into subcategories (e.g., “building consents”, “construction sector efficiency”, “raw materials costs”, “infra/dev. contributions”, “credit markets”)
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