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A parallel pebble game with applications to expression evaluation Lecture 11

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Parallel pebble game on binary tree Within the game each node v of the tree has associated with it similar node denoted by cond(v). At the outset of the game cond(v)=v, for all v During the game the pairs (v,cond(v)) can be thought of as additional edges Node v is ”active” if and only if cond(v) v

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Pebbling Pebbling a node denotes the fact that in the current state of the game the processor associated with that node has sufficient information to evaluate the subtree rooted here

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Three operations active, square and pebble Activate for all non-leaf nodes v in parallel do if v is not active and precisely one of its sons is pebbled then cond(v) becomes the other son if v is not active and both sons are pebbled then cond(v) becomes one of the sons arbitrarily Square for all nodes v in parallel do cond(v) cond(cond(v)) Pebble for all nodes v in parallel do if cond(v) is pebbled then pebble v

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Key result At the outset of the game only the leaves of the tree are pebbled. One composite move of the pebbling game is the sequence of individual operations (activate, square, square, pebble) Theorem Let T be a binary tree with n leaves. If initially only the leaves are pebbled then after log 2 n moves of the pebbling game the root of T becomes pebbled.

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Example activate square pebbling

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The application of the pebbling game Consider the arithmetic expression ((3+(2*2))*3+5) We assign a processor to each non-leaf node of the tree. + 5 * + 3 * 22 3

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+ 5 * + 3 * 22 3 + 5 * + 3 * 22 3 + 5 * + 3 * 22 3 + 5 * + 3 * 22 3 X*2 X+3 X*3 X+5 3x+5 3x+9 2x+3 2x 3(2x+3)+5 3(2x)+9 2x+3 2x

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Evaluation of arithmetic expressions Arithmetic expressions can be evaluated on a PRAM in O(log n) time using O(n) processors.

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