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Confidence/Optimism Dr. Green. Aristotle Emotions come in pairs Individuals and societies oscillate between the pairs Fear and confidence are a basic.

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Presentation on theme: "Confidence/Optimism Dr. Green. Aristotle Emotions come in pairs Individuals and societies oscillate between the pairs Fear and confidence are a basic."— Presentation transcript:

1 Confidence/Optimism Dr. Green

2 Aristotle Emotions come in pairs Individuals and societies oscillate between the pairs Fear and confidence are a basic pair

3 Confidence The nearness of what keeps us safe = presence of what inspires confidence The absence or remoteness of what is terrible = the absence of what causes alarm

4 Justified Confidence Affirmative Conditions Actions – if we can take steps -- many, or important, or both -- to cure or prevent trouble – we have often met danger and escaped it safely. – they may have means to deal with it Beliefs – we believe we have often succeeded and never suffered reverses, – at the outset of an enterprise, we believe that we cannot fail – at the outset of an enterprise, we believe that we shall not fail – at the outset of an enterprise, we believe that we shall succeed completely – we have good grounds for these beliefs

5 Unjustified Confidence Affirmative Conditions Actions – they may have no experience of it Beliefs – no good grounds for the previous beliefs – Gods are on my side

6 Justified Confidence Negative Conditions whenever there is nothing to terrify other people like ourselves, whenever there is nothing to terrify people weaker than ourselves, whenever there is nothing to terrify people whom we believe ourselves to be stronger we have good grounds for these beliefs

7 Unjustified Confidence Negative Conditions we do not have good grounds for these beliefs

8 Confidence optimism bias – we expect to live longer and be more successful than the average – we tend to underestimate the likelihood of getting a serious disease or a divorce. Brain area: – the rostral anterior cingulated – amygdala


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