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THE BIRTH OF DRAMA MYSTERY PLAYS MORALITY PLAYS ENGLISH PLAYHOUSES THE AUDIENCE THE ACTORS Raffaella Mannori 2013-2014 THE BIRTH OF DRAMA OBJECTIONS TO.

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Presentation on theme: "THE BIRTH OF DRAMA MYSTERY PLAYS MORALITY PLAYS ENGLISH PLAYHOUSES THE AUDIENCE THE ACTORS Raffaella Mannori 2013-2014 THE BIRTH OF DRAMA OBJECTIONS TO."— Presentation transcript:

1 THE BIRTH OF DRAMA MYSTERY PLAYS MORALITY PLAYS ENGLISH PLAYHOUSES THE AUDIENCE THE ACTORS Raffaella Mannori THE BIRTH OF DRAMA OBJECTIONS TO PLAYHOUSES SOME IMPORTANT DATES

2 THE BIRTH OF DRAMA Raffaella Mannori THE BIRTH OF DRAMA LITURGICAL LITURGICAL DRAMA MYSTERY PLAYS MORALITY MORALITY PLAYS INTERLUDES

3 MYSTERY PLAYS Raffaella Mannori

4 MYSTERY PLAYS The history of English drama begins with the elaboration of the ecclesiastical liturgy; The rituals of Christian church at Christmas and Easter were inherently dramatic ( mutually answering dialogues between the priest and the choir); This liturgical dram moved out of the church, first into the churchyard and then into the market place ; Once outside the church vernacular ousted Latin and the story elements include the whole range of sacred history from thecreation to the Last Judgement; Liturgical drama gave way to plays in English, performed in the open, not related to liturgy but still religious in subject matters; Their organisation and financing passed into lay hands :trade guilds took over the sponsoring of the plays Raffaella Mannori

5 MYSTERY PLAYS Raffaella Mannori

6 Morality PLAYS They differ from MYRACLE PLAYS because they didn’t deal with biblical stories but with personified abstractions of virtues and vices, who struggle for man’ssoul; They developed in the 15° century ; Other common themes were THE DANCE OF DEATH ( in which Death comes and summons all, high and low alike) and the SEVEN DEADLY SINS Raffaella Mannori

7 EVERYMAN Raffaella Mannori

8 EVERYMAN EVERYMAN is summoned by death to make long journey from which there is no return ; he looks for friends to accompany him, but neither FELLOWSHI and GOOD DEEDS are willing to act as guide. Raffaella Mannori

9 THE INTERLUDE A kind of secular morality play with comic and realistic elements; a sort of playlet which oiginated as a performance between the courses of a banquet; it marked the transiction from medieval religious drama to Tudor secular drama Raffaella Mannori

10 Elisabethan playhouses Raffaella Mannori

11 The world of the theatre The building of permanent playhouses in London marked a break with the past. The beginning of the plays was announced by the hoisting of a flag and the blowing of a trumpet London’s permanent theatres Raffaella Mannori

12 The world of the theatre Towards the end of the 16th century, several theatres were built. The Curtain (by James Burbage, 1577) The Rose (by Henslowe, 1587) The Swan (by Francis Langley, 1595) The Globe (by Richard Burbage, 1599) The Fortune (by Henslowe, 1600) At the end of the reign of Elisabeth there were 11 theatres in London, including public and private houses Raffaella Mannori SOME IMPORTANT DATES The Elisabethan theatrical world ( in which theatres were closed down by the Puritans who controlled the City of London) The first permanent public theatre :The Theatre (by James Burbage, 1576)

13 The world of the theatre Respectable people and officers of the Church often made complaints of the growing numners of play-actors :  the plays were often lewd and profane;  the play-actors were often vagrants, irresponsible and immoral people;  the taverns and disreputable houses were often found in the neighbourhood of the theatres;  theatre itself was a public danger in the ay of spreading diseases;  the streets were overcrowded after perfomances and so crimes occured in the crowd and beggars infested the theatre section  Elisabeth ‘s policy was to compromise she regulated abuses but allowed the theatre to thrive.  In 1576 one oredr prohibitd all theatrical performances within the city bounderies  This banishment was not a misfortne but a cause of immediate growth : across the iver there was room or as many thaetres as people desired. OBJECTIONS TO PLAYHOUSES Raffaella Mannori

14 The world of the theatre The playhouses: were round or octagonal in shape; were 12 metres high; had a diameter of 25 metres; had a rectangular stage. The Architecture of Theatres Raffaella Mannori

15 The world of the theatre The same basic structure consisted of: a stage partially covered by a thatched roof supported by two pillars and projected into a central area. Internal layout Raffaella Mannori

16 The world of the theatre The structure included three tiers of galleries around the stage with actor’s dressing room at the back. Internal layout Raffaella Mannori

17 Elisabethan playhouses Raffaella Mannori

18 Elisabethan playhouses Raffaella Mannori

19 The world of the theatre The spectators ate and drank during the performance. They freely expressed their emotions with laughter or tears. They had a relish for language and long speeches. The audience Raffaella Mannori

20 The world of the theatre They were eager for sensation and overwhelming emotion. They loved metaphor and extremes. They enjoyed thrills and horror. They loved chronicles and history plays with heroic deeds (strong national feeling). The audience Raffaella Mannori

21 The world of the theatre Actors had to join a company of a prominent figure and bear his livery and arms (The Chamberlain’s Men of Elizabeth I and the King’s Men of James I). Theatrical companies were gradually transformed from irregular associations of men dependent on the favour of a lord to stable business organisations The actors Raffaella Mannori

22 The world of the theatre  An actor’s shareholding depended on the sum he invested to buy props and costumes of which he was joint owner.  They :  share in the profits and the expenses;  handle the financial questions;  hire extra stff;  decide which play to perfom;  wok as stage- hands The actors Raffaella Mannori

23 The world of the theatre They had to vary their repertoire. They had no more than two weeks to prepare a new play. The actors Raffaella Mannori They often found themselves playing several roles in the same performance. They should have excellent memory.

24 The world of the theatre Companies included 5/6 boys to play female roles until their voices broke. They learnt singing, dancing, diction and feminine gestures and intonation from a very young age. Contemporary audiences found them very convincing. Female roles Raffaella Mannori

25 The world of the theatre Elisabethan drama was the result of a fusion between two different elements : The classical drama of the Renaissance The domestic tradition of mystery plays, morality plays. THE BIRTH OF DRAMA Raffaella Mannori

26 The world of the theatre Mingling of comic and tragic elements ; In the absolute disrespect of the Aristotelian unities of time, place and action; In the concept of crime & punishment, which was a characteristic of morality plays; Tragedy does not spring from the hostility of fate as it does in the Greek tradition but from a flaw in the protagonist’s personality. MEDIEVAL ELEMENTS Raffaella Mannori

27 The world of the theatre Seneca influenced tragedy: A.The theme of revenge; B.The inevitability of Fate; C.The violent treatment of murder, cruelty and lust; D.The stoic moralising; E.The supernatural element in the apparition of ghosts and forwarding dreams CLASSICAL ELEMENTS Raffaella Mannori

28 The world of the theatre  Why did liturgical dram move out of the church?  Fill in the table in the following slide about the characteristics of mystery plays and morality plays:  What does the interlude represent in the development of English drama?  What are the two souls which form the Elisabethan drama ?  What is the «blank verse»?  When was the end of Medieval religious drama?  Which period did Reinassaince drama flouurish in England?  What is the difference between public and private playhouses? QUESTIONS Raffaella Mannori

29 The world of the theatre  Why did liturgical dram move out of the church?  Fill in the table in the following slide about the characteristics of mystery plays and morality plays:  Why was medieval dram important in the develoment of the genre?  What is the «blank verse»?  When was the end of Medieval religious drama?  Which period did Reinassaince drama flouurish in England?  What are the main characteristics of the Reinaissance drama?  What were the main reasons to write for Reinnaissance playwrights?  Who were the «University Wits « and who was the most celebrated among them?  Why was Italy often chosen in English plays as a background for violent crimes and unning behaviour? QUESTIONS Raffaella Mannori

30 The world of the theatre MYSTERY PLAYS vs MORALITY PLAYS Raffaella Mannori MYSTERYMORALITY Subiect Language Characters Setting Sponsoring Place of performance Authorship Actors Most famous


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