2 Poetry Styles Haiku Three lines of poetry Line one: 5 syllables Line two: 7 syllablesLine three: 5 syllablesHaikuIt does not rhymeDeals with ordinary facts of lifeFocuses on one themeDeals with one single momentIt originated in JapanYou moths must leave now,I am turning out the lightAnd going to sleepRichard WrightBored in the classroom;Waiting for the bell to ringFinally it doesMiss Billie
3 warms the sleepy mountain with a Syllable CinquainFive lines of poetryLine one: 2 syllablesLine two: 4 syllablesLine three: 6 syllablesLine four: 8 syllablesLine five: 2 syllablesIt should flow smoothlyIt should present one main ideaIt was invented by Adelaide Crapsey in 1911The skygrows light and pinkas the sun rises andwarms the sleepy mountain with aSoft kiss.
4 Limerick Made up of five lines Line one: is long: rhyme A Line two: is long: rhyme ALine three: is short: rhyme BLine four: is short: rhyme BLine five: is long: rhyme AThe rhyme depends on sound rather than spellingThe last line contains a humorous, witty or unlikely commentHumour can be created by ‘forcing’ a rhymeMade popular by Edward Lear in the 1900’sThere was a young girl in the choirWhose voice rose higher and higher,Till one Sunday nightIt rose quite out of sight,And they found it next day on the spire.
5 Analysing Poetry My friend the sea The sea is my friend beautiful and beckoning.She welcomes me inthen tosses me about like a sailboat in a storm.The sea is my companion;she pulls me under and suspends me in time.The waves crash and caress me;I drown in her wonder.The sea is my foe -grey, gusty, and blustery.On some days she is not happy -overpowering me and sending me to the bottom of theocean.She lets her anger and frustration out like a sea lion on arock - calling, crying, howling and sighing.The sea is my jewel to be admired -circling, swirling, swishing.Reflecting the light and joy of the dayforever changing yet staying the same.The sea holds the secrets to life.Taking the rough with the smoothembracing the danger and enjoying the ride.By Shelley Bell
6 Analysing Poetry My friend the sea The sea is my friend beautiful and beckoning.She welcomes me inthen tosses me about like a sailboat in a storm.The sea is my companion;she pulls me under and suspends me in time.The waves crash and caress me;I drown in her wonder.The sea is my foe -grey, gusty, and blustery.On some days she is not happy -overpowering me and sending me to the bottom of theocean.She lets her anger and frustration out like a sea lion on arock - calling, crying, howling and sighing.The sea is my jewel to be admired -circling, swirling, swishing.Reflecting the light and joy of the dayforever changing yet staying the same.The sea holds the secrets to life.Taking the rough with the smoothembracing the danger and enjoying the ride.By Shelley Bell
7 Analysing Poetry The African Beggar Sprawled in the dust outside the Syrian store,A target for small children, dogs and flies,A heap of verminous rags and matted hair,He watches us with cunning, reptile eyes,His noseless, smallpoxed face creased in a sneer.Sometimes he shows his yellow stumps of teethAnd whines for alms, perceiving that we bearthe curse of pity; a grotesque mask of death,with hands like claws about his begging-bowl.But often he is lying all alonewithin the shadow of a crumbling wall,lost in the trackless jungle of his pain,clutching the pitiless red earth in vainand whimpering like a stricken animal.Raymond Tong
8 Analysis Tone Repulsion, dislike. Then changes to pity; sympathy Mood MoodFutility, desolationThemeDesolation of humanity’s subsistence: the utter helplessness of humanity in the face of adversity, as well as our own neglect of self and others.
9 Introduces the beggar as a repulsive outcast; a thing. Stanza OneIntroduces the beggar as a repulsive outcast; a thing.How?“sprawled in the dust…” – beggar is treated immediately like a thing that has been thrown out – suggests shabby, lawless being.“target…” – (metaphor) beggar continues to be described as a thing – a convenience for others to use; singled out as an object for attack. ‘Dogs’ and ‘flies’ solidly establishes sub-human existence of beggar; ‘flies’ suggest filth, a disease. That he is a target suggests his passiveness and helplessness.“heap of verminous rags and matted hair” – (metaphor) image of beggar is sustained as a thing: ‘verminous’ is associated with the ‘flies’, ‘matted hair’ is associated with filth, dust, neglect of physical hygiene.
10 Stanza One“he watches with cunning reptile eyes” – (metaphor) a dramatic contrast: how can an inhuman bag of bones be capable of subtle and crafty scheming? Likened to an image of a ‘reptile’ – like a snake, he watches, waiting for his prey. The pronoun ‘he’ is used to remind us that this is a person and our revulsion is emphasised, for how can a human being be like us?“noseless, smallpoxed face creased in a sneer” – ‘noseless’, ‘smallpoxed’ suggests disease, leprosy, which adds to the beggars repulsiveness. ‘Sneer’ carries suggestion of the cunning reptile. To ‘sneer’ shows arrogance.
11 Stanza TwoAlthough the poet sustains the image of the beggar as a repulsive outcast, he introduces the sub-theme – our neglect and inadequacies in dealing with the problem of human neglect.How? “Yellow stumps of teeth” – (metaphor) physical ugliness is emphasised; ‘yellow’ is the colour of disease and decay, rotten. Image of ‘stumps’ is more appropriate for an animal than a human being.“whines” – (metaphor) cringing sounds associated with animals.“perceiving that we bear the curse of pity” – poet leaves the description of the beggar and comments on the general attitude to poverty and disease. “The curse of pity”: ‘curse’ suggests bad; ‘pity’ suggests ‘good’. We don’t want to know about it, but if we do we should show pity and offer our help.“grotesque mask of death” – (metaphor) physical deformity and sub-human existence of beggar is emphasised. How can this thing/animal be really alive? ‘Mask of death’ symbolises the ‘face of death’ – an image of death staring at us.“with hands like claws about his begging bowl” – (simile) image is of a skeleton; death-like hands clinging to his only source of existence (the begging bowl).
12 Stanza ThreeStanza Three: Theme of suffering. Our feelings change from repulsion to sympathy. How?“lying all alone” – no longer ‘sprawled’ but ‘lying’ on the ground. The tone here is one of quietness – ‘all alone’ suggests that he is no longer the target for others. It is the time to be aware of his suffering.“shadow of a crumbling wall” – ‘shadow’ suggests absence of light; darkness. An image of loneliness with the shadow of death near. ‘Crumbling’ suggests decay and ruin; the lack of a home.“lost in the trackless jungle of his pain” – (metaphor) pain racks his entire body, so much that it consumes his total energy. ‘Trackless jungle’ suggests the amount of pain – endless – filling and crammed into every part of his body. No escape from this pain.“clutching the pitiless red earth in vain” – (personification) ‘clutching’ suggests the beggar’s desperation. ‘Red’ personifies the blood of life, nourishment, energy and strength, and ‘earth’ is the sole source of humanity’s existence. Even the earth is without pity. All ‘in vain’ – there is no solution, no help.“whimpering like a stricken animal” – (simile) emphasises the beggar’s total suffering’ his total defeat.
13 ELEMENTS OF ANALYSIS DESCRIPTION SUBJECT-MATTERWhat event, situation, or experience does the poem describe or record? Who is the speaker? Is the poet speaking in the role of another person, an animal, a thing? To whom is the speaking talking? What is the time setting - hour of day, season, era? What is the place setting?PURPOSE,THEME, OR MESSAGEWhat seems to be the poet's purpose in writing this - what message, ideas, issues, themes, (etc.) are communicated?EMOTION, MOOD, OR FEELINGWhat is the poet's tone? Watch for shifts in tone especially toward the end of the poem. What is the poet's attitude toward the subject? What is the predominant emotion, or mood, of the poem? Does the mood change during the poem? What emotions or feelings does the poet seek to evoke in the reader / listener?CRAFTSMANSHIP, OR TECHNIQUE (see below)This aspect of the poem deals with specific skills the poet has used in creating his or her work of art: • Structure • Language • Imagery • Movement • SoundSUMMARYHaving analysed the poem, it is important to synthesise (pull all the information together) into a summary. What is the impact of the whole poem for you? How successful is it as a work of art? Does it successfully achieve the poet's purpose or is it flawed in some serious way?
14 Looking Closer at Craftsmanship StructureHow is the poem structured? Does it have a conventional structure such as a sonnet, or an ode? Does it have stanzas with a regular number of lines, or any other interesting features of structural design? Can you identify the type of poem - sonnet, free verse, ballad, etc.? Is the poem lyric, dramatic, narrative, or a combination? How can you tell?LanguageHow would you describe the poet's use of words - vivid, striking, effective or colourless and predictable? What visual images are brought to mind? What sensations does the poem evoke: sound, touch, smell, taste, movement, etc.? What words are used in surprising or imaginative ways? Look for puns. Are there any inverted word orders or sentences? What would be the usual order? What purpose is served by the inversion? Is the language appropriate to subject and/or theme? What effect does the language have on the poem's achievement?ImageryAre there any striking examples of figurative language used? What things are compared (similes, metaphors, personifications or symbols) in the poem? Are their analogies or conceits? What is their effect?Movement or RhythmDoes the poem have a regular (slow or fast) rhythm? What is the effect of any rhythmic qualities?SoundsDoes the poem have any significant sound features? Is it musical? Does the poet use onomatopoeia, alliteration, or assonance? Does the poem rhyme? What are the effects of these features of sound on the achievement of the poem?