Presentation on theme: "Medieval, Renaissance, & Baroque Music"— Presentation transcript:
1 Medieval, Renaissance, & Baroque Music Chapter 17
2 What you will learnIdentify the 6 historical periods of Western classical musicIdentify significant composers of the Renaissance and Baroque periods in Western classical musicExplain the contributions of Guido Arezzo, J.S. Bach, Jean-Philippe Rameau, and Antonio VivaldiDescribe the transition of harmonic texture from monophonic to polyphonic and , later, to homophonic texture.
5 The Foundations of Western Classical Music Most musical traditions developed in Western EuropeThe roots of classical musicTraced back to ancient Greece and RomePythagoras and Aristoxenus developed theories about the relationship among musical soundsThe Western music system is based on these theories.PythagorasAristoxenus
6 Medieval Church Music (450-1450) Earliest surviving classical musicChurch led in all aspects of lifeChurch music became the foundation of Western classical musicPlainsongmusic with no strict meter or accompaniment, sung by a single voice or unison choirbest known example isGregorian chant, named of Pope Gregory.
7 Medieval Church Music Monophonic – Parallel organum – having a single melodic lineGregorian chant - Deum verum - YouTubeParallel organum –compositional method in which two voice parts sing the same melody, one a perfect forth or fifth higher than the otherA way for composer to avoid restrictions of plainsongAn early attempt at harmonyActivity 1, p. 384– “Hymn to St. John the Baptist”
8 Technical Breakthroughs in Medieval Music Chant was learned by rote and passed by earNo score –written notationNeumes –markings over or under the text to signal pitch changesFirst attempts to preserve plainsong in notated formGregorian Chant Notation - neumes
9 Guido of Arezzo ( )Credited with devising the first true system of staff notationBased on 4 line staffEvolved into today’s systemSolmization –method of assigning a syllabic name to each tone of the scaleBasis of do-re-mi system of solfege
10 The Rise of Secular Music Secular – nonreligiousSinging and dancing were common social activitiesArt of communication through original songs was importantTroubadours – traveling poet-musiciansSongs told news and other stories
11 Activity 2, p. 386 CD 11: 6 & 5 “Estampie” – medieval dance What is the meter?What instrument plays the melody?Compare the musical characteristics of “Estampie” to “Hymn to St. John the Baptist”
12 Activity 3 p. 387 CD 11:7“Prendes i Garde” by Guillaume d’Amiens (13th century)translation p. 387 – lyrics tell of a secret meeting between two loversmusic p. 388
13 Renaissance (1450-1700) Renaissance – Secularism was more important a rebirth and revival of human creativitySecularism was more importantHumanism –the emphasis on human values and capabilitiesMoved society away from the churchMuch of our thinking today is based on the ideas began at this time.Leonardo da Vinci, Michelangelo, Raphael
17 Renaissance Music Motet – Madrigals – polyphonic choral compositions based on sacred textsMadrigals –nonreligious vocal works in several partsMore emphasis on instrumental musicInstruments were more than background, they had their own partMelody and harmony were balanced
18 Michael Praetorius (1571-1621) Wrote sacred hymns, motets, madrigals, and dance piecesHis instrumental music showed the new focus on instruments
19 Activity 4 p. 390 CD 11:8“La bouree” from Terpsichore (1612) – shows the instruments of this periodDescribe the tempo and metric organization of the musicDescribe how contrast is achieved in the musicName the instruments you hear
20 Word Painting Word painting – music that portrays the meaning of the words of the textRenaissance composers discovered the power of languageThey chose poems and colored the words with musical harmoniesThomas Weelkes ( ) – English composers who used this device“As Vesta Was Descending” – six-voice madrigal
21 Activity 5, p. 391 CD 11:9 “As Vesta Was Descending” by Thomas Weelkes Text p. 392 & handoutWhat is this madrigal about?Describe the mood of the music and the text.What musical characteristics helped you make your decision?Is the word painting in the madrigal obvious or subtle?How did Weelkes “paint” the meaning of the text in his music?
22 Sacred Music in the Renaissance Two main formsMotetLatin textShort compositionMassExtended work5 sections –Kyrie, Gloria, Credo, Sanctus, and Agnus DieGiovanni Perluigi da Palestrina ( ) Renaissance ideal of the mass
23 Activity 6, p. 392 CD 11:10“Kyrie” from Pope Marcellus Mass by PalestrinaHow is the organization of the voices different in the Christe eleison section?Which of the following describes the development of each section?Starts thick, ends thinStarts thin, end thickIs thin throughout
24 Early Baroque Period Baroque – Greek ideals were abandoned stylistic period betweenGreek ideals were abandonedEmotion – more drama and freedomArtists used graceful, free-form curves instead of geometric shapes
25 Baroque Art David by Bernini Martyrdom of St. Januarius 1635-40
26 Baroque MusicMain purpose was to move the listener by sustaining and contrasting emotionsTerraced dynamics –layered dynamic levels with a composition
27 The Beginnings of Opera First appeared around 1600Used the solo voice to communicate a text’s meaningSimplified instrumental accompanimentContinuo –an accompaniment consisting of a harpsichord sounding the chords and a viola da gamba(a low bowed string instrument) reinforcing the bass line
29 The Beginnings of Opera Recitative –speaking musicallyAllowed characters to tell the storyMimics the inflections of speech but uses melody and rhythm to enhance the words’ emotional meaningStill used todayAria –songlike, a pause in the story while a character reacts to the events
30 Orfeo (1607) By Claudio Monteverdi Greek tragedytells of Orpheus’s descent into Hell to retrieve his dead bride EurydiceHe pleads his case in song so well that he is allowed to take her but he can’t look back so see if she is followingHe looks back and she is lostApollo takes him to a cloud where he can watch herFor soloists, chorus, and orchestraConsists of recitatives, arias, madrigals, and orchestral music
31 Tu se’ morta (You are Dead) Recitative conveying grief with melody and rhythmClimatic high notes on rimango(remain), stelle(stars), and sole(sun).High notes let the singer express emotions such as excitement, grief.Low tones express despair and death.He uses word painting – stelle on highest note and profondi abissi (deep abysses) and morta (death) on lowest.
32 Activity 7, p. 396 CD 11:11 & 9Compare “Tu se’ morta” (figure 17-5, p. 396)with “As Vesta Was Descending” (figure 17-4, p. 392)How many voices are singing in each composition?What instruments can you identify in each one?Which composition is homophonic? Polyphonic?Which composer has set the words of the text much like speech?Which setting of text makes the meaning of the words clearer? Why?
33 Claudio Monteverdi (1567-1643) Born in ItalyWanted to create music of emotional intensityStyle was full of agitation, excitement, and passionNew harmonic classesInventor of opera
34 Late Baroque Period Fugue – a rich polyphonic composition consisting of a series of successive melody imitationsDerived from the German word meaning “chase”Subject – main themeAnswer – an imitation of the subject in a different voiceCountersubject – a figure that follows the subject or answer, usually in the same voice
35 Activity 8, p. 401, CD 11:12 Figure 17-6, p. 398 Bach’s Fugue No. 16 in g minorHas four voices, but all four are not always playingPink = subjectBlue = counter subjectThe 1st voice enters with the theme in m. 1The 2nd voice answers, at a higher pitch, in m. 2The 3rd voice enters in m. 5, at a lower pitchThe 4th voice responds in m. 12
36 The Development of Functional Hamony Jean Philippe Rameau ( )Treatise on Harmony (1722) – set the rules of harmonization, still followed todayTurning point in Baroque musicComposers began to think of chords and harmony, not just melody
37 Activity 9, p. 402 CD 11:13 “Tambourin” by Jean Philippe Rameau Identify the form of the compositionHow is contrast achievedHow would you describe the melody in the opening and closing sections of the composition?What percussion instrument is Rameau attempting to suggest in sound?
38 The ConcertoIn Italy, great violin makers were making great instrumentsBaroque composers wrote for strings the way Renaissance composers wrote for voicesNew forms of instrumental music were inventedComposers became interested in contrasts of timbreConcerto –solo parts alternated with a group of instruments
39 Antonio Vivaldi (1678-1741) Wrote the greatest Baroque concertos Produced more than 500Established the 3-movement scheme: fast, slow, fastMost were for solo violin and orchestraOccasionally wrote a concerto grosso – small group of soloists and orchestraRipieno – orchestra, had simpler easily remembered themes that were repeatedConcertino – soloists, had more difficult part
40 Antonio VivaldiStudies to be a priest but was also a violinist and harpsichordist harpsichordBecame the director of music at a girls’ orphanageWrote music for the girls for 40 years
41 The Four Seasons (1725) Most celebrated of Vivaldi’s concertos Four concertos named: “Spring,” “Summer,” “Autumn,” and “Winter”Violin in the foreground – string orchestra and harpsichord in the backgroundHomophonic texture – blending , foreshadows the preferred texture of the Classical period
42 Activity 10, p.405 CD 11:14 “Spring” from The Four Seasons Using the “Spring” listening puzzle handout, arrange the blocks in the order in which you hear them.
43 Review Be able to define the following words Word painting Terraced dynamicsSolmizationScoreRenaissanceContinuoMotetsNeumesParallel organumPlainsong
44 Word painting Plainsong Parallel Organum Neumes Solimization Music that portrays the meaning of the words of the textWord paintingPlainsongMusic with no strict meter or accompaniment, sung by a single voiceParallel OrganumCompositional method in which two voice parts sing the same melody, a perfect fourth or fifth higher than the otherMarkings over or under the text to signal pitch changesNeumesSolimizationMethod of assigning a syllabic name to each tone of the scale
45 Renaissance Motets Madrigals Terraced Dynamics Score Continuo Rebirth and revival of human creativityMotetsPolyphonic choral compositions based on sacred texts of RenaissanceNonreligious vocal works in several parts of RenaissanceMadrigalsTerraced DynamicsLayered dynamic levels within a compositionScoreWritten notationAn accompaniment consisting of a harpsichord sounding the chords and a viola da gamba(a low bowed string instrument) reinforcing the bass lineContinuo
46 Sacred Music Guido of Arezzo Greeks Fugue Foundation of Western classical musicGuido of ArezzoDevised a notation system based on a four-line staffGreeksEstablished the octave as the basic mathematical unit in musicFugueDerived from a German word meaning “chase”
47 ReviewWhen was each song or book written? Medieval, Renaissance, Early Baroque, or Late Baroque?“Estampie”“As Vesta was Descending”“Tu se’ morta”Gregorian chant“Prendes i garde”Treatise on HarmonyFugue No. 16 in g minorThe Four Seasons“La Bouree”Pope Marcellus Mass
48 Renaissance Medieval Songs & Books Early Baroque Late Baroque “As Vesta was Descending”“La Bouree”Pope Marcellus MassMedieval“Estampie”Gregorian chant“Prendes i garde”Songs & Books“Estampie”“As Vesta was Descending”“Tu se’ morta”Gregorian chant“Prendes i garde”Treatise on HarmonyFugue No. 16 in g minorThe Four Seasons“La Bouree”Pope Marcellus MassEarly Baroque“Tu se’ morta”Late BaroqueTreatise on HarmonyFugue No. 16 in g minorThe Four Seasons
49 ReviewTransition of harmonic texture from monophonic to polyphonic and later homophonic textureMedieval music - monophonic(plainsong and madrigals)Renaissance music – polyphonic (motets)Baroque musicPolyphonic music was perfectedHomophonic music was in later Baroque era
50 Sacred vs. Secular Music in the Medieval Period ReligiousChurch musicA capella – no instrumentsPlainsong with no strict meterSung by a single voice or unison choirNon-religiousMusic for dancing and singingPerformed by instruments and voices