Presentation on theme: "Chapter 17. What you will learn Identify the 6 historical periods of Western classical music Identify significant composers of the Renaissance and Baroque."— Presentation transcript:
What you will learn Identify the 6 historical periods of Western classical music Identify significant composers of the Renaissance and Baroque periods in Western classical music Explain the contributions of Guido Arezzo, J.S. Bach, Jean-Philippe Rameau, and Antonio Vivaldi Describe the transition of harmonic texture from monophonic to polyphonic and, later, to homophonic texture.
Vocabulary Plainsong Paralle organum Score Neumes Solmization Renaissance Motets Madrigals Word painting Baroque period Terraced dynamics Continuo Fugue Concerto
Musician Profiles Claudio Monteverdi Antonio Vivaldi
The Foundations of Western Classical Music Most musical traditions developed in Western Europe The roots of classical music Traced back to ancient Greece and Rome Pythagoras and Aristoxenus developed theories about the relationship among musical sounds The Western music system is based on these theories. AristoxenusPythagoras
Medieval Church Music ( ) Earliest surviving classical music Church led in all aspects of life Church music became the foundation of Western classical music Plainsong music with no strict meter or accompaniment, sung by a single voice or unison choir best known example is Gregorian chant, named of Pope Gregory.
Medieval Church Music Monophonic – having a single melodic line Gregorian chant - Deum verum - YouTube Parallel organum – compositional method in which two voice parts sing the same melody, one a perfect forth or fifth higher than the other A way for composer to avoid restrictions of plainsong An early attempt at harmony Activity 1, p. 384– “Hymn to St. John the Baptist” Activity 1, p. 384
Technical Breakthroughs in Medieval Music Chant was learned by rote and passed by ear No score – written notation Neumes – markings over or under the text to signal pitch changes First attempts to preserve plainsong in notated form Gregorian Chant Notation - neumes
Guido of Arezzo ( ) Credited with devising the first true system of staff notation Based on 4 line staff Evolved into today’s system Solmization – method of assigning a syllabic name to each tone of the scale Basis of do-re-mi system of solfege
The Rise of Secular Music Secular – nonreligious Singing and dancing were common social activities Art of communication through original songs was important Troubadours – traveling poet-musicians Songs told news and other stories
Activity 2, p. 386 CD 11: 6 & 56 5 “Estampie” – medieval dance What is the meter? What instrument plays the melody? Compare the musical characteristics of “Estampie” to “Hymn to St. John the Baptist”
Activity 3 p. 387 CD 11:7CD 11:7 “Prendes i Garde” by Guillaume d’Amiens (13 th century) translation p. 387 – lyrics tell of a secret meeting between two lovers music p. 388
Renaissance ( ) Renaissance – a rebirth and revival of human creativity Secularism was more important Humanism – the emphasis on human values and capabilities Moved society away from the church Much of our thinking today is based on the ideas began at this time. Leonardo da Vinci, Michelangelo, Raphael
Alba Madonna by Raphael
The Virgin, Child, and St. Anne by Leonardo da Vinci
Sistine chapel ceiling by Michelangalo
Renaissance Music Motet – polyphonic choral compositions based on sacred texts Madrigals – nonreligious vocal works in several parts More emphasis on instrumental music Instruments were more than background, they had their own part Melody and harmony were balanced
Michael Praetorius ( ) Wrote sacred hymns, motets, madrigals, and dance pieces His instrumental music showed the new focus on instruments
Activity 4 p. 390 CD 11:8CD 11:8 “La bouree” from Terpsichore (1612) – shows the instruments of this period Describe the tempo and metric organization of the music Describe how contrast is achieved in the music Name the instruments you hear
Word Painting Word painting – music that portrays the meaning of the words of the text Renaissance composers discovered the power of language They chose poems and colored the words with musical harmonies Thomas Weelkes ( ) – English composers who used this device “As Vesta Was Descending” – six-voice madrigal
Activity 5, p. 391 CD 11:9CD 11:9 “As Vesta Was Descending” by Thomas WeelkesAs Vesta Was Descending Text p. 392 & handout What is this madrigal about? Describe the mood of the music and the text. What musical characteristics helped you make your decision? Is the word painting in the madrigal obvious or subtle? How did Weelkes “paint” the meaning of the text in his music?
Sacred Music in the Renaissance Two main forms Motet Latin text Short composition Mass Latin text Extended work 5 sections – Kyrie, Gloria, Credo, Sanctus, and Agnus Die Giovanni Perluigi da Palestrina ( ) Renaissance ideal of the mass
Activity 6, p. 392 CD 11:10CD 11:10 “Kyrie” from Pope Marcellus Mass by PalestrinaKyrie” from Pope Marcellus Mass How is the organization of the voices different in the Christe eleison section? Which of the following describes the development of each section? Starts thick, ends thin Starts thin, end thick Is thin throughout
Early Baroque Period Baroque – stylistic period between Greek ideals were abandoned Emotion – more drama and freedom Artists used graceful, free-form curves instead of geometric shapes
Baroque Art David by BerniniMartyrdom of St. Januarius
Baroque Music Main purpose was to move the listener by sustaining and contrasting emotions Terraced dynamics – layered dynamic levels with a composition
The Beginnings of Opera First appeared around 1600 Used the solo voice to communicate a text’s meaning Simplified instrumental accompaniment Continuo – an accompaniment consisting of a harpsichord sounding the chords and a viola da gamba(a low bowed string instrument) reinforcing the bass line
Viola da gamba
The Beginnings of Opera Recitative – speaking musically Allowed characters to tell the story Mimics the inflections of speech but uses melody and rhythm to enhance the words’ emotional meaning Still used today Aria – songlike, a pause in the story while a character reacts to the events
Orfeo (1607) By Claudio Monteverdi Greek tragedy tells of Orpheus’s descent into Hell to retrieve his dead bride Eurydice He pleads his case in song so well that he is allowed to take her but he can’t look back so see if she is following He looks back and she is lost Apollo takes him to a cloud where he can watch her For soloists, chorus, and orchestra Consists of recitatives, arias, madrigals, and orchestral music
Tu se’ morta (You are Dead) Recitative conveying grief with melody and rhythm Climatic high notes on rimango(remain), stelle(stars), and sole(sun). High notes let the singer express emotions such as excitement, grief. Low tones express despair and death. He uses word painting – stelle on highest note and profondi abissi (deep abysses) and morta (death) on lowest.
Activity 7, p. 396 CD 11:11 & 911:119 Compare “Tu se’ morta” (figure 17-5, p. 396)with “As Vesta Was Descending” (figure 17-4, p. 392)Tu se’ mortaAs Vesta Was Descending How many voices are singing in each composition? What instruments can you identify in each one? Which composition is homophonic? Polyphonic? Which composer has set the words of the text much like speech? Which setting of text makes the meaning of the words clearer? Why?
Claudio Monteverdi ( ) Born in Italy Wanted to create music of emotional intensity Style was full of agitation, excitement, and passion New harmonic classes Inventor of opera
Late Baroque Period Fugue – a rich polyphonic composition consisting of a series of successive melody imitations Derived from the German word meaning “chase” Subject – main theme Answer – an imitation of the subject in a different voice Countersubject – a figure that follows the subject or answer, usually in the same voice
Activity 8, p. 401, CD 11:12 Figure 17-6, p. 398CD 11:12 Bach’s Fugue No. 16 in g minor Has four voices, but all four are not always playing Pink = subject Blue = counter subject The 1 st voice enters with the theme in m. 1 The 2 nd voice answers, at a higher pitch, in m. 2 The 3 rd voice enters in m. 5, at a lower pitch The 4 th voice responds in m. 12
The Development of Functional Hamony Jean Philippe Rameau ( ) Treatise on Harmony (1722) – set the rules of harmonization, still followed today Turning point in Baroque music Composers began to think of chords and harmony, not just melody
Activity 9, p. 402 CD 11:13CD 11:13 “Tambourin” by Jean Philippe Rameau Identify the form of the composition How is contrast achieved How would you describe the melody in the opening and closing sections of the composition? What percussion instrument is Rameau attempting to suggest in sound?
The Concerto In Italy, great violin makers were making great instruments Baroque composers wrote for strings the way Renaissance composers wrote for voices New forms of instrumental music were invented Composers became interested in contrasts of timbre Concerto – solo parts alternated with a group of instruments
Antonio Vivaldi ( ) Wrote the greatest Baroque concertos Produced more than 500 Established the 3-movement scheme: fast, slow, fast Most were for solo violin and orchestra Occasionally wrote a concerto grosso – small group of soloists and orchestra Ripieno – orchestra, had simpler easily remembered themes that were repeated Concertino – soloists, had more difficult part
Antonio Vivaldi Studies to be a priest but was also a violinist and harpsichordist harpsichordharpsichord Became the director of music at a girls’ orphanage Wrote music for the girls for 40 years
The Four Seasons (1725) Most celebrated of Vivaldi’s concertos Four concertos named: “Spring,” “Summer,” “Autumn,” and “Winter” Violin in the foreground – string orchestra and harpsichord in the background Homophonic texture – blending, foreshadows the preferred texture of the Classical period
Activity 10, p.405 CD 11:14CD 11:14 “Spring” from The Four SeasonsSpring Using the “Spring” listening puzzle handout, arrange the blocks in the order in which you hear them.
Review Be able to define the following words Word painting Terraced dynamics Solmization Score Renaissance Continuo Motets Neumes Parallel organum Plainsong
Word painting Music that portrays the meaning of the words of the text Plainsong Music with no strict meter or accompaniment, sung by a single voice Parallel Organum Compositional method in which two voice parts sing the same melody, a perfect fourth or fifth higher than the other Neumes Markings over or under the text to signal pitch changes Solimization Method of assigning a syllabic name to each tone of the scale
Renaissance Rebirth and revival of human creativity Motets Polyphonic choral compositions based on sacred texts of Renaissance Madrigals Nonreligious vocal works in several parts of Renaissance Layered dynamic levels within a composition Terraced Dynamics Continuo An accompaniment consisting of a harpsichord sounding the chords and a viola da gamba(a low bowed string instrument) reinforcing the bass line Written notation Score
Foundation of Western classical music Devised a notation system based on a four-line staff Established the octave as the basic mathematical unit in music Fugue Derived from a German word meaning “chase” Greeks Guido of Arezzo Sacred Music
Review When was each song or book written? Medieval, Renaissance, Early Baroque, or Late Baroque? “Estampie” “As Vesta was Descending” “Tu se’ morta” Gregorian chant “Prendes i garde” Treatise on Harmony Fugue No. 16 in g minor The Four Seasons “La Bouree” Pope Marcellus Mass
Medieval “Estampie” Gregorian chant “Prendes i garde” Renaissance “ As Vesta was Descending” “La Bouree” Pope Marcellus Mass Early Baroque “Tu se’ morta” Late Baroque Treatise on Harmony Fugue No. 16 in g minor The Four Seasons Songs & Books“Estampie” “As Vesta was Descending” “Tu se’ morta” Gregorian chant “Prendes i garde” Treatise on Harmony Fugue No. 16 in g minor The Four Seasons “La Bouree” Pope Marcellus Mass
Review Transition of harmonic texture from monophonic to polyphonic and later homophonic texture Medieval music - monophonic(plainsong and madrigals) Renaissance music – polyphonic (motets) Baroque music Polyphonic music was perfected Homophonic music was in later Baroque era
Sacred vs. Secular Music in the Medieval Period Sacred Secular Religious Church music A capella – no instruments Plainsong with no strict meter Sung by a single voice or unison choir Non-religious Music for dancing and singing Performed by instruments and voices