2Gothic: applied primarily to architecture, as well as some painting and sculpture produced in W. Europe from the mid 1100’s – 1500’s in France and some parts of Europe. Term was first used by Italians to denigrate the art preceding their own Renaissance style. Literally, Gothic = Germanic tribes who invaded Greece and Italy and sacked Rome in 410. Goths were blamed for destroying what remained of the Classical style. Origins: – originated in Ile – de – France, region in N. France that was the personal domain of the French Royal Family. The credit for the style goes to one remarkable man, Abbot Suger. Suger conceived a plan to enlarge and rebuild the 8th century Carolingian church of Saint-Denis. He searched for a new kind of architecture to reinforce the kings authority and enhance the spirituality of his church. Suger was preoccupied with light (Christ is the light of the world), he rearranged the elements of architecture to express the relationship between light and God’s presence. The elements are not new but the arrangement was revolutionary.
3Saint-Denis, near Paris, designed by Abbot Suger, dedicated 1140, the birthplace of the gothic cathedral.Cathedral = located in a city, grows up from the city streets, height speaks to faith and prosperity of the city, seat of a BishopChurch/Chapel = smaller, located in a rural settingRetained basic elements of the Romanesque pilgrimage choir for large crowds
4Rib vaults: ribs constructed first and could be filled in with a lighter material making the load on the piers and columns lighter. This also allows for greater height and larger windows.
5Arrangement of chapels is a formal echo of the ambulatory Arrangement of chapels is a formal echo of the ambulatory. There is a new sense of architectural unity.Chevet (east end of church comprising of the choir, ambulatory and apse)
7Chartres Cathedral, France, 13th century Compound piers (engaged cluster colonnettes and pilasters)
8Flying Buttresses: the fliers are located at the same area as the compound piers on the interior.
9Jeroboam worshipping golden calves, detail of lancet under north rose window, Chartres Cathedral
10Chartres Cathedral, towers show evolution of gothic from 1100’s to 1300’s. Façade has stringcourses, three portals topped with three lancets and a rose window, a row of niches holding statues of the apostles, and a gable roof with a niche of the virgin and child
11Aerial view of Chartres, notice the flying buttresses and the grandeur of scale compared to the town below
14Sketchbook of Villard de Honnecourt, master builders worked from templates, they would keep records in their sketchbook. This is one of the only known surviving sketchbook. Shown are both tools and shape templates for architecture and sculpture.
15Elevation plan; nave, bay, south façade, plan of bay
16West Royal Portal, Chartres, Central tympanum = second coming; on right, Nativity and childhood of Jesus, seven liberal arts on archivolts; on left, scenes of Ascension, signs of zodiac
17Christ in majesty, surrounded by 4 symbols of evangelists; lintel are 12 apostles, 4 groups of 3 in arches, flanked by a single angel on each end; 24 elders and angels are on the archivolts, two angels in center hold a crown over Christ
18Door jamb statues, west façade, Kings and Queens of the Old Testament, stylized fabric, feet on slant defying natural stance, more free from background, separated by floral bands, on the level with visitors
20South transept, Saints Theodore, Stephen, Clement, and Lawrence, 13th century, Conform less strictly than figures on royal portal, feet rest naturally on a horizontal plane, stand in contrapposto, different heights, facial expressions, clothing personalized, shows a renewal in the human figure (differentiation from Early to High Gothic)
21Teaching Christ, trumeau, south transept, Chartres Cathedral, 13th century, Christ’s earthly role as a teacher, reflected by the book in his left hand, right hand is in the sign of blessing, He is standing on a lion and a dragon which symbolizes Satan and the Antichrist; Christ’s position on top of them shows his victory over forces of evil
22Hildegard of Bingen, Antichrist’s Birth and Destruction, Liber scivias 3.11, Codex 1, from Eibington Abbey, 12th century, The antichrist is not Satan but a final enemy or last emperor, described as having a huge stature, blood shot eyes, white eyelashes, pointed hair, gigantic teeth, sickle shaped fingers, and a double skull.
24Golden Haggadah, Scenes of Liberation, c. 1320 C. E Golden Haggadah, Scenes of Liberation, c C.E. Illuminated Manuscript
25Golden Haggadah, Preparation for Passover, c. 1320 C. E Golden Haggadah, Preparation for Passover, c C.E. Illuminated Manuscript
26Nave and side aisle of Chartres, Ground elevation, nave arcade – defined by a series of large arches on heavy piers; second elevation, triforium – a narrow passageway above the side aisle; at the top, clerestory, windows are main source of light in the nave.
27Rose window and lancets on the north transept, rose window measures over 42 feet, lancets are taller and thinner than west portal lancets, Virgin and Christ in center circle, surrounded by 12 smaller circles, 4 doves, 8 angels; 12 squares with the 12 Old Test. Kings; 12 quatrefoils contain gold lilies (sign of French royalty); outer semicircles represent 12 Old Test. prophets. Central lancet = Saint Anne with Virgin Mary infant; on left are high priest Melchizedek and King David; on right are King Solomon and the priest Aaron
28West façade of Amiens Cathedral, France , three architects worked on this cathedral, built on the site of another church that burned down. Conceived from the beginning as a Gothic church so more unified and symmetrical. Each feature is now concerned with height and carrying the viewer’s eye upward.
30Beau Dieu (“Beautiful God”) – carved in deeper relief than the “Teaching Christ” from Chartres, right arm is more extended, hemline is no longer horizontal, creates more open space and fluid movement, standing on a lion and a basilisk
31Vierge Doree (“Gilded Virgin”) – carved 20 years after Beau Dieu, more independent of architecture background, more human than iconic; although crowned queen of heaven, looks at son rather than viewer, holds Jesus on her left hip showing a shift in body weight; combines a monumental form with a very personal intimate depiction of mother and child
33Amiens ribbed vaults, flooded with light from the clerestory windows
34Elevation of Amiens, just to show scale, do you see the two people in the bottom right corner?
35Reims Cathedral, west façade, France, 1211, Window space has been increased due to the improvements in buttressing, ex. Tympanums are now filled with glass, portals are no longer recessed into the façade but are built outward from it. Taller, thinner, radiating chapels are deeper than at Chartres, transepts are stubby and almost blend in with the nave showing little or no break
36Nave of Reims, looking at west interior of the portal from the eastern apse. The door and tympanum rose window are flanked by statues set in individual niches.
37Notice the stubby transept and deeper radiating chapels, still has an ambulatory around the altar area.
38Annunciation and Visitation, door jamb statues at Reims, c Annunciation and Visitation, door jamb statues at Reims, c , on left is Mary and Gabriel, on right are Mary and Elizabeth, do you notice anything telling about the height of their pedestals? What about the differences in drapery between the two pairs?
391. Notre Dame 2. Chartres 3. Reims 4. Amiens Many cathedrals of the time were dedicated to the Virgin Mary “Notre Dame” – (Our Lady), because of this we recognize the cathedrals by the cities they are located in.
40Gothic Architecture and Scholasticism: a book written by Erwin Panofsky, art historian, in Showed the way Scholasticism influenced the Gothic style in terms of its hierarchical system. (see page 433)“Scholasticism was a philosophical method combined with theology. It was designed to explain spiritual truth by a kind of inquiry based on analogy. Above all, it was an effort to reconcile faith and reason.” pg.434Logic/Reason vs. FaithFoundations set down by Saint Augustine’s juxtaposition of the Earthly and the Heavenly cities (see pg. 413) mother was Christian, father was pagan, fought between the two until his acceptance and baptism into Christianity. He argued that, although understanding can precede faith, faith leads to understanding.Scholasticism was summed up at its peak in the Summa theologiae by Thomas Aquinas (c ) influenced by Aristotelian logic, discussed doctrine according to a system of argument, counterargument and solution, established the relationship between faith and reason, concluded that, far from being at odds, one actually complements the other.
41Life of Saint Denis, 1317, Book illumination, commissioned during the reign of Philip IV (the Fair), contains 27 illuminations of the life of Saint Denis, in this scene he asks two others to write his biography, the grand frame is a symbol of the church itself with the vines = reference to Christ, St. Denis on a lion throne = King Solomon, at the bottom are various scenes of a coach entering the city gates, a doctor checking a patient’s urine sample, and a wine taster and two men completing a commercial transactionTravel, medicine and trade are among the transient daily lives.
42Blanche of Castile and King Louis IX of France; Author Dictating to a Scribe Moralized Bible, France, probably Paris, c. 1230, 14 3/4 x 10 1/4 inchesBlanche of CastilleIn 1226 a French king died, leaving his queen to rule his kingdom until their son came of age. The 38-year-old widow, Blanche of Castile, had her work cut out for her. Rebelling barons were eager to win back lands that her husband’s father had seized from them. They rallied troops against her, defamed her character, and even accused her of adultery and murder. Caught in a perilous web of treachery, insurrections, and open warfare, Blanche persuaded, cajoled, negotiated, and fought would-be enemies after her husband, King Louis VIII, died of dysentery after only a three-year reign. When their son Louis IX took the helm in 1234, he inherited a kingdom that was, for a time anyway, at peace.A manuscript illuminationA dazzling illumination in New York’s Morgan Library could well depict Blanche of Castile and her son Louis, a beardless youth crowned king. A cleric and a scribe are depicted underneath them. Each figure is set against a ground of burnished gold, seated beneath a trefoil arch. Stylized and colorful buildings dance above their heads, suggesting a sophisticated, urban setting—perhaps Paris, the capital city of the Capetian kingdom (the Capetians were one of the oldest royal families in France) and home to a renowned school of theology.A moralized Bible This last page the New York Morgan Library’s manuscript MS M 240 is the last quire (folded page) of a three-volume moralized bible, the majority of which is housed at the Cathedral Treasury in Toledo, Spain. Moralized bibles, made expressedly for the French royal house, include lavishly illustrated abbreviated passages from the Old and New Testaments. Explanatory texts that allude to historical events and tales accompany these literary and visual readings, which—woven together—convey a moral.Assuming historians are correct in identifying the two rulers, we are looking at the four people intensely involved in the production of this manuscript. As patron and ruler, Queen Blanche of Castile would have financed its production. As ruler-to-be, Louis IX’s job was to take its lessons to heart along with those from the other biblical and ancient texts that his tutors read with him. King and queen In the upper register, an enthroned king and queen wear the traditional medieval open crown topped with fleur-de-lys—a stylized iris or lily symbolizing a French monarch’s religious, political, and dynastic right to rule. The blue-eyed queen, left, is veiled in a white widow’s wimple. An ermine-lined blue mantle drapes over her shoulders. Her pink T-shaped tunic spills over a thin blue edge of paint which visually supports these enthroned figures. A slender green column divides the queen’s space from that of her son, King Louis IX, to whom she deliberately gestures across the page, raising her left hand in his direction. Her pose and animated facial expression suggest that she is dedicating this manuscript, with its lessons and morals, to the young king.Louis IX, a trefoiled open crown atop his head, returns his mother’s glance. In his right hand he holds a scepter, indicating his kingly status. It is topped by the characteristic fleur-de-lys on which, curiously, a bird sits. A four-pedaled brooch, dominated by a large square of sapphire blue in the center, secures a pink mantle lined with green that rests on his boyish shoulders.In his left hand, between his forefinger and thumb, Louis holds a small golden ball or disc. During the mass that followed coronations, French kings and queens would traditionally give the presiding bishop of Reims 13 gold coins (all French kings were crowned in this northern French cathedral town.) This could reference Louis’ 1226 coronation, just three weeks after his father’s death, suggesting a probable date for this bible’s commission. A manuscript this lavish, however, would have taken eight to ten years to complete—perfect timing, because in 1235, the 21-year-old Louis was ready to assume the rule of his Capetian kingdom from his mother.A link between earth and heaven Queen Blanche and her son, the young king, echo a gesture and pose that would have been familiar to many Christians: the Virgin Mary and Christ enthroned side-by-side as celestial rulers of heaven, found in the numerous Coronations of the Virgin carved in ivory, wood, and stone. This scene was especially prevalent in tympana, the top sculpted semi-circle over cathedral portals found throughout France. On beholding the Morgan illumination, viewers would have immediately made the connection between this earthly Queen Blanche and her son, anointed by God with the divine right to rule, and that of Mary, Queen of heaven and her son, divine figures who offer salvation.A cleric and an artistThe illumination’s bottom register depicts a tonsured cleric (churchman with a partly shaved head), left, and an illuminator, right.The cleric wears a sleeveless cloak appropriate for divine services—this is an educated man—and emphasizes his role as a scholar. He tilts his head forward and points his right forefinger at the artist across from him, as though giving instructions. No clues are given as to this cleric’s religious order, as he probably represents the many Parisian theologians responsible for the manuscript’s visual and literary content—all of whom were undoubtedly told to spare no expense.On the right, the artist, donning a blue surcoat and wearing a cap, is seated on cushioned bench.Knife in his left hand and stylus in his right, he looks down at his work: four vertically-stacked circles in a left column, with part of a fifth visible on the right. We know, from the 4887 medallions that precede this illumination, what’s next on this artist’s agenda: he will apply a thin sheet of gold leaf onto the background, and then paint the medallion's biblical and explanatory scenes in brilliant hues of lapis lazuli, green, red, yellow, grey, orange and sepia.Advice for a kingBlanche undoubtedly hand-picked the theologians whose job it was to establish this manuscript’s guidelines, select biblical passages, write explanations, hire copyists, and oversee the images that the artists should paint. Art and text, mutually dependent, spelled out advice that its readers, Louis IX and perhaps his siblings, could practice in their enlightened rule. The nobles, church officials, and perhaps even common folk who viewed this page could be reassured that their ruler had been well trained to deal with whatever calamities came his way.This 13th century illumination, both dazzling and edifying, represents the cutting edge of lavishness in a society that embraced conspicuous consumption. As a pedagogical tool, perhaps it played no small part in helping Louis IX achieve the status of sainthood, awarded by Pope Bonifiace VIII 27 years after the king’s death. This and other images in the bible moralisée explain why Parisian illuminators monopolized manuscript production at this time. Look again at the work. Who else could compete against such a resounding image of character and grace?
43Rottgen Pieta (1300) Rheinisches Landesmuseum, Bonn, by unknown carver This painted wooden sculpture of Mary holding the distorted body of Christ is extremely emotionally provoking. The face of Mary does not appear in its usual calm state, but one that is actively mourning. The sound of her crying is almost audible. Christ's body is completely misshapen, showing his past suffering and further driving home the intensity of his sacrifice. Gardner's Art Through the Ages seems to believe that this piece of sculpture speaks to the troubles of the area in which it was carved. Germany was going through many widespread difficulties during the 14th century and this piece could have been used to remind them of ultimate salvation but to also align their suffering with that of a nobler individual.
44Nave of Saint-Chapelle, Paris, , designed by Thomas de Cormont, who also worked on Ameins, it was the chapel of the French Kings, located on the Ile de la Cite, and attached to the palace.Transcendent quality of Gothic light is evident; epitomizes rayonnant style, wall literally becomes glass, stone supports diminish, no transept, distinction between lower darkness and upper light – light of heaven vs. darkness of hell
45Saint Chapelle, Paris, lower chapel, dedicated to the Virgin Mary, ceiling is painted blue with stars in the shape of fleur-de-lis, symbol of the French Kings; reliquary church, holds true cross, crown of thorns, lance, sponge and a nail
46Choir, Canterbury Cathedral, Kent (SE England) 1174 – 1184; since the Norman invasion of 1066 there have been stable commercial, cultural, and political contacts between France and England. England was the first to adopt the Gothic style. Original church was built in Norman style, fire in 1174 destroyed the choir, a French architect was summoned to rebuild the choir and apse (William of Sens, died 5 years into project from a 50 foot fall) Increased the number of piers by 6 and made the columns taller by 12 feet which drew more attention to the elaborate capitals and the use of different colored marble and stones. William the Englishman resumed the construction after the death of William of Sens, he added two shrines, the Trinity and Corona chapels for Thomas a Becket.
47Exterior of Canterbury Cathedral Becket was an archbishop who was a close friend to Henry the II. His allegiances changed and sided with the church regarding taxation and jurisdiction, thus enraging the king. It is said that Henry exclaimed will no one rid me of this low-born priest. Four knights rode to Canterbury and killed Becket. His scalp is housed in the Corona chapel and his remains are in the Trinity chapel. His murder made his an object of pilgrimage.
50[T] Jonah cast onto Dry Land; [L] Return of the Dove to Noah in the Ark; [C] The Resurrection; [R] David and Michal; [B] Moses and the Burning Bush; details from the Redemption Window, Corona Chapel, Canterbury Cathedral, early 13th century
51[T] Moses and the Burning Bush; [R] Jonah Cast into the Sea; [C] Entombment of Christ; details from the Redemption Window, Corona Chapel, Canterbury Cathedral, early 13th century
52Salisbury Cathedral, England, begun 1220, tower and spire were added in 14th century More varied than French Gothic, has a cloister taken from monastery plans, in contrast to French – it has a double transept and square apse. The chapter house is octagonal. Also characteristically different, this cathedral is surrounded by green, trees and grass, rather than springing up from the busy city streets.
54Fan Vault, chapter house, Salisbury Cathedral, , there are fewer stained glass windows and therefore less need for exterior buttressing. Central pier fans out like the underside of an umbrella: fan vault.
55King’s College Chapel, Cambridge, England, chapel founded in 1441, vaulting design by John Wastrell in , fan vaulting became characteristic of English Gothic; this is one of the more spectacular examples of fan vaulting. Tall unbroken supports exemplify the late Perpendicular style.
57The Spread of GothicSiena Cathedral, Tuscany, Italy,Continuation of Italian Romanesque that was influenced by French Gothic, Façade was designed by Giovanni Pisano, whose father will be discussed in pre-renaissance.Retain the stripes of different color marble but general organization is gothic. Three portals, arches are pointed under triangle gables, rose window dominates the central façade; unlike French – most of the sculpture is on the tympanums
58Milan Cathedral, Italy 1386, largest Italian Gothic cathedral, massive structure balanced with delicate surface decoration
63Apse, Prague Cathedral, Czech Republic, central Europe; vertical emphasis of the pinnacled buttresses and radiating chapels
64Doges’ Palace, Venice Italy, façade dates from the 1420’s, one of the few secular pieces from this chapter, palace of a senator, pointed arches, lobed windows,
65Trials took place in the Doge’s palace complex Trials took place in the Doge’s palace complex. The verdict would be announced to the assembly below in St. Mark’s square from between the two red marble columns. The prisoners were then taken across the Bridge of Sighs to the prisons adjacent to the palace.