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Presentation on theme: "Gothic."— Presentation transcript:

1 Gothic

2 Gothic: applied primarily to architecture, as well as some painting and sculpture produced in W. Europe from the mid 1100’s – 1500’s in France and some parts of Europe. Term was first used by Italians to denigrate the art preceding their own Renaissance style. Literally, Gothic = Germanic tribes who invaded Greece and Italy and sacked Rome in 410. Goths were blamed for destroying what remained of the Classical style. Origins: – originated in Ile – de – France, region in N. France that was the personal domain of the French Royal Family. The credit for the style goes to one remarkable man, Abbot Suger. Suger conceived a plan to enlarge and rebuild the 8th century Carolingian church of Saint-Denis. He searched for a new kind of architecture to reinforce the kings authority and enhance the spirituality of his church. Suger was preoccupied with light (Christ is the light of the world), he rearranged the elements of architecture to express the relationship between light and God’s presence. The elements are not new but the arrangement was revolutionary.

3 Saint-Denis, near Paris, designed by Abbot Suger, dedicated 1140, the birthplace of the gothic cathedral. Cathedral = located in a city, grows up from the city streets, height speaks to faith and prosperity of the city, seat of a Bishop Church/Chapel = smaller, located in a rural setting Retained basic elements of the Romanesque pilgrimage choir for large crowds

4 Rib vaults: ribs constructed first and could be filled in with a lighter material making the load on the piers and columns lighter. This also allows for greater height and larger windows.

5 Arrangement of chapels is a formal echo of the ambulatory
Arrangement of chapels is a formal echo of the ambulatory. There is a new sense of architectural unity. Chevet (east end of church comprising of the choir, ambulatory and apse)


7 Chartres Cathedral, France, 13th century
Compound piers (engaged cluster colonnettes and pilasters)

8 Flying Buttresses: the fliers are located at the same area as the compound piers on the interior.

9 Jeroboam worshipping golden calves, detail of lancet under north rose window, Chartres Cathedral

10 Chartres Cathedral, towers show evolution of gothic from 1100’s to 1300’s. Façade has stringcourses, three portals topped with three lancets and a rose window, a row of niches holding statues of the apostles, and a gable roof with a niche of the virgin and child

11 Aerial view of Chartres, notice the flying buttresses and the grandeur of scale compared to the town below

12 East end apse of Chartres, radiating chapels


14 Sketchbook of Villard de Honnecourt, master builders worked from templates, they would keep records in their sketchbook. This is one of the only known surviving sketchbook. Shown are both tools and shape templates for architecture and sculpture.

15 Elevation plan; nave, bay, south façade, plan of bay

16 West Royal Portal, Chartres, Central tympanum = second coming; on right, Nativity and childhood of Jesus, seven liberal arts on archivolts; on left, scenes of Ascension, signs of zodiac

17 Christ in majesty, surrounded by 4 symbols of evangelists; lintel are 12 apostles, 4 groups of 3 in arches, flanked by a single angel on each end; 24 elders and angels are on the archivolts, two angels in center hold a crown over Christ

18 Door jamb statues, west façade, Kings and Queens of the Old Testament, stylized fabric, feet on slant defying natural stance, more free from background, separated by floral bands, on the level with visitors

19 Stylized fabric, geometric patterning

20 South transept, Saints Theodore, Stephen, Clement, and Lawrence, 13th century,
Conform less strictly than figures on royal portal, feet rest naturally on a horizontal plane, stand in contrapposto, different heights, facial expressions, clothing personalized, shows a renewal in the human figure (differentiation from Early to High Gothic)

21 Teaching Christ, trumeau, south transept, Chartres Cathedral, 13th century, Christ’s earthly role as a teacher, reflected by the book in his left hand, right hand is in the sign of blessing, He is standing on a lion and a dragon which symbolizes Satan and the Antichrist; Christ’s position on top of them shows his victory over forces of evil

22 Hildegard of Bingen, Antichrist’s Birth and Destruction, Liber scivias 3.11, Codex 1, from Eibington Abbey, 12th century, The antichrist is not Satan but a final enemy or last emperor, described as having a huge stature, blood shot eyes, white eyelashes, pointed hair, gigantic teeth, sickle shaped fingers, and a double skull.

23 Golden Haggadah, The Plagues of Egypt, c. 1320 C. E
Golden Haggadah, The Plagues of Egypt, c C.E., near Barcelona, Illuminated Manuscript A haggadah is a collection of Jewish prayers and readings written to accompany the Passover 'seder', a ritual meal eaten on the eve of the Passover festival. The ritual meal was formalised during the 2nd century, after the example of the Greek 'symposium', in which philosophical debate was fortified by food and wine. The holy text is written on vellum pages in Hebrew script, reading from right to left. Its stunning miniatures illustrate stories from the biblical books of 'Genesis' and 'Exodus' and scenes of Jewish ritual. Golden Haggadah The extravagant use of gold-leaf in the backgrounds of its 56 miniature paintings earned this magnificent manuscript its name: the 'Golden Haggadah'. It was made around 1320, in or near Barcelona, for the use of a wealthy Jewish family. The holy text is written on vellum pages in Hebrew script, reading from right to left. Its stunning miniatures illustrate stories from the biblical books of 'Genesis' and 'Exodus' and scenes of Jewish ritual. Enlarged image Zoomable high-resolution image Golden Haggadah. Biblical scenes based on Genesis, Northern Spain, probably Barcelona, c.1320 British Library Add. MS , ff.4v-5 Copyright © The British Library Board What does this page show? Anticlockwise from top right: Adam naming the animals, the Creation of Adam and Eve, the Temptation, Cain and Abel offering a sacrifice, Cain slaying Abel, and lastly Noah, his wife and sons coming out of the ark. God's image is forbidden in Jewish religious contexts, and is totally absent in all the miniatures here. Instead, angels are seen intervening at critical moments. What is a haggadah? A haggadah is a collection of Jewish prayers and readings written to accompany the Passover 'seder', a ritual meal eaten on the eve of the Passover festival. The ritual meal was formalised during the 2nd century, after the example of the Greek 'symposium', in which philosophical debate was fortified by food and wine. The literal meaning of the Hebrew word 'haggadah' is a 'narration' or 'telling'. It refers to a command in the biblical book of 'Exodus', requiring Jews to "tell your son on that day: it is because of that which the Lord did for me when I came forth out of Egypt". Perhaps because it was mainly intended for use at home, and its purpose was educational, Jewish scribes and artists felt completely free to illustrate the Haggadah. Indeed it was traditionally the most lavishly decorated of all Jewish sacred writings, giving well-to-do Jews of the middle ages a chance to demonstrate their wealth and good taste as well as their piety. The man for whom the 'Golden Haggadah' was made must have been rich indeed. What is Passover? Passover commemorates one of the most important events in the story of the Jewish people. Like Christianity and Islam, Judaism traces its origins back to Abraham. He was leader of the Israelites, a group of nomadic tribes in the Middle East some 4,000 years ago. Abraham established a religion that distinguished itself from other local beliefs by having only one, all-powerful God. According to a Covenant made between them, the Jews would keep God's laws, and in return they would be protected as chosen people. The Israelites were captured and taken as slaves to Egypt, where they suffered much hardship. Eventually, a prophet called Moses delivered the Jews from their captivity with the help of several miraculous events intended to intimidate the Egyptian authorities. The last of these was the sudden death of the eldest son in every family. Jewish households were spared by smearing lambs' blood above their doors - a sign telling the 'angel of death' to pass over. Who made the Golden Haggadah? The illumination of the manuscript - its paintings and decoration - was carried out by two artists. Though their names are unknown, the similarity of their styles implies they both worked in the same studio in the Barcelona region. The gothic style of northern French painting was a strong influence on Spanish illuminators, and these two were no exceptions. There is also Italian influence to be seen in the rendering of the background architecture. Differences between the two artists may be attributed to their individual talents and training. The painter of the scenes shown here tends towards stocky figures with rather exaggerated facial expressions. The second artist has a greater sense of refinement and achieves a better sense of space. Why was a Jewish manuscript made in Spain? The wandering tribes of Israel finally settled in the 'promised land' after their delivery from captivity in Egypt. But the twin kingdoms of Israel and Judah were to fall to the Assyrians and Babylonians. Then, in 63 BC, the region came under the governance of the Roman Empire. In 70 AD, the Roman army destroyed the Second Jewish Temple and sacked Jerusalem; in 135 AD they crushed a Judaean uprising. As a result of this many Jews went into exile. Some migrated across north Africa to Spain. For many centuries, these 'Sephardic' Jews lived peacefully and productively under both Christian and Islamic rulers. The Jewish community in Barcelona had been established since Roman times and was one of the most affluent in Spain by the time the 'Golden Haggadah' was produced. Jews acted as advisers, physicians and financiers to the Counts of Barcelona, who provided economic and social protection. They grew attuned to the tastes of the court and began commissioning manuscripts decorated in Christian style. Though the scribe who wrote its Hebrew text would have been a Jew, the illuminators of the 'Golden Haggadah' are likely to have been Christian artists, instructed in details of Judaic symbolism by the scribe or patron. How did the 'Golden Haggadah' come to the British Library? Islamic rule in Spain came to an end in 1492, when King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella (the Catholic Monarchs) defeated the Muslim army at Granada and restored the whole of Spain to Christianity. Months later the entire Jewish population was expelled. The manuscript found its way to Italy and passed through various hands, serving as a wedding present at one stage. In 1865, the British Library (then the British Museum Library) bought it as part of the collection of Hebrew poet and bibliophile Giuseppe (or Joseph) Almanzi.

24 Golden Haggadah, Scenes of Liberation, c. 1320 C. E
Golden Haggadah, Scenes of Liberation, c C.E. Illuminated Manuscript

25 Golden Haggadah, Preparation for Passover, c. 1320 C. E
Golden Haggadah, Preparation for Passover, c C.E. Illuminated Manuscript

26 Nave and side aisle of Chartres,
Ground elevation, nave arcade – defined by a series of large arches on heavy piers; second elevation, triforium – a narrow passageway above the side aisle; at the top, clerestory, windows are main source of light in the nave.

27 Rose window and lancets on the north transept, rose window measures over 42 feet, lancets are taller and thinner than west portal lancets, Virgin and Christ in center circle, surrounded by 12 smaller circles, 4 doves, 8 angels; 12 squares with the 12 Old Test. Kings; 12 quatrefoils contain gold lilies (sign of French royalty); outer semicircles represent 12 Old Test. prophets. Central lancet = Saint Anne with Virgin Mary infant; on left are high priest Melchizedek and King David; on right are King Solomon and the priest Aaron

28 West façade of Amiens Cathedral, France , three architects worked on this cathedral, built on the site of another church that burned down. Conceived from the beginning as a Gothic church so more unified and symmetrical. Each feature is now concerned with height and carrying the viewer’s eye upward.


30 Beau Dieu (“Beautiful God”) – carved in deeper relief than the “Teaching Christ” from Chartres, right arm is more extended, hemline is no longer horizontal, creates more open space and fluid movement, standing on a lion and a basilisk

31 Vierge Doree (“Gilded Virgin”) – carved 20 years after Beau Dieu, more independent of architecture background, more human than iconic; although crowned queen of heaven, looks at son rather than viewer, holds Jesus on her left hip showing a shift in body weight; combines a monumental form with a very personal intimate depiction of mother and child

32 Amiens cathedral nave reached 144 feet

33 Amiens ribbed vaults, flooded with light from the clerestory windows

34 Elevation of Amiens, just to show scale, do you see the two people in the bottom right corner?

35 Reims Cathedral, west façade, France, 1211, Window space has been increased due to the improvements in buttressing, ex. Tympanums are now filled with glass, portals are no longer recessed into the façade but are built outward from it. Taller, thinner, radiating chapels are deeper than at Chartres, transepts are stubby and almost blend in with the nave showing little or no break

36 Nave of Reims, looking at west interior of the portal from the eastern apse. The door and tympanum rose window are flanked by statues set in individual niches.

37 Notice the stubby transept and deeper radiating chapels, still has an ambulatory around the altar area.

38 Annunciation and Visitation, door jamb statues at Reims, c
Annunciation and Visitation, door jamb statues at Reims, c , on left is Mary and Gabriel, on right are Mary and Elizabeth, do you notice anything telling about the height of their pedestals? What about the differences in drapery between the two pairs?

39 1. Notre Dame 2. Chartres 3. Reims 4. Amiens
Many cathedrals of the time were dedicated to the Virgin Mary “Notre Dame” – (Our Lady), because of this we recognize the cathedrals by the cities they are located in.

40 Gothic Architecture and Scholasticism: a book written by Erwin Panofsky, art historian, in Showed the way Scholasticism influenced the Gothic style in terms of its hierarchical system. (see page 433) “Scholasticism was a philosophical method combined with theology. It was designed to explain spiritual truth by a kind of inquiry based on analogy. Above all, it was an effort to reconcile faith and reason.” pg.434 Logic/Reason vs. Faith Foundations set down by Saint Augustine’s juxtaposition of the Earthly and the Heavenly cities (see pg. 413) mother was Christian, father was pagan, fought between the two until his acceptance and baptism into Christianity. He argued that, although understanding can precede faith, faith leads to understanding. Scholasticism was summed up at its peak in the Summa theologiae by Thomas Aquinas (c ) influenced by Aristotelian logic, discussed doctrine according to a system of argument, counterargument and solution, established the relationship between faith and reason, concluded that, far from being at odds, one actually complements the other.

41 Life of Saint Denis, 1317, Book illumination, commissioned during the reign of Philip IV (the Fair), contains 27 illuminations of the life of Saint Denis, in this scene he asks two others to write his biography, the grand frame is a symbol of the church itself with the vines = reference to Christ, St. Denis on a lion throne = King Solomon, at the bottom are various scenes of a coach entering the city gates, a doctor checking a patient’s urine sample, and a wine taster and two men completing a commercial transaction Travel, medicine and trade are among the transient daily lives.

42 Blanche of Castile and King Louis IX of France; Author Dictating to a Scribe Moralized Bible, France, probably Paris, c. 1230, 14 3/4 x 10 1/4 inches Blanche of Castille In 1226 a French king died, leaving his queen to rule his kingdom until their son came of age. The 38-year-old widow, Blanche of Castile, had her work cut out for her. Rebelling barons were eager to win back lands that her husband’s father had seized from them. They rallied troops against her, defamed her character, and even accused her of adultery and murder.  Caught in a perilous web of treachery, insurrections, and open warfare, Blanche persuaded, cajoled, negotiated, and fought would-be enemies after her husband, King Louis VIII, died of dysentery after only a three-year reign. When their son Louis IX took the helm in 1234, he inherited a kingdom that was, for a time anyway, at peace. A manuscript illumination A dazzling illumination in New York’s Morgan Library could well depict Blanche of Castile and her son Louis, a beardless youth crowned king. A cleric and a scribe are depicted underneath them. Each figure is set against a ground of burnished gold, seated beneath a trefoil arch. Stylized and colorful buildings dance above their heads, suggesting a sophisticated, urban setting—perhaps Paris, the capital city of the Capetian kingdom (the Capetians were one of the oldest royal families in France) and home to a renowned school of theology. A moralized Bible  This last page the New York Morgan Library’s manuscript MS M 240 is the last quire (folded page) of a three-volume moralized bible, the majority of which is housed at the Cathedral Treasury in Toledo, Spain. Moralized bibles, made expressedly for the French royal house, include lavishly illustrated abbreviated passages from the Old and New Testaments. Explanatory texts that allude to historical events and tales accompany these literary and visual readings, which—woven together—convey a moral. Assuming historians are correct in identifying the two rulers, we are looking at the four people intensely involved in the production of this manuscript. As patron and ruler, Queen Blanche of Castile would have financed its production. As ruler-to-be, Louis IX’s job was to take its lessons to heart along with those from the other biblical and ancient texts that his tutors read with him.   King and queen  In the upper register, an enthroned king and queen wear the traditional medieval open crown topped with fleur-de-lys—a stylized iris or lily symbolizing a French monarch’s religious, political, and dynastic right to rule. The blue-eyed queen, left, is veiled in a white widow’s wimple. An ermine-lined blue mantle drapes over her shoulders. Her pink T-shaped tunic spills over a thin blue edge of paint which visually supports these enthroned figures. A slender green column divides the queen’s space from that of her son, King Louis IX, to whom she deliberately gestures across the page, raising her left hand in his direction. Her pose and animated facial expression suggest that she is dedicating this manuscript, with its lessons and morals, to the young king. Louis IX, a trefoiled open crown atop his head, returns his mother’s glance. In his right hand he holds a scepter, indicating his kingly status. It is topped by the characteristic fleur-de-lys on which, curiously, a bird sits. A four-pedaled brooch, dominated by a large square of sapphire blue in the center, secures a pink mantle lined with green that rests on his boyish shoulders. In his left hand, between his forefinger and thumb, Louis holds a small golden ball or disc. During the mass that followed coronations, French kings and queens would traditionally give the presiding bishop of Reims 13 gold coins (all French kings were crowned in this northern French cathedral town.) This could reference Louis’ 1226 coronation, just three weeks after his father’s death, suggesting a probable date for this bible’s commission. A manuscript this lavish, however, would have taken eight to ten years to complete—perfect timing, because in 1235, the 21-year-old Louis was ready to assume the rule of his Capetian kingdom from his mother. A link between earth and heaven Queen Blanche and her son, the young king, echo a gesture and pose that would have been familiar to many Christians: the Virgin Mary and Christ enthroned side-by-side as celestial rulers of heaven, found in the numerous Coronations of the Virgin carved in ivory, wood, and stone. This scene was especially prevalent in tympana, the top sculpted semi-circle over cathedral portals found throughout France. On beholding the Morgan illumination, viewers would have immediately made the connection between this earthly Queen Blanche and her son, anointed by God with the divine right to rule, and that of Mary, Queen of heaven and her son, divine figures who offer salvation. A cleric and an artist The illumination’s bottom register depicts a tonsured cleric (churchman with a partly shaved head), left, and an illuminator, right. The cleric wears a sleeveless cloak appropriate for divine services—this is an educated man—and emphasizes his role as a scholar. He tilts his head forward and points his right forefinger at the artist across from him, as though giving instructions. No clues are given as to this cleric’s religious order, as he probably represents the many Parisian theologians responsible for the manuscript’s visual and literary content—all of whom were undoubtedly told to spare no expense. On the right, the artist, donning a blue surcoat and wearing a cap, is seated on cushioned bench. Knife in his left hand and stylus in his right, he looks down at his work: four vertically-stacked circles in a left column, with part of a fifth visible on the right. We know, from the 4887 medallions that precede this illumination, what’s next on this artist’s agenda: he will apply a thin sheet of gold leaf onto the background, and then paint the medallion's biblical and explanatory scenes in brilliant hues of lapis lazuli, green, red, yellow, grey, orange and sepia. Advice for a king Blanche undoubtedly hand-picked the theologians whose job it was to establish this manuscript’s guidelines, select biblical passages, write explanations, hire copyists, and oversee the images that the artists should paint. Art and text, mutually dependent, spelled out advice that its readers, Louis IX and perhaps his siblings, could practice in their enlightened rule. The nobles, church officials, and perhaps even common folk who viewed this page could be reassured that their ruler had been well trained to deal with whatever calamities came his way. This 13th century illumination, both dazzling and edifying, represents the cutting edge of lavishness in a society that embraced conspicuous consumption. As a pedagogical tool, perhaps it played no small part in helping Louis IX achieve the status of sainthood, awarded by Pope Bonifiace VIII 27 years after the king’s death. This and other images in the bible moralisée explain why Parisian illuminators monopolized manuscript production at this time. Look again at the work. Who else could compete against such a resounding image of character and grace? 

43 Rottgen Pieta (1300) Rheinisches Landesmuseum, Bonn, by unknown carver
This painted wooden sculpture of Mary holding the distorted body of Christ is extremely emotionally provoking. The face of Mary does not appear in its usual calm state, but one that is actively mourning. The sound of her crying is almost audible. Christ's body is completely misshapen, showing his past suffering and further driving home the intensity of his sacrifice. Gardner's Art Through the Ages seems to believe that this piece of sculpture speaks to the troubles of the area in which it was carved. Germany was going through many widespread difficulties during the 14th century and this piece could have been used to remind them of ultimate salvation but to also align their suffering with that of a nobler individual.

44 Nave of Saint-Chapelle, Paris, , designed by Thomas de Cormont, who also worked on Ameins, it was the chapel of the French Kings, located on the Ile de la Cite, and attached to the palace. Transcendent quality of Gothic light is evident; epitomizes rayonnant style, wall literally becomes glass, stone supports diminish, no transept, distinction between lower darkness and upper light – light of heaven vs. darkness of hell

45 Saint Chapelle, Paris, lower chapel, dedicated to the Virgin Mary, ceiling is painted blue with stars in the shape of fleur-de-lis, symbol of the French Kings; reliquary church, holds true cross, crown of thorns, lance, sponge and a nail

46 Choir, Canterbury Cathedral, Kent (SE England) 1174 – 1184; since the Norman invasion of 1066 there have been stable commercial, cultural, and political contacts between France and England. England was the first to adopt the Gothic style. Original church was built in Norman style, fire in 1174 destroyed the choir, a French architect was summoned to rebuild the choir and apse (William of Sens, died 5 years into project from a 50 foot fall) Increased the number of piers by 6 and made the columns taller by 12 feet which drew more attention to the elaborate capitals and the use of different colored marble and stones. William the Englishman resumed the construction after the death of William of Sens, he added two shrines, the Trinity and Corona chapels for Thomas a Becket.

47 Exterior of Canterbury Cathedral
Becket was an archbishop who was a close friend to Henry the II. His allegiances changed and sided with the church regarding taxation and jurisdiction, thus enraging the king. It is said that Henry exclaimed will no one rid me of this low-born priest. Four knights rode to Canterbury and killed Becket. His scalp is housed in the Corona chapel and his remains are in the Trinity chapel. His murder made his an object of pilgrimage.

48 Plan of Canterbury

49 Corona Chapel, Canterbury Cathedral

50 [T] Jonah cast onto Dry Land; [L] Return of the Dove to Noah in the Ark; [C] The Resurrection; [R] David and Michal; [B] Moses and the Burning Bush; details from the Redemption Window, Corona Chapel, Canterbury Cathedral, early 13th century

51 [T] Moses and the Burning Bush; [R] Jonah Cast into the Sea; [C] Entombment of Christ; details from the Redemption Window, Corona Chapel, Canterbury Cathedral, early 13th century

52 Salisbury Cathedral, England, begun 1220, tower and spire were added in 14th century
More varied than French Gothic, has a cloister taken from monastery plans, in contrast to French – it has a double transept and square apse. The chapter house is octagonal. Also characteristically different, this cathedral is surrounded by green, trees and grass, rather than springing up from the busy city streets.

53 Plan of Salisbury Cathedral

54 Fan Vault, chapter house, Salisbury Cathedral, , there are fewer stained glass windows and therefore less need for exterior buttressing. Central pier fans out like the underside of an umbrella: fan vault.

55 King’s College Chapel, Cambridge, England, chapel founded in 1441, vaulting design by John Wastrell in , fan vaulting became characteristic of English Gothic; this is one of the more spectacular examples of fan vaulting. Tall unbroken supports exemplify the late Perpendicular style.

56 Detail of stained glass at King’s College

57 The Spread of Gothic Siena Cathedral, Tuscany, Italy, Continuation of Italian Romanesque that was influenced by French Gothic, Façade was designed by Giovanni Pisano, whose father will be discussed in pre-renaissance. Retain the stripes of different color marble but general organization is gothic. Three portals, arches are pointed under triangle gables, rose window dominates the central façade; unlike French – most of the sculpture is on the tympanums

58 Milan Cathedral, Italy 1386, largest Italian Gothic cathedral, massive structure balanced with delicate surface decoration

59 Milan Cathedral, Italy 1386

60 Palma de Mallorca Cathedral, on the Spanish island of Mallorca, begun in 1306, looms over the sea, notable for its huge buttresses and Islamic influences on the main entrance

61 Palma de Mallorca Cathedral, on the Spanish island of Mallorca


63 Apse, Prague Cathedral, Czech Republic, central Europe; vertical emphasis of the pinnacled buttresses and radiating chapels

64 Doges’ Palace, Venice Italy, façade dates from the 1420’s, one of the few secular pieces from this chapter, palace of a senator, pointed arches, lobed windows,

65 Trials took place in the Doge’s palace complex
Trials took place in the Doge’s palace complex. The verdict would be announced to the assembly below in St. Mark’s square from between the two red marble columns. The prisoners were then taken across the Bridge of Sighs to the prisons adjacent to the palace.

66 The Bridge of Sighs

67 Town Hall, Louvain, Belgium, 1448, three towers (third is over central gable)

68 Saint Patrick’s Cathedral, NYC, , spires 1888 designed by James Renwick and William Bodrigue, cruciform plan, west to east orientation, pointed arches



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