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MUSIC OF SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA “Senzenina”. In This Unit, We Will…  Explore the geography of areas with African music  Explore the instruments used in.

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Presentation on theme: "MUSIC OF SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA “Senzenina”. In This Unit, We Will…  Explore the geography of areas with African music  Explore the instruments used in."— Presentation transcript:

1 MUSIC OF SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA “Senzenina”

2 In This Unit, We Will…  Explore the geography of areas with African music  Explore the instruments used in African music  Listen to music from different African cultures, populations, and religious groups  Sing a traditional song from the Zulu people, “Senzenina”  Create a polyrhythmic song as a class and in small groups

3 “What Will I Be Doing?” You will be doing three different things…  #1: Creating connections between content areas – Geography, History, Art, Technology, and Music  #2: Listening to new music that you may never have heard before  #3: Learning melodies, harmonies, and rhythms from different cultures

4 GEOGRAPHY  Sub-Sahara Africa is a geographical term that refers to the area of Africa that lies beneath the Sahara desert  Sub-Sahara Africa includes...  Kenya  Rwanda  Uganda  SudanOver 49 countries!  Ethiopia  Zimbabwe  Madagascar

5 LANGUAGES SPOKEN  Sub-Saharan Africa displays the most linguistic diversity of any region in the world.  The region contains over 1,000 languages, which is 1/6 of the world's total!

6 RELIGIONS  Sub-Saharan Africa is largely Christian  North African (not part of Sub- Sahara Africa) is Islamic and considered part of the Arab world

7 CHARACTERISTICS OF SUB-SAHARAN AFRICAN MUSIC  Polyrhythm: Rhythms that occur at the same time in two different meters  Responsorial Forms: An exchange between a performer’s vocal or instrumental call and a group response  Ostinato: A short pattern that repeats over and over again  Use of Percussion: Reflects the emphasis of music making with drums, rattles, bells, xylophones, and the mbira (we’ll discuss this more later)

8 POLYRHYTHM  Rhythms that occur at the same time in two different meters  Grand Master Djembe Player – Polyrhythm Grand Master Djembe Player – Polyrhythm  The Jamani Drummers The Jamani Drummers  Djemba Drummers in Cape Town Djemba Drummers in Cape Town

9 RESPONSORIAL FORMS  An exchange between a performer’s vocal or instrumental call and a group response  Thula Sizwe Singers (6:00 minute clip) Thula Sizwe Singers  ABC News Clip on Ensigo ABC News Clip on Ensigo

10 OSTINATO  A short pattern that repeats over and over again  AUCB Acting Course – Senzenina AUCB Acting Course – Senzenina  Blackburn Choir – Senzenina Blackburn Choir – Senzenina

11 USE OF PERCUSSION  Reflects the emphasis of music making with drums, rattles, bells, xylophones, and the mbira  Ogene (solo instrument) Ogene (solo instrument)  Ogene Igbo (group performance) Ogene Igbo (group performance)

12 MBIRA  An instrument made up of metal rows that are plucked by the player’s thumbs  Metallic, ringing sound  Song on the Mbira Song on the Mbira

13 TRADITIONAL AFRICAN INSTRUMENTS  There are three classifications;  Membranophones  Idiophones  Aerophones

14 Traditional African Instruments cont…  Membranophones: A big, fancy word for… DRUMS!  Drums are by far the most famous of the African instruments and come in many different forms  Drummers use either their hands or sticks (sometimes one of each) to hit the drum head. They may also use something called an “elbow stick”  Drummers from RwandaDrummers from Rwanda

15 TRADITIONAL AFRICAN INSTRUMENTS CONT…  Idiophones: Anything from large xylophones to tiny bells, shakers, wooden sticks, or rattles  Xylophones made of wood, metal, gourds, pottery  Sometimes a solo instruments, but usually an ensemble instrument  African Marimba Group African Marimba Group

16 TRADITIONAL AFRICAN INSTRUMENTS CONT…  Aerophones: The human voice or any instrument that amplifies the human voice  Opening-throat singing is used in Sub-Saharan Africa, which is a husky or nasally sound Opening-throat singing  Other distinct kinds of African singing include whisper singing, which is a soft, breathy, almost growling tonewhisper singing  Yodeling may also be used Yodeling (Pygmies of Central Africa)

17 WELCOME CHLOE RENEA CROWE MAY 9 TH, 2:33 PM

18 MUSIC AS A LIVELIHOOD  Burundi Drummers Burundi Drummers  Kenyan Boy Choir Kenyan Boy Choir  “There is No Movement Without Rhythm”There is No Movement Without Rhythm Documentary on Rhythm and Daily Life in South Africa (10:51 minutes)

19 APARTHEID IN AFRICA  “Senzenina” came out of the Apartheid in Africa. The Apartheid was a national law that segregated white citizens and black citizens in Africa and denied blacks citizenship  It was officially established in 1948 and ran until… 1994  The origin of the song is unclear, but it has been used in many different movies and documents highlighting the Apartheid and is now a popular choral piece in the United States and Great Brittan

20 THE RAIN STICK, THE WOODEN FROGS, AND THE MARACAS  Music and rhythm can be created just by hitting two sticks together, the idea for the simple percussive instrument RHYTHM STICKS  Additional percussion instruments include shakers, like the maracas, or something more elaborate, like the African rain stick  Carved wooden frogs with ridges cut into their backs produce a sound similar to the “ribbit” of a frog. A wooden dowel is drug across their spines to produce the sound

21 #1 #2 #3


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