2PoetryA kind of rhythmic, compressed language that uses figures of speech and imagery designed to appeal to emotion and imaginationOne of the oldest forms of communicationOften sungPassed down from generation to generationMeant to be read aloudRead a poem several times to get the feel of it
3Poetry v. Prose Prose = anything that is not poetry Poetry is a language which says more and says it more intensely than prosePoets say the same thing as prose writers. . . They just say it with fewer words
4The Implied Poets often write with implied ideas. That is. . . Reader must make an educated guess to the idea that is suggestedMake inferences
5Numbering Lines in Poetry 5’s onlyBattle in the Sky by Shel SilversteinIt wasn't quite day and it wasn't quite night,'Cause the sun and the moon were both in sight,A situation quite all rightWith everyone else but them.5 So they both made remarks about who gave more lightAnd who was the brightest and prettiest sight,And the sun gave a bump and the moon gave a bite,And the terrible sky fight began.With a scorch and a sizzle, a screech and a shout,10 Across the great heavens they tumbled about,And the moon had a piece of the sun in its mouth,While the sun burned the face of the moon.And when it was over the moon was rubbed red,And the sun had a very bad lump on its head,15 And all the next night the moon stayed home in bed,And the sun didn't come out 'til noon.
6An Introduction to Literary Devices in Poetry Some of these will be familiar to you, while others will be newAlliteration - PersonificationCouplet - RefrainImage - Rhyme schemeMetaphor - SimileOnomatopoeia - Stanza
7Literary Devices in Poetry A nonhuman thing or quality is given human-like qualities
8PersonificationA nonhuman thing or quality is given human-like qualitiesThe soft gray hands of sleepToiled all night longTo spin a beautiful garmentOf dreams- Edward Silvera, from “Forgotten Dreams”
9Literary Devices in Poetry A group of words repeated at intervals in a poem, song, or speech.
10A group of words repeated at intervals in a poem, song, or speech. RefrainA group of words repeated at intervals in a poem, song, or speech.Often used to build rhythmCan also emphasize the main theme of the work
11RefrainA group of words repeated at intervals in a poem, song, or speech. (Same as a chorus in a song.)All God’s critters got a place in the choir,Some sing low, some sing higher,Some sing out loud on the telephone wire,And some just clap their hands,Or paws,Or anything they got now.-Bill Staines, from “A Place in the Choir”(page 178)“I have a dream. . .” “I’ve got a feeling. . .”- Martin Luther King, Jr. -Black Eyed Peas
12Rhyme Scheme A pattern of rhymes in a poem End rhymes Internal rhymes Near rhymes
13End Rhymes Rhymes at the end of lines of poetry Darkness settles on roofs and walls,But the sea, the sea in the darkness calls;The little waves, with their soft, white hands,Efface the footprints in the sands,And the tide rises, the tide falls.- Henry Wadsworth Longfellow, from“TheTide Rises, the Tide Falls”
14What else is here? Rhymes at the end of lines of poetry Darkness settles on roofs and walls,But the sea, the sea in the darkness calls;The little waves, with their soft, white hands,Efface the footprints in the sands,And the tide rises, the tide falls.- Henry Wadsworth Longfellow, from“TheTide Rises, the Tide Falls”
15Internal Rhymes Rhymes within lines of poetry Back into the chamber turning, all my soul within me burning,Soon there came again a tapping somewhat louder than before- Edgar Allan Poe, from “The Raven”
16Near RhymesRhymes involving sounds that are similar but not exactly the sameAlso called slant rhymesmilly befriended a stranded starwhose rays five languid fingers were- E.E. Cummings,from “maggie and milly and molly and may”(page 522)
17Rhyme Scheme Rhymes at the end of lines of poetry To indicate the rhyme scheme of a poem, use a separate letter of the alphabet for each rhymeThe rhyme scheme of Longfellow’s stanza of “The Tide Rises, the Tide Falls” is a-a-b-b-a
18Rhyme Scheme Darkness settles on roofs and walls, a_ But the sea, the sea in the darkness calls; a_The little waves, with their soft, white hands, b_Efface the footprints in the sands, b_And the tide rises, the tide falls. a_- Henry Wadsworth Longfellow, from“TheTide Rises, the Tide Falls”
19Stanza A group of consecutive lines that forms a single unit Something like a paragraph in proseOften expresses a unit of thoughtMay consist of any number of linesIn some poems, each stanza has the same rhyme scheme
20I’m Nobody! I’m Nobody! Who are you? Are you Nobody too?Then there’s a pair of us!Don’t tell! They’d banish us, you know!How dreary to be Somebody!How public - like a Frog -To tell your name the livelong JuneTo an admiring Bog!- Emily Dickinson
21If I Can Stop One Heart from Breaking (page 72) I shall not live in vainIf I can ease one Life the AchingOr cool one PainOr help one fainting RobinUnto his Nest againI shall not live in Vain.- Emily Dickinson
22Meter A regular pattern of stressed and unstressed syllables Free verse does not have a regular pattern of stressed and unstressed syllablesSounds like ordinary speechWhen poets write in meter, they count out the number of stressed syllables (or strong beats) and unstressed syllables (weaker beats) in each lineThey then repeat the pattern throughoutTo avoid singsong effect, poets usually vary the basic pattern
23Hello, iambs!Each line has four unstressed syllables alternating with four stressed syllables‘Twas brillig, and the slithy tovesDid gyre and gimble in the wabe;All mimsy were the borogoves,And the mome raths outgrabe.- Lewis Carroll, from “Jabberwocky”
24Literary Devices in Poetry A comparison between two unlike things, using a word such as like, as, than, or resembles.
25Your old friend, the Simile! A comparison between two unlike things, using a word such as like, as, than, or resembles.When the last bus leaves, moths streamtoward lights like litter in the wind.- Roberta Hill, from “Depot in Rapid City”
26Literary Devices in Poetry An imaginative comparison between two unlike things in which one thing is said to be another thing.
27You’ve been waiting for, the mighty Metaphor! An imaginative comparison between two unlike things in which one thing is said to be another thing.When she comes slip-footing through the door,she kindles uslike lump coal lightedand we wake up glowing.She puts a spark even in Papa’s eyesand turns out all our darkness.When she comes sweet-talking in the room,she warms uslike grits and gravy,and we rise up shining.Even at nighttime Mama is a sunrisethat promises tomorrow and tomorrow.- Evelyn Tooley Hunt, from “Mama Is a Sunrise”
28MetaphorAn imaginative comparison between two unlike things in which one thing is said to be another thing. (More on Langston Hughes on page 67.)DreamsHold fast to dreamsFor if dreams dieLife is a broken-winged birdThat cannot fly.For when dreams goLife is a barren fieldFrozen with snow.- Langston Hughes Image from
29Madam and the Rent ManThe rent man knocked. He said, Howdy-do? I said, What Can I do for you? He said, You know Your rent is due. I said, Listen, Before I'd pay I'd go to Hades And rot away! The sink is broke, The water don't run, And you ain't done a thing You promised to've done. Back window's cracked, Kitchen floor squeaks, There's rats in the cellar, And the attic leaks.He said, Madam, It's not up to me. I'm just the agent, Don't you see?I said, Naturally, You pass the buck. If it's money you want You're out of luck. He said, Madam, I ain't pleased! I said, Neither am I. So we agrees!- Langston Hughes
30Literary Devices in Poetry The repetition of the same or very similar consonant sounds in words that are close together.
31AlliterationThe repetition of the same or very similar consonant sounds in words that are close together.Usually occurs at the beginning of wordsCan also occur within or at the end of wordsCan help establish a mood, emphasize words, or serve as a memory aid
32AlliterationThe repetition of the same or very similar consonant sounds in words that are close together.Example: s sound repeated at beginning of silken and sad and within the words uncertain and rustling. . .And the silken sad uncertain rustling of each purple curtain,Thrilled me--filled me with fantastic terrors never felt before;- Edgar Allan Poe, from “The Raven”
33Poetic SleuthUsing this same example from “The Raven”, what other poetic device(s) can you find?And the silken sad uncertain rustling of each purple curtain,Thrilled me--filled me with fantastic terrors never felt before;- Edgar Allan Poe, from “The Raven”
34Couplet A pair of lines of verse Usually consists of two lines that rhyme and have the same meterWhile traditionally couplets rhyme, not all do
35Couplet A pair of lines of verse Because the rhyme comes so quickly in rhyming couplets, it tends to call attention to itselfGood rhyming couplets tend to "snap" as both the rhyme and the idea come to a quick close in two linesAn example of a rhyming couplet:Whether or not we find what we are seekingis idle, biologically speaking.— Edna St. Vincent Millay (at the end of a sonnet*)*Sonnet - 14-line poem, ending in a rhyming couplet
36A Minor Bird I have wished a bird would fly away, And not sing by my house all day;Have clapped my hands at him from the doorWhen it seemed as if I could bear no more.5 The fault must partly have been in me.The bird was not to blame for his key.And of course there must be something wrongIn wanting to silence any song.` Robert Frost*
37Literary Device in Poetry A single word or phrase that appeals to one or more of our senses
38ImageryA single word or phrase that appeals to one or more of our sensesImagery refers to the "pictures" which we perceive with our mind's eyes, ears, nose, tongue, and skin
39ImageryA single word or phrase that appeals to one or more of our sensesNight Watch(Ode to the Gargoyle)Frozen jaws snap at timeless airAnd concrete eyes stare at passers-byClaws deeply imbedded, sadly not in fleshAs you crouch forever ready to pounce- Mary O. Fumento, 1989
40ImageryA single word or phrase that appeals to one or more of our sensesRead also “Sarah Cynthia Sylvia Stout Would Not Take the Garbage Out” by Shel Silverstein (page 608)“A Boy Named Sue”, sung by Johnny Cash, was written by Shel Silverstein.
41Literary Devices in Poetry The use of a word whose sound suggests or imitates its meaning
42OnomatopoeiaThe use of a word whose sound suggests or imitates its meaningImportant element in creating the music of poetry
43Onomatopoeia Oh, the bells, bells, bells! In “The Bells”, by Edgar Allan Poe, he creates a frenzied mood by choosing words that imitate the sounds of alarm bellsOh, the bells, bells, bells!What a tale their terror tellsOf Despair!How they clang, and clash, and roar!5 What a horror they outpourOn the bosom of the palpitating air!Yet the ear, it fully knowsBy the twangingAnd the clanging10 How the danger ebbs and flows.
44E. A. Poe Oh, the bells, bells, bells! In “The Bells”, Poe uses onomatopoeia, it’s true, but he is also utilizing the recurring use of a sound, word, a phrase, or a line. What is this called?Oh, the bells, bells, bells!What a tale their terror tellsOf Despair!How they clang, and clash, and roar!What a horror they outpourOn the bosom of the palpitating air!Yet the ear, it fully knowsBy the twangingAnd the clangingHow the danger ebbs and flows.
45Repetition The recurring use of a sound, a word, a phrase, or a line Can also be used to create music, to appeal to our emotions, and to emphasize important ideasPoe used this quite a bit (page 575)Annabel Lee (page 579)Note how the lines are numbered!
46Some More Poetic Perusal “Gold” by Pat Mora (page 571)“maggie and milly and molly and may” by e.e. cummings (page 522)Casey at the Bat” by Ernest Lawrence Thayer (page 132)“The Names” by Billy Collins (page 561)Last but certainly not least, “Jabberwocky” by Lewis Carroll (page 339)Let’s read this one together, then break it down, shall we?
47Now it’s YOUR turn!I am PoemBioPoemDiamanteCinquain
48I am Poem Format Example I am (two special characteristics you have) I am a carefree girl who loves horses.I wonder (something you are actually curious about) I wonder if there ever was a horse that could fly.I hear (an imaginary sound) I hear the stomping of a hundred mustangs on the desert in Arabia.I see (an imaginary sight) I see a horse with golden wings soaring into the sunset.I want (an actual desire) I want to ride swiftly over a green meadow.I am (the first line of the poem repeated) I am a carefree girl who loves horses.I pretend (someting you pretend to do) I pretend to be an Olympic jumper.I feel (a feeling about something imaginary) I feel the sky pressing down on me as I ride along a sandy shore.I touch (an imaginary touch) I touch the clouds on a winged horse.I worry ( something that really bothers you) I worry that I'll fall off and become paralyzed.I cry (something that makes you sad) I cry when a colt dies.I am (the first line of the poem) I am a carefree girl who loves horses.I understand (something you know is true) I understand that I will not be able to ride every day of my life.I say (something you believe in) I say, let all horses roam free.I dream (somethng you actually hope for) I dream about the day when I have a horse of my own.I try (something you make an effort about) I try to be the best rider in the world.I hope (something you actually hope for) I hope to ride all my life.adapted from various teacher resources Elly TatumFrom:
49BioPoemBe sure to follow the directions indicating how many items you must share.Format Sample(first name) Adam(four words that describe you--character traits) Precocious, enthusiastic, mischievous, energetic.Relative of (list close family members) Relative of Mom, Daddy, and Eric.Resident of (place where you live) Resident of St. Joseph, Michigan.Who reads (four books, magazines, and or newspapers) Who reads Captain Underpants, Star Wars, Knuffle Bunny, and Super Hero BooksWho likes (three things you like) Who likes to go the museum, fight bad guys, and pillow fights.Who loves (three things you love) Who loves Snickers ice cream, my brother, and my army guys.Who fears (three things) Who fears The Princess and the Frog bite, people taking me, and falling into our ravineWho wishes (three things) Who wishes for money coming out of the sky, a snake for a pet, and a trip to Disney.Who admires (three) Who admires Papa Dixon, Papa Walsworth, and the President.Who needs (three things you need) Who needs to play, run, and learn.Who aspires to (at least two aspirations) Who aspires to become a police officer and a king.(last name) Walsworth
50Cinquain Highly structured form of poetry Requires a fluent and flexible writerFormat commands attention to word choice, word meaning, syllabication, and parts of speech, while at the same time expressing a meaningful message
51Cinquain Friend/ship Pre/cious, awe/some Bright/ens gloom/y mo/ments Line 1: word title (noun) 2 syllablesLine 2: descriptive words (adjectives) 4 syllablesLine 3: words that express action 6 syllablesLine 4: words that express feeling 8 syllablesLine 5: word (synonyms or reference to title in line 1) 2 syllablesFriend/shipPre/cious, awe/someBright/ens gloom/y mo/mentsRain/bow's treas/ure trove dis/cov/eredAl/waysFrom:
52Diamante Seven line poem, shaped like a diamond The result is a pattern of contrast shown in poetry formLINE one word subject (noun) contrasting with line 7LINE 2 - two adjectives describing LINE 1 nounLINE 3 - three action verbs ending in -ing or -ed to describe LINE I nounLINE 4 - four words: first 2 words relate to line 1, last 2 words relate to line 7LINE 5 - three participles ending in -ing or -ed to describe LINE 7 nounLINE 6 - two adjectives describing LINE 7 nounLINE 7 - one word subject (noun) contrasting with line 1