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7th grade Poetry Unit. Poetry  A kind of rhythmic, compressed language that uses figures of speech and imagery designed to appeal to emotion and imagination.

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Presentation on theme: "7th grade Poetry Unit. Poetry  A kind of rhythmic, compressed language that uses figures of speech and imagery designed to appeal to emotion and imagination."— Presentation transcript:

1 7th grade Poetry Unit

2 Poetry  A kind of rhythmic, compressed language that uses figures of speech and imagery designed to appeal to emotion and imagination  One of the oldest forms of communication  Often sung  Passed down from generation to generation  Meant to be read aloud –Read a poem several times to get the feel of it

3 Poetry v. Prose  Prose = anything that is not poetry  Poetry is a language which says more and says it more intensely than prose  Poets say the same thing as prose writers... They just say it with fewer words

4 The Implied  Poets often write with implied ideas.  That is... –Reader must make an educated guess to the idea that is suggested –Make inferences

5 Numbering Lines in Poetry  5’s only Battle in the Sky by Shel Silverstein It wasn't quite day and it wasn't quite night, 'Cause the sun and the moon were both in sight, A situation quite all right With everyone else but them. 5 So they both made remarks about who gave more light And who was the brightest and prettiest sight, And the sun gave a bump and the moon gave a bite, And the terrible sky fight began. With a scorch and a sizzle, a screech and a shout, 10 Across the great heavens they tumbled about, And the moon had a piece of the sun in its mouth, While the sun burned the face of the moon. And when it was over the moon was rubbed red, And the sun had a very bad lump on its head, 15 And all the next night the moon stayed home in bed, And the sun didn't come out 'til noon.

6 An Introduction to Literary Devices in Poetry  Some of these will be familiar to you, while others will be new –Alliteration- Personification –Couplet- Refrain –Image- Rhyme scheme –Metaphor- Simile –Onomatopoeia- Stanza

7 Literary Devices in Poetry  A nonhuman thing or quality is given human-like qualities

8 Personification  A nonhuman thing or quality is given human-like qualities The soft gray hands of sleep Toiled all night long To spin a beautiful garment Of dreams - Edward Silvera, from “Forgotten Dreams”

9 Literary Devices in Poetry  A group of words repeated at intervals in a poem, song, or speech.

10 Refrain  A group of words repeated at intervals in a poem, song, or speech. –Often used to build rhythm –Can also emphasize the main theme of the work

11 Refrain  A group of words repeated at intervals in a poem, song, or speech. (Same as a chorus in a song.) All God’s critters got a place in the choir, Some sing low, some sing higher, Some sing out loud on the telephone wire, And some just clap their hands, Or paws, Or anything they got now. -Bill Staines, from “A Place in the Choir”(page 178) “I have a dream...”“I’ve got a feeling...” - Martin Luther King, Jr.-Black Eyed Peas

12 Rhyme Scheme  A pattern of rhymes in a poem –End rhymes –Internal rhymes –Near rhymes

13 End Rhymes  Rhymes at the end of lines of poetry Darkness settles on roofs and walls, But the sea, the sea in the darkness calls; The little waves, with their soft, white hands, Efface the footprints in the sands, And the tide rises, the tide falls. - Henry Wadsworth Longfellow, from “TheTide Rises, the Tide Falls”

14 What else is here?  Rhymes at the end of lines of poetry Darkness settles on roofs and walls, But the sea, the sea in the darkness calls; The little waves, with their soft, white hands, Efface the footprints in the sands, And the tide rises, the tide falls. - Henry Wadsworth Longfellow, from “TheTide Rises, the Tide Falls”

15 Internal Rhymes  Rhymes within lines of poetry Back into the chamber turning, all my soul within me burning, Soon there came again a tapping somewhat louder than before - Edgar Allan Poe, from “The Raven”

16 Near Rhymes  Rhymes involving sounds that are similar but not exactly the same –Also called slant rhymes milly befriended a stranded star whose rays five languid fingers were - E.E. Cummings, from “maggie and milly and molly and may” (page 522)

17 Rhyme Scheme  Rhymes at the end of lines of poetry  To indicate the rhyme scheme of a poem, use a separate letter of the alphabet for each rhyme  The rhyme scheme of Longfellow’s stanza of “The Tide Rises, the Tide Falls” is a-a-b-b-a

18 Rhyme Scheme Darkness settles on roofs and walls, a_ But the sea, the sea in the darkness calls; a_ The little waves, with their soft, white hands, b_ Efface the footprints in the sands, b_ And the tide rises, the tide falls. a_ - Henry Wadsworth Longfellow, from “TheTide Rises, the Tide Falls”

19 Stanza  A group of consecutive lines that forms a single unit –Something like a paragraph in prose –Often expresses a unit of thought –May consist of any number of lines –In some poems, each stanza has the same rhyme scheme

20 I’m Nobody! I’m Nobody! Who are you? Are you Nobody too? Then there’s a pair of us! Don’t tell! They’d banish us, you know! How dreary to be Somebody! How public - like a Frog - To tell your name the livelong June To an admiring Bog! - Emily Dickinson

21 If I Can Stop One Heart from Breaking (page 72) If I can stop one Heart from breaking I shall not live in vain If I can ease one Life the Aching Or cool one Pain Or help one fainting Robin Unto his Nest again I shall not live in Vain. - Emily Dickinson

22 Meter  A regular pattern of stressed and unstressed syllables –Free verse does not have a regular pattern of stressed and unstressed syllables –Sounds like ordinary speech  When poets write in meter, they count out the number of stressed syllables (or strong beats) and unstressed syllables (weaker beats) in each line  They then repeat the pattern throughout  To avoid singsong effect, poets usually vary the basic pattern

23 Hello, iambs!  Each line has four unstressed syllables alternating with four stressed syllables ‘Twas brillig, and the slithy toves Did gyre and gimble in the wabe; All mimsy were the borogoves, And the mome raths outgrabe. - Lewis Carroll, from “Jabberwocky”

24 Literary Devices in Poetry  A comparison between two unlike things, using a word such as like, as, than, or resembles.

25 Your old friend, the Simile!  A comparison between two unlike things, using a word such as like, as, than, or resembles. When the last bus leaves, moths stream toward lights like litter in the wind. - Roberta Hill, from “Depot in Rapid City”

26 Literary Devices in Poetry  An imaginative comparison between two unlike things in which one thing is said to be another thing.

27 You’ve been waiting for, the mighty Metaphor!  An imaginative comparison between two unlike things in which one thing is said to be another thing. When she comes slip-footing through the door, she kindles us like lump coal lighted and we wake up glowing. She puts a spark even in Papa ’ s eyes and turns out all our darkness. When she comes sweet-talking in the room, she warms us like grits and gravy, and we rise up shining. Even at nighttime Mama is a sunrise that promises tomorrow and tomorrow. - Evelyn Tooley Hunt, from “ Mama Is a Sunrise ”

28 Metaphor  An imaginative comparison between two unlike things in which one thing is said to be another thing. (More on Langston Hughes on page 67.) Dreams Hold fast to dreams For if dreams die Life is a broken-winged bird That cannot fly. Hold fast to dreams For when dreams go Life is a barren field Frozen with snow. - Langston Hughes Image from

29 Madam and the Rent Man The rent man knocked. He said, Howdy-do? I said, What Can I do for you? He said, You know Your rent is due. I said, Listen, Before I'd pay I'd go to Hades And rot away! The sink is broke, The water don't run, And you ain't done a thing You promised to've done. Back window's cracked, Kitchen floor squeaks, There's rats in the cellar, And the attic leaks. He said, Madam, It's not up to me. I'm just the agent, Don't you see? I said, Naturally, You pass the buck. If it's money you want You're out of luck. He said, Madam, I ain't pleased! I said, Neither am I. So we agrees! - Langston Hughes

30 Literary Devices in Poetry  The repetition of the same or very similar consonant sounds in words that are close together.

31 Alliteration  The repetition of the same or very similar consonant sounds in words that are close together. –Usually occurs at the beginning of words –Can also occur within or at the end of words –Can help establish a mood, emphasize words, or serve as a memory aid

32 Alliteration  The repetition of the same or very similar consonant sounds in words that are close together. –Example: s sound repeated at beginning of silken and sad and within the words uncertain and rustling... And the silken sad uncertain rustling of each purple curtain, Thrilled me--filled me with fantastic terrors never felt before; - Edgar Allan Poe, from “The Raven”

33 Poetic Sleuth  Using this same example from “The Raven”, what other poetic device(s) can you find? And the silken sad uncertain rustling of each purple curtain, Thrilled me--filled me with fantastic terrors never felt before; - Edgar Allan Poe, from “The Raven”

34 Couplet  A pair of lines of verse  Usually consists of two lines that rhyme and have the same meter  While traditionally couplets rhyme, not all do

35 Couplet  A pair of lines of verse  Because the rhyme comes so quickly in rhyming couplets, it tends to call attention to itself  Good rhyming couplets tend to "snap" as both the rhyme and the idea come to a quick close in two lines  An example of a rhyming couplet: Whether or not we find what we are seeking is idle, biologically speaking. — Edna St. Vincent Millay (at the end of a sonnet*) * Sonnet - 14-line poem, ending in a rhyming couplet

36 A Minor Bird I have wished a bird would fly away, And not sing by my house all day; Have clapped my hands at him from the door When it seemed as if I could bear no more. 5 The fault must partly have been in me. The bird was not to blame for his key. And of course there must be something wrong In wanting to silence any song. ` Robert Frost*

37 Literary Device in Poetry  A single word or phrase that appeals to one or more of our senses

38 Imagery  A single word or phrase that appeals to one or more of our senses  Imagery refers to the "pictures" which we perceive with our mind's eyes, ears, nose, tongue, and skin

39 Imagery  A single word or phrase that appeals to one or more of our senses Night Watch (Ode to the Gargoyle) Frozen jaws snap at timeless air And concrete eyes stare at passers-by Claws deeply imbedded, sadly not in flesh As you crouch forever ready to pounce - Mary O. Fumento, 1989

40 Imagery  A single word or phrase that appeals to one or more of our senses  Read also “Sarah Cynthia Sylvia Stout Would Not Take the Garbage Out” by Shel Silverstein (page 608)  “A Boy Named Sue”, sung by Johnny Cash, was written by Shel Silverstein.

41 Literary Devices in Poetry  The use of a word whose sound suggests or imitates its meaning

42 Onomatopoeia  The use of a word whose sound suggests or imitates its meaning  Important element in creating the music of poetry

43 Onomatopoeia  In “The Bells”, by Edgar Allan Poe, he creates a frenzied mood by choosing words that imitate the sounds of alarm bells Oh, the bells, bells, bells! What a tale their terror tells Of Despair! How they clang, and clash, and roar! 5 What a horror they outpour On the bosom of the palpitating air! Yet the ear, it fully knows By the twanging And the clanging 10 How the danger ebbs and flows.

44 E. A. Poe  In “The Bells”, Poe uses onomatopoeia, it’s true, but he is also utilizing the recurring use of a sound, word, a phrase, or a line. What is this called? Oh, the bells, bells, bells! What a tale their terror tells Of Despair! How they clang, and clash, and roar! What a horror they outpour On the bosom of the palpitating air! Yet the ear, it fully knows By the twanging And the clanging How the danger ebbs and flows.

45 Repetition  The recurring use of a sound, a word, a phrase, or a line  Can also be used to create music, to appeal to our emotions, and to emphasize important ideas  Poe used this quite a bit (page 575)  Annabel Lee (page 579)  Note how the lines are numbered!

46 Some More Poetic Perusal  “Gold” by Pat Mora (page 571)  “maggie and milly and molly and may” by e.e. cummings (page 522)  Casey at the Bat” by Ernest Lawrence Thayer (page 132)  “The Names” by Billy Collins (page 561)  Last but certainly not least, “Jabberwocky” by Lewis Carroll (page 339) –Let’s read this one together, then break it down, shall we?

47 Now it’s YOUR turn!  I am Poem  BioPoem  Diamante  Cinquain

48 I am Poem Format Example I am (two special characteristics you have)I am a carefree girl who loves horses. I wonder (something you are actually curious about)I wonder if there ever was a horse that could fly. I hear (an imaginary sound)I hear the stomping of a hundred mustangs on the desert in Arabia. I see (an imaginary sight) I see a horse with golden wings soaring into the sunset. I want (an actual desire)I want to ride swiftly over a green meadow. I am (the first line of the poem repeated)I am a carefree girl who loves horses. I pretend (someting you pretend to do)I pretend to be an Olympic jumper. I feel (a feeling about something imaginary)I feel the sky pressing down on me as I ride along a sandy shore. I touch (an imaginary touch)I touch the clouds on a winged horse. I worry ( something that really bothers you)I worry that I'll fall off and become paralyzed. I cry (something that makes you sad)I cry when a colt dies. I am (the first line of the poem)I am a carefree girl who loves horses. I understand (something you know is true)I understand that I will not be able to ride every day of my life. I say (something you believe in) I say, let all horses roam free. I dream (somethng you actually hope for) I dream about the day when I have a horse of my own. I try (something you make an effort about)I try to be the best rider in the world. I hope (something you actually hope for)I hope to ride all my life. I am (the first line of the poem repeated)I am a carefree girl who loves horses. adapted from various teacher resources Elly Tatum From:

49 BioPoem  Be sure to follow the directions indicating how many items you must share. Format Sample (first name)Adam (four words that describe you--character traits) Precocious, enthusiastic, mischievous, energetic. Relative of (list close family members) Relative of Mom, Daddy, and Eric. Resident of (place where you live) Resident of St. Joseph, Michigan. Who reads (four books, magazines, and or newspapers) Who reads Captain Underpants, Star Wars, Knuffle Bunny, and Super Hero Books Who likes (three things you like)Who likes to go the museum, fight bad guys, and pillow fights. Who loves (three things you love)Who loves Snickers ice cream, my brother, and my army guys. Who fears (three things) Who fears The Princess and the Frog bite, people taking me, and falling into our ravine Who wishes (three things)Who wishes for money coming out of the sky, a snake for a pet, and a trip to Disney. Who admires (three)Who admires Papa Dixon, Papa Walsworth, and the President. Who needs (three things you need)Who needs to play, run, and learn. Who aspires to (at least two aspirations)Who aspires to become a police officer and a king. (last name)Walsworth

50 Cinquain  Highly structured form of poetry  Requires a fluent and flexible writer  Format commands attention to word choice, word meaning, syllabication, and parts of speech, while at the same time expressing a meaningful message

51 Cinquain  Line 1: 1 word title (noun) 2 syllables  Line 2: 2 descriptive words (adjectives) 4 syllables  Line 3: 3 words that express action 6 syllables  Line 4: 4 words that express feeling 8 syllables  Line 5: 1 word (synonyms or reference to title in line 1) 2 syllables Friend/ship Pre/cious, awe/some Bright/ens gloom/y mo/ments Rain/bow's treas/ure trove dis/cov/ered Al/ways From:

52 Diamante  Seven line poem, shaped like a diamond  The result is a pattern of contrast shown in poetry form  LINE 1 - one word subject (noun) contrasting with line 7  LINE 2 - two adjectives describing LINE 1 noun  LINE 3 - three action verbs ending in -ing or -ed to describe LINE I noun  LINE 4 - four words: first 2 words relate to line 1, last 2 words relate to line 7  LINE 5 - three participles ending in -ing or -ed to describe LINE 7 noun  LINE 6 - two adjectives describing LINE 7 noun  LINE 7 - one word subject (noun) contrasting with line 1

53 Diamante Square Symmetrical, Conventional Shaping, Measuring, Balancing Boxes, Rooms, Clocks, Halos Encircling, Circumnavigating, Enclosing Round, Continuous Circle From: 6/activities/poetry/diamante.htmlhttp://teams.lacoe.edu/documentation/classrooms/amy/algebra/5- 6/activities/poetry/diamante.html

54 Diamante Fireball Brilliant, Beautiful Flashing, Shining, Dashing Bright, Wondrous, Black, Nothing, Staring, Hoping, Missing Deep, Quiet Darkness From


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