Presentation on theme: "Forming Impressions of Others: A Classroom Demonstration."— Presentation transcript:
Forming Impressions of Others: A Classroom Demonstration
Introduction This demonstration was created by Jackson (2000) and is based on an actual study by Hamilton and Gifford (1979).
Instructions You will see a series of statements, each describing a person performing some type of behavior. Each person belongs to either Group A or Group B. After all statements have been presented, you will respond with your impressions.
John visited a friend in the hospital.
Allen dented the fender of a parked car and didn’t leave his name.
Bill is rarely late for work.
Bob helped a child.
Tom shared his lunch with a co- worker.
Scott cheated on an exam.
Alan planted seedlings in a park.
Henry went out of his way to return a lost wallet to the owner.
Nathan took neighborhood kids swimming.
John is considered a very dependable co- worker.
Chad always talks about himself and his problems.
Josh finished his homework on time.
Lane is well-like by his colleagues.
Davis read a story to his daughter.
Ron made prank phone calls to his teacher.
Bruce never returns library books on time.
Ken helped a lost child in a supermarket.
David converses easily with people he doesn’t know well.
Fred gave blood to the Red Cross.
Alex kicked a dog.
Devin donated his clothes to charity.
Mark learned how to fly an airplane.
Gary earned an “A” on his research paper.
Ted ran a red light.
Jeff volunteered to tutor needy students.
Richard yelled at a boy who bumped into him.
Eric drove his elderly neighbor to the grocery store.
Vincent forgot about his job interview.
Keith organized a birthday party for a friend.
Colin works out to keep himself in good shape.
Robert talks with food in his mouth.
Scott received a promotion at work.
Norman often tailgates when he is driving
Eliot sings in the church choir.
William rarely washes his car.
Pete is recognized as an excellent musician.
Don took a hurt stray dog to the vet.
Roger repaired his neighbor’s lawnmower.
Craig helped a friend move.
Group Ratings Construct the table below on a scrap piece of paper.
Group Ratings Attribute:Group AGroup B Popular Lazy Unhappy Intelligent Honest Irresponsible Helpful Unpopular
Group Ratings Your next task is to rate each of the groups. Use the scale below: 1: Strongly Disagree 7: Strongly Agree You should use intermediate values as well as these two extremes.
Debriefing Group A (n = 26 members) 18 positive statements 8 negative statements 9:4 ratio of positive to negative statements Group B (n = 13 members) 9 positive statements 4 negative statements 9:4 ratio of positive to negative statements
Debriefing The ratio of positive and negative events was exactly the same for Group A and Group B! Did we rate the Groups the way we should have? Are our ratings of the Groups exactly equal?
Illusory Correlation This demonstration illustrates an Illusory Correlation – the perception of a relationship where none exists, or perception of a stronger relationship than actually exists. Another way to think of it – a false impression that two variables correlate.
Illusory Correlation The joint occurrence of two distinctive events (minority member – Group B & distinctive event - negative behavior) probably attracted more attention and caused faulty impressions.
Illusory Correlation Examples: It always rains on the week-end It always rains after you wash the car The phone always rings when you are in the shower Librarians are quiet Doctors are wealthy
Illusory Correlation The Illusory correlation may be one reason individuals become prejudiced. Research has shown that White Americans overestimate the arrest rate of African Americans (Hamilton & Sherman, 1996). African Americans = minority Arrest Rate = distinctive event