Chronology Early Byzantine: 527-725 Justinian – r. 527-565 Nika riots in Constantinople – 532 Belasarius captures Ravenna – 539 Heraclius defeats Persians – 627 Arabs besiege Constantinople – 717-718 Iconoclasm: 726-842 Leo III prohibits image making – 726 Ravenna falls to the Lombards – 751 Middle Byzantine: 843-1203 Restoration of images – 843 Basil I – r. 867-886 (founder of Macedonian Dynasty) Basil II – r. 980-1001 (revival of Byzantine power) Schism between Byzantine and Roman churches – 1054 Norman conquest of Sicily – 1060-1092 Seljuk Turks capture Byzantine Asia Minor – 1073 First Crusade – 1095-1099 Fourth Crusade and the Frankish Conquest – 1202-1204 Late Byzantine: 1204-1453 Michael VIII Palaeologus recaptures Constantinople from the Franks – 1261 Ottonian Turks capture Constantinople, end of Byzantine Empire - 1453
Map of Europe and the Byzantine Empire – ca. 1000
Empress Irene (Fig. 12-25) Theodora from San Vitale (Fig. 12-11) Compare the image of Empress Irene from the Pala d’Oro with the mosaic of Theodora from San Vitale. What charcteristics identify them both as Byzantine?
Annunciation (Fig. 12-33) Anastasis (Fig. 12-31) What stylistic features of the Annunciation from Ohrid, Macedonia link the image to the Byzantine style as seen in the fresco from the chapel of the Church of Christ in Chora in Istanbul (Anastasis)?
Paris Psalter (Fig. 12-28) Rublyev’s Old Testament Trinity (Fig. 12-34) Ixion Room in Pompeii (Fig. 10-21) Compare the scenes from the Paris Psalter and Rublyev’s Old Testament Trinity with the classical painting from the Ixion Room in Pompeii. What similarities and what differences do you see? Note the way the space is depicted and the way the figures are modeled. What features of the Paris Psalter show the influence of classical painting?