Presentation on theme: "Private Contractor Support Jennifer Shamalla Pan Africa Strategic Policy Research Group Kenya (PANAFSRAG)"— Presentation transcript:
Private Contractor Support Jennifer Shamalla Pan Africa Strategic Policy Research Group Kenya (PANAFSRAG)
2 Although it may signal that the world's intractable conflicts are coming to an end, the increase in peacekeeping in recent times has placed a great additional strain on UN resources and personnel as well as member states' ability to contribute funds, troops, or peacekeepers, support personnel and equipment (United Nations, 2000)
Nature of Conflict Intra state Armed non state actors Terrorism Organized criminals( al Shabab) Leading to State collapse Global security threat. Piracy Indian Ocean. Conclusion: Asymmetrical warfare. 3
4 What Is Private Contractor Support Outsourcing: Contracting of a third party to provide services that could be done in house. civilianizing (generally contracting-out) work It is a process of military civilianization. Source of all major supplies is form the private/ sector industry. In a theatre of war sometimes not possible to get to source as in Somalia or to sustain soldiers or for reconstruction of roads, buildings Given the changing nature of warfare private contractor support is necessary.
Motivation Against Private Contractor Motivation is profit and contractors are driven by profit. Cannot replace the duties of the State May often work with mercenaries. 5
6 Why : It is may be the only way It is sometimes cost effective The United Nations simply does not have the capacity or funds.
WHAT IS CONTRACTED? Aviation, Base Support, Communications, Consultancy, Demining and UXO Removal Humanitarian Development, Intelligence, Legal, Logistics, 7
8 Logistics and Contractor Support All United Nations PKO operations are outsourced to member states. The United Nations does not have a standing military. 63 Peacekeeping operations since 1948 Currently 15 Costs:1 st July 2010- 30 th June 2010: aprrox 7.26 billion dollars.
HOW Tactical logistics should be organic to the operating units whereas at the strategic level it may be prudent to outsource hence forming part of the supply chain. 9
UN CONTRACTER SUPPORT In the 1990s Defense Systems Ltd. provided security for the U.N. mission in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Lifeguard protected World Vision's operations in Sierra Leone. The U.N. World Food Program employed Hart Security. In East Timor, DynCorp provided logistics for the United Nations while KwaZulu Natal Security and Empower Loss Control Services provided local intelligence. 10
Executive Outcomes used against the UNITA rebel forces in Angola Blackwater: Iraq Military Professional Resources Inc (MPRI), used to carry out a large part of the US's military training overseas, such as the Africa Crisis Response Initiative (ACRI). DynCorp, DynCorp is training young conscripts for the new Liberian Army (Blunt, 2006).
LOCKHEED MARTIN PAE Group, Peace Support Operations (PSO) Soldier Skills Trainers provide Peacekeeping Operations (PKO) soldier skills instruction to African military units receiving U.S. Department of State’s African Contingency Operations Training Assistance (ACOTA) Program training.
Issues Swindon (1998) and Osborne & Gaebler (1993) cautioned against the overzealous adoption of private-sector practices in the public sector, since solutions that work in the private sector may not necessarily work for public sector organisations. Must identify the needs.
MORALITY Responsibility for internal order and security in a sovereign country is an obligation which may not be renounced or transferred The State cannot divest itself of its basic obligations in this area because it ‘would no longer have any obligation to defend peace and life and would be replaced in military matters by private companies that by definition are concerned with their own interest. Special Rapporteur (Enrique Bernales Ballesteros)
Montreux Document For Private Military and Security Companies That this document recalls existing legal obligations of States and PMSCs and their personnel (Part One), and provides States with good practices to promote compliance with international humanitarian law and human rights law during armed conflict (Part Two); 3. That this document is not a legally binding instrument and does not affect existing obligations of States under customary international law or under international agreements to which they are parties. g 15
Conclusion It is a manpower management strategy. Can lead to major cost savings Collective security includes security of states and human security in tandem with human rights. Universal Declaration of Human Rights Article 3 Everyone has the right to life, liberty and security of person.. 16