Stages of Intellectual Development Developmental StageApproximate Age Characteristic Behavior Reflexive Stage (0-2 months)Simple reflex activity such as grasping, sucking Primary Circular Reactions (2-4 months)Reflexive behaviors (i.e.-opening and closing fingers repetitively.) Secondary Circular Reactions (4-8 months)Repetition of change actions to reproduce interesting consequences Coordination of Secondary Reactions 8-12 months)Responses become coordinated into more complex sequences. Tertiary Circular Reactions (12-18 months)Discovery of new ways to produce the same consequence or obtain the same goal
Stages of Intellectual Development Developmental StageApproximate AgeCharacteristic Behavior Invention of New Means Through Mental Combination (18-24 months)Evidence of an internal representational system. Symbolizing the problem-solving sequence before actually responding. Deferred imitation.
Stages of Intellectual Development The Preoperational Period(2-7 years) Increased use of verbal representation but speech is egocentric Can think about something without the object being present by use of language.
Stages of Intellectual Development Intuitive Phase (4-7 years) Speech becomes more social, less egocentric. The child has an intuitive grasp of logical concepts in some areas.
Stages of Intellectual Development Period of Concrete Operations (7-12 years) Characteristic Behavior: Evidence for organized, logical thought. Some reversibility now possible (quantities moved can be restored such as in arithmetic: 3+4 = 7 and 7-4 = 3, etc.)
Stages of Intellectual Development Period of Formal Operations (12 years and onwards) Characteristic Behavior: Thought becomes more abstract, incorporating the principles of formal logic. The ability to generate abstract propositions, multiple hypotheses and their possible outcomes is evident. Thinking becomes less tied to concrete reality.
Stages of Intellectual Development The following characteristics will not apply to all children in every family. Typical characteristics, however, can be identified:
Birth Order Only Child Typical Characteristics Only Child Typical Characteristics Pampered and spoiled. Feels incompetent because adults are more capable. Is center of attention; often enjoys position. May feel special. Self-centered. Relies on service from others rather than own efforts Feels unfairly treated when doesn't get own way. May refuse to cooperate. Plays "divide and conquer" to get own way.
Birth Order Typical Characteristics First Child Typical Characteristics Is only child for period of time; used to being center of attention. Believes must gain and hold superiority over other children. Being right, controlling often important. May respond to birth of second child by feeling unloved and neglected. Strives to keep or regain parents' attention through conformity. If this failed, chooses to misbehave. May develop competent, responsible behavior or become very discouraged. Sometime strives to protect and help others. Strives to please.
Birth Order Second Child Typical Characteristics Never has parents' undivided attention. Always has sibling ahead who's more advanced. Acts as if in race, trying to catch up or overtake first child. If first child is "good," second may become "bad." Develops abilities first child doesn't exhibit. If first child successful, may feel uncertain of self and abilities. May be rebel. Often doesn't like position. Feels "squeezed" if third child is born. May push down other siblings.
Birth Order Middle Child of Three Typical Characteristics Has neither rights of oldest nor privileges of youngest. Feels life is unfair. Feels unloved, left out, "squeezed." Feels doesn't have place in family. self by pushing down other siblings. Becomes discouraged and "problem child" or elevates Is adaptable. Learns to deal with both oldest and youngest sibling.
Birth Order Youngest Child Typical Characteristics Behaves like only child. Feels every one bigger and more capable. Expects others to do things, make decisions, take responsibility. Feels smallest and weakest. May not be taken seriously. Becomes boss of family in getting service and own way. Develops feelings of inferiority or becomes "speeder" and overtakes older siblings. Remains "The Baby." Places others in service. If youngest of three, often allies with oldest child against middle child.
Birth Order These apply to "typical families" and probably do not apply to "dysfunction families" and may vary across various cultures.