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DECOLONIZATION OF AFRICA AND INDIA Essential Question: What was decolonization and how did decolonization impact India and Africa?

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Presentation on theme: "DECOLONIZATION OF AFRICA AND INDIA Essential Question: What was decolonization and how did decolonization impact India and Africa?"— Presentation transcript:

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2 DECOLONIZATION OF AFRICA AND INDIA

3 Essential Question: What was decolonization and how did decolonization impact India and Africa?

4 The Post-World War II World What will happen in world history in the years after World War II (1945 to today)? Examine the next four images and make a prediction about what will happen in the world after World War II (with exception to the Cold War)

5 Nations in India, Southeast Asia, and Africa gained independence from imperialists (decolonization)

6 After the death of Mao Zedong in 1976, China adopted some capitalist reforms but the government still strictly controlled personal liberties

7 Trade became more global (known as globalism) as technology expands, markets grow, and corporations became dominant business organizations

8 Ethnic conflicts, genocide, and terrorism increased throughout the world

9 At the end of World War II, many nations in Africa and Asia gained independence from European imperialists This trend of Africans and Asians freeing themselves of Europeans who controlled their nations was known as decolonization The first major colony to gain independence was India in 1947

10 During World War I, India sent troops to fight with the British against the Central Powers in Europe The British government promised Indians self-rule as a reward for participating in WWI

11 When World War I ended and self-rule was not granted, nationalism and demands for independence from Britain increased in India

12 Mohandas Gandhi emerged as the leader of the Indian independence movement in the 1920s

13 Gandhi urged Indians to use non- violent means to achieve their goals

14 Gandhi’s tactics included deliberately breaking unfair British laws (called civil disobedience)

15 Gandhi encouraged peaceful protests and boycotting British goods in order to hurt the British colonial economy

16 Title But, self-rule created tensions between the Hindu majority and the Muslim minority, who feared giving power to Hindus In 1935, Britain granted India limited self-rule but not total independence

17 When World War II broke out, Britain committed Indian troops to the war without asking India’s self-governing assembly This led to protests and renewed calls for independence from Britain

18 When World War II ended in 1945, Britain was in deeply in debt and ready to grant India its independence After WWII, India was no longer as profitable as it once was for Britain; also, Britain was in no shape to fight after WWII and could not put down an Indian rebellion

19 Title ■ Text In 1947, Britain agreed to a partition (division) of India and granted independence to two nations: India and Pakistan India was a nation made up largely of Hindus Pakistan was dominated by Muslims (East Pakistan later became Bangladesh)

20 But, violence between Hindus and Muslims made granting independence difficult

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22 During the partition, ten million people relocated; violence broke out, leaving one million dead, including Gandhi; he was assassinated by a fellow Hindu in 1949

23 The Hindu assassin opposed Gandhi trying to achieve equality for ALL Indians, both Hindus and Muslims

24 Title ■ Text In 1947, India became the world’s most populated democratic nation; Jawaharlal Nehru was elected India’s first prime minister Nehru emphasized democracy, unity, and modernizing India Under Nehru, women and lower caste Hindus gained rights In the Cold War, India was a leader among non-aligned nations

25 Title ■ Text In 1966, Nehru’s daughter, Indira Gandhi, was elected prime minister; she was also assassinated

26 Title ■ Text The violence in India and Pakistan is mainly due to religious and cultural differences between Hindus and Muslims; the after-effects of British rule only made these conflicts worse

27 In the 1950s and 1960s, African colonies experienced decolonization and gained independence The first sub- Saharan African colony to gain its independence was Ghana in 1957

28 As an imperial power, Britain conquered much of Africa, including the Gold Coast After WWII, Britain allowed Africans in Gold Coast to participate in local self- governments

29 Starting in 1947, Kwame Nkrumah used Gandhi’s non-violent strategy of boycotts and strikes to pressure Britain to grant total independence

30 After a decade of struggle, Britain granted Gold Coast independence in 1957 and the nation was renamed Ghana Kwame Nkrumah was elected president-for-life and began an ambitious series of construction projects, education, and health programs

31 Nkrumah supported Pan- Africanism (unity among ALL Africans) and he hoped to create a “United States of Africa” (which would make the entire continent of Africa into one single nation)

32 In 1966, Nkrumah was overthrown because his various projects were too expensive and hurt the economy; also, his people thought he spent too much time promoting Pan-Africanism Ghana struggled between military and civilian rule until free elections were finally held in 2000

33 Unlike Ghana, demands for independence in South Africa were led by descendants of white colonists

34 When South Africa gained independence in 1931, white Afrikaners gained power and create a policy of apartheid

35 Apartheid laws created strict racial segregation (total separation of races) between blacks and whites in South Africa

36 Black South Africans protested apartheid and violent riots often broke out

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38 In the 1980s, many foreign nations refused to trade with South Africa in protest of apartheid

39 The anti-apartheid leader was Nelson Mandela

40 In 1964, Mandela was arrested and given a life sentence for opposing apartheid laws

41 In 1990, new South African President F. W. de Clerk released Mandela from prison

42 South African parliament repealed all apartheid laws and announced the first multiracial election in 1994

43 Nelson Mandela won the election and became South Africa’s first black president South Africans adopted a new constitution with a Bill of Rights that guaranteed equal rights for all citizens

44 Not all African independence movements were like South Africa and ended with democracy or without bloodshed

45 After gaining independence, Nigeria erupted in an ethnic civil war

46 In Congo, a series of civil wars weakened the newly-formed nation

47 Ethnic divisions weakened Kenya’s government and led to violence and rule by dictators

48 Among the worst examples of violence in Africa is the genocide (mass killings) in Rwanda and Sudan Link to video on Rwandan genocide (3.00)

49 In Rwanda, ethnic conflict between rival clans led to the Hutus massacring between 500,000 to 800,000 Tutsi in 1994

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52 In Darfur, the Sudanese government killed up to 400,000 Muslims in an attempt to destroy an anti-government rebel movement Link to video on Darfur genocide (5.00)

53 Genocides in the later part of the 20 th Century

54 U.N. Peacekeeping Interventions,

55 Civil War and Genocide in Africa As can be seen on this map, most of the civil wars and genocides of the world take place in the poorest countries; Africa is where much of this violence happens

56 The Challenges in Africa Today The Aids Epidemic in Africa (Link to NY Times video, 6.00)Link to NY Times video, 6.00

57 Overcoming terrible problems with AIDS, extreme poverty, and warfare remain the biggest challenges Africa faces today

58 Revamped and redone by Christopher Jaskowiak Thanks to Brooks Baggett for the original version

59 POTENTIAL MINOR PROBLEM: In Office 2013 some of the default fonts change when you download from TpT and the slide shows no longer render the text correctly. The text overflows from most of the text boxes and sometimes overflows off the slides. The font the slides use by default is the updated Calibri font. HERE’S THE FIX: Go to the Home tab in PowerPoint. On the side, click the little drop- down arrow next to "Replace." Select "Replace Fonts..." Use the dropdown lists to replace "Calibri" with "Calibri Light.“


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