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Growth of the American Colony. African Americans in the Colonies.

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Presentation on theme: "Growth of the American Colony. African Americans in the Colonies."— Presentation transcript:

1 Growth of the American Colony

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3 African Americans in the Colonies

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5 The Middle Passage There was a triangular trade between Great Britain, Africa and the Americas Ships: ▫Started in Britain ▫Went to Africa (loaded slaves) ▫Slaves were unloaded in the Americas and trade goods were brought back to Britain

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7 The Middle Passage The journey from Africa to the Americas is called The Middle Passage 10-40% of Africans on slave ships died Some committed suicide by jumping overboard Sometimes they would stage a mutiny ▫revolt

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12 Slavery Once Africans were sold in slave auctions Perth Amboy was the largest in New Jersey The most difficult life for a slave was in Georgia and South Carolina African Americans made up the majority of South Carolina’s population and 1/3 of Georgia’s

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16 Slavery Rice plantations would have over 100 slaves Slaves would keep their culture by ▫making music ▫telling tales past down from grandparents

17 Slavery Slaves in Virginia and Maryland were less numerous ▫Most were born in America ▫Most grew Tobacco ▫More integrated to European culture

18 Slavery 400,000 slaves lived in South Carolina 50,000 lived in New England and the Middle Colonies ▫Had more freedom to choose occupation ▫Worked in cities as cooks, housekeepers, and servants ▫Some built ships and worked on docks

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20 Slaves Many slaves were from different regions of Africa They spoke different languages Many combined their culture with European culture Most adopted Christianity

21 Laws Laws varied by region and changed over time Slavery was banned in Georgia in 1735 but the ban was lifted in 1750 Generally slaves could not leave town or travel by boat without a written pass Breaking laws resulted in whipping and sometimes death

22 Laws Slaves had a difficult time resisting They could not meet and organize They could not read or write Some did rebel In 1739 20 whites were killed in the Stono Rebellion in South Carolina

23 Rebellions After the Stono Rebellion the slaves ran to Spanish Florida They were killed and captured by armed planters 50 rebellions took place between 1740-1800 Slaves would also rebel in smaller ways ▫Fake illness ▫“misunderstand orders”

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26 Mercantilism Mercantilism is the idea that a country should keep as much gold and silver as possible Its Balance of Trade should be little imports, and many exports Colonies could only trade with the parent country

27 Mercantilism Controlling the colonies trade would allow for maximum profit for England In 1660 Charles II approved the Navigation Act ▫It stated only English ships with English sailors could trade with English colonies Sugar, Tobacco, and cotton could only be sold to England If colonists wanted to sell other items they had to first pay a duty, (tax) to England

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29 Mercantilism In 1686 King James II took control of all New England colonies by creating the Dominion of New England It abolished colonial legislature and replaced it with a council and governor appointed by James II Edmund Andros was put in Charge

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31 Mercantilism Andros collected taxes without the King’s or the people’s permission He declared religious tolerance In 1689 James II was replaced by his daughter Mary and her husband William of Orange The Dominion of New England was lifted

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33 Mercantilism The Massachusetts Charter was reestablished However, the King could still appoint a governor

34 Colonial Society Wealth gender and race tended to decide a person’s place in colonial society The Gentry or wealthy class had servants and would wear the latest fashions including wigs Most land owners were white males These men often dominated politics

35 Trades At a young age boys became apprentices ▫They would work under someone to learn a trade ▫Silversmiths, blacksmiths, furniture makers, etc Printers Ben Franklin was the most famous printer He printed Poor Richards Almanac Farmers Indentured Servant

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37 Page 83-84 1.How was a woman’s status determined? 2.What could women not do during colonial times? 3.Were women ever allowed to own property? 4.What was a woman’s job in the house? 5.Why were schools opened in New England?

38 1.How was a woman’s status determined? Status was determined by the men they were married to 2.What could women not do during colonial times? Own property, vote, hold political office, or serve on a jury 3. Were women ever allowed to own property? They may acquire a portion of their husband’s land if he dies 4. What was a woman’s job in the house? managed household duties: cooking, gardening, sewing, child care

39 5.Why were schools opened in New England? Public schools were opened to teach children how to read. The goal was to teach children to read the bible

40 Education Mostly boys received an education in New England Some girls attended dame schools ▫These schools were run out of women’s homes Few colleges existed ▫Yale, Harvard, William and Mary, and two in New Jersey Princeton and Rutgers Most graduates became ministers

41 The Great Awakening Many ministers believed colonists had fallen away from faith In the 1730s and 40s many led revivals in religious teaching This became known as The Great Awakening

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43 The Great Awakening Jonathan Edwards from Northampton, Mass. was the most well known leader He reminded people of the power and authority of God

44 The Great Awakening Edwards popularity was taken over by George Winfield, an English minister who toured the colonies 7 times from 1738-1770 Faith was most important They revitalized religion in the colonies

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46 Emerging Tensions

47 Native and French Reaction Native Americans lived in the West The French had claim to much of the land Many Native tribes in the East had been weakened Other tribes were still strong They created a barrier in west

48 French and Indian Relations The French were friendly with the Native Americans The French needed them for fur trade The British did not treat the Natives as well

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50 French Actions The French saw new English Settlers as a threat In 1749 French Defenders were sent to fortify Detroit In 1752 the French killed men defending an English trading post in PA Tensions grew

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52 The French and Indian war The French built a fort in western Pennsylvania This Angered the British The British sent a Virginian named George Washington to attack the fort Washington won the battle but was forced to surrender when the French counterattacked

53 Page 86-88 1.What is another name for The French and Indian War? 2.Where was the war fought? 3.What city was captured by the British causing the French to surrender Canada? 4.How did the British succeed because of this surrender? 5.What treaty ended the French and Indian war?

54 1.What is another name for The French and Indian War? The Seven Years War 2.Where was the war fought? North America, Europe, Asia, Africa, and the West indies 3.What city was captured by the British causing the French to surrender Canada? Montreal 4.Was the surrender a major British goal? Yes, France surrendered many of their forts with the land 5.What treaty ended the French and Indian War? The Treaty of Paris

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56 Colonists are moving westward past the Appalachian Mountains After French and Indian War the British limited the amount of rum and ammunition they traded with the natives. ▫The natives were angered, they considered the trade of goods as payment for using their land As more colonists moved west more Indian land disappeared American Indian Resistance

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58 Neolin ▫Native American known as the Delaware prophet ▫Denounced the use of British goods and believed the British were the enemy Pontiac an Ottawa chief acted on Neolin’s message American Indian Resistance

59 Called on Delaware, Ojibway, Seneca, Shawnee, Wyandot, and other natives to unite During 1763 war waged on the frontier ▫Pontiac’s forces killed 2,000 settlers and destroyed British forts The rebellion was stopped when Pontiac’s forces could not take Fort Pitt and Fort Detroit Pontiac’s Rebellion

60 The British could not effectively control the frontier The proclamation barred settlement west of the Appalachians Traders had to receive royal permission before entering the territory The Proclamation was difficult to enforce because ▫Colonists wanted more land and colonial governors did not enforce the law The Proclamation of 1763

61 Disputes among the colonies The 13 colonies argued with each other during the French and Indian War They were not a united country Benjamin Franklin drafted the Albany Plan of Union The colonies would unite as one under British rule

62 Disputes among the colonies The colonies dismissed the Albany plan of Union because they feared losing some of their Autonomy The British also dropped the plan because one large colony would be hard to manage


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