Presentation on theme: "Chapter 17: Becoming a World Power"— Presentation transcript:
1Chapter 17: Becoming a World Power American History
2ImperialismMany European nations were expanding overseas due to imperialism, or the economic and political domination of weaker countries by stronger countriesexpanded to countries with resources and to invest capital elsewhereTo protect interests, countries began dominating the territoriesTerritories became either colonies or protectorates, or colonies where the local leader would stay in charge, and the dominant country would protect them from rebellion and invasion
3Thoughts from United States The U.S. noticed the trend of imperialism from Europedesired to expand overseas and continue Manifest Destiny, since it had already expanded as far West as it couldSocial Darwinism stated that those countries that expanded overseas, thus economically, politically, and militaristically, would survive and be the strongestAnglo-Saxonism: English speaking countries were far superior that countries who did not speak Englishhad more character, ideas, and systems of government
4Expanding to the Pacific Japan:In 1852, President Franklin Pierce sent Commodore Matthew Perry to Japan to negotiate a trade treaty and open its doors to the worldPago Pago:The U.S opened up its first Pacific naval base in Pago Pago in 1878 to further speed up trade between them and China and JapanHawaii:To help the people of Hawaii out, the U.S. signed a trade treaty that gave exclusive rights to trade with Hawaii and build a port in Pearl HarborBut wait, there’s more….
5Hawaiian Paradise?Due to the trade treaty, sugar planters pressured the king to sign a constitution limiting the king’s power and giving more power to the plantersBecause of the McKinley tariff, Hawaiian sugar was more expensive than American sugar, which caused it to be sold less, which caused an economic downturn in HawaiiQueen Liliuokalani desired to gained original power back to the monarchywas met with opposition by planters and U.S. troopswas forced to abdicate her throne and have the U.S. set up a provisional governmentPresident Cleveland was against imperialism and desired to restore Liliuokalani to powerCongress waited until another president came into office, and five years later, annexed Hawaii as a territory
6Influence in Latin America The U.S. also desired to expand into Latin America in order to show Europe it was a dominant powerSecretary of State James Blaine set up a conference with Latin American countries in a desire to work together, to support peace, and increase tradePan-AmericanismThe conference set up a customs union that would reduce tariffs between both regions and treat each other equally in tradePan-American Union, or Organization of American States (OAS)
7Answer the following questions with a partner: Why was expanding its territory so important to the U.S.?Was attempting to expand into other inhabited countries just?If not, why not?
8Anticipation GuideAnswer the following with a true or false, and if it’s false, re-correct the statement:Many European nations spread across the world due to imperalismThe U.S. desired to expand as well due to Manifest Destiny, Social Darwinism, and Anglo-SaxonismOne of the islands the U.S. expanded to was the PhilippinesThe queen in charge of the Hawaiians was Queen Elizabeth IThe desire for the U.S. to establish peace with Latin American was called Pan-Americanism
9Building a modern NavyThree international incident that almost led to war with the U.S. led many to call for the building of a modern navywould allow U.S. to set up ports overseas in order to become more involved in foreign marketswould allow ships to become re-supplied en routeMany politicians, including President Harrison and secretaries of the navy McKinley and Roosevelt, backed up the building of the navy
10The Cuban RebellionCuba was a Spanish colony which produced 1/3 of the world’s sugar, which made Spain very wealthy1/3 of the Cubans were enslaved by the Spanish and forced to produce sugarCuban rebels revolted in 1868, but failed in 1878fled to U.S., a close economic ally, to prepare another revolutionCuba suffered an economic crisis due to increased tariffs from the U.S., which sparked another revolutionRebels took eastern Cuba and established the Republic of Cuba in 1895
11Americans support the Cubans Even though Cleveland called for the U.S. to be neutral, many American supported the CubansBegan smuggling weapons to CubaTwo major newspapers, The New York Journal and The New York World began publishing pieces supporting Cuba and denouncing SpainYellow journalism: writers exaggerated and made up stories to attract attention
13Yellow Journalism Project You are assigned to create a newsletter, like the one you just saw, discussing a particular event in U.S. HistoryEx. World War II, The War in Iraq, the Civil Rights Movement, etc.Write an article, describing the event, what happened, and your opinions of what happenedUse persuasive language in order to gain support for your opinionsInclude a letterhead and a picture of the eventYou have one week to complete the assignment
14Calling out for warCuban rebels destroyed American invested railroads and plantations, thinking the Americans would intervene to prevent further destructionrebels and families were placed in re-concentration camps, where many died of starvation and diseaseTo avoid war, President McKinley asked the Spanish government to negotiate peaceSpanish gave the Cubans autonomy, or control over their governmentSpanish loyalists rioted against the decisions, placing American lives in jeopardy
15Remember the Maine!To control riots, the U.S. sent the U.S.S. Maine to Havana Harbor for precautionexploded in Havana Bay, possibly from misfire of munitionsBecause of this and an intercepted letter called McKinley weak, Congress authorized the president to prepare for warused the slogan “Remember the Maine!”Republican Party showed jingoism, or extreme nationalismMcKinley, forced by Congress, asked Congress to declare Cuba independent and use force to end the conflictIn response for the preparations, Spain declared war on the United States on April 24th, 1898
16Answer the following questions with a partner: Was yellow journalism an easy tactic in getting the American public to support the Cuban rebellion?If so, why?Do you think the Cubans purposely committed acts against the Americans in order to blame the Spanish and gain support?
17Anticipation GuideAnswer the following with a true or false, and if it’s false, re-correct the statement:The U.S. government focused on building a modern armyThe Cubans led a rebellion against the Spanish inhabitantsNational newspapers helped gain American support for the Cuban rebellionPresident Cleveland negotiated with the Spanish to avoid warThe sink of the battleship Maine was the immediate cause for the Spanish-American War
18Uneven matchThe Spanish had weakened soldiers from fighting in the tropics, old warships, and were dependant on trade to mobilizeThe Americans had a stronger navy, easy access to materials from Cuba, and strategized to take out the Spanish at seahad connections in Cuba and Hong Kong, which would prove to be beneficial during its campaign in the Philippines and Cuba
19Campaign in the Philippines The Philippines was a Spanish colony that desired to become its own countryStationed in Hong Kong, Commodore George Dewey landed on Manila Bay and began a campaign to take the PhilippinesAmerican troops, en route to support Dewey, took GuamDewey contacted Emilio Aguinaldo, a Filipino rebel, to organize a guerilla war against the SpanishDewey and troops took the capital of Manila, but did not allow Aguinaldo and his men to enter the city, nor did he recognize them as an organizationwould spark conflict between Americans and Filipinos after the war
20Campaign in CubaTraining American troops for mobilization to Cuba was more challengingunsanitary conditions killed more troops than battle17,000 troops landed in Santiago, mainly to capture shore-based guns to drive the Spanish fleet out of the harbor and into American fleets nearbyRough Riders: volunteer cavalry unit, a mix of cowboys, miners, and law officers, headed by Leonard Wood and Theodore RooseveltTroops and Rough Riders were successful in the Battle of San Juan Hill and other preceding itSpanish commander in Santiago ordered his fleets to leaveAmericans sunk every vesselThe Spanish surrendered Santiago and the nearby island of Puerto Rico, and agreed to a cease-fire with the U.S. on August 12, 1898
21The Birth of the American Empire With the war over, the U.S. had acquired a lot of territoriesCuba: gained independence, as promisedPuerto Rico and Guam: annexed by U.S.The Philippines: ?Many wanted to annex the Philippines because it provided a base on the way to China, large market for American goods, and a way to spread American ideals to the “uncivilized”The U.S. and Spain signed the Treaty of Paris on December 10th, 1898Cuba was declared as an independent country, the U.S. acquired Puerto Rico and Guam, and paid $20 million for the Philippines from Spain
22Rebellion in the Philippines Emilio Aguinaldo saw the U.S. occupation as an aggressive seizure, so he organized to attack American troopsRebels were placed in re-concentration camps, where the same issues from Cuba occurred in the PhilippinesThe island’s first governor, William Howard Taft, desired to make peace with the Filipinosreformed education, transportation, and health carereduced Filipino hostilityAfter the capture of Aguinaldo, he agreed for the war to be over and for the Americans to take control of the PhilippinesBy the 1930’s, they elected their own congress and president, and by 1946, they were declared independent of the U.S.
23Puerto Rico and CubaCongress passed the Foraker Act, declaring Puerto Rico an unincorporated territory, which allowed the U.S. to do whatever they wanted to the islandeventually would be allowed to be citizens and to elect their own governorstatus is still argued todayThe U.S. established a military government for Cuba to keep ties strongIn 1901, Cuba added the Platt Amendment to its constitutionCuba could not sign a treaty that would weaken its government or allow another country to gain territory in CubaCuba had to allow the U.S. to buy or lease naval stationsCuba’s debts had to be low in order to prevent other countries from invading and enforce paymentU.S. could intervene to preserve Cuban independence
24Roosevelt becomes president After McKinley was elected a 2nd term in 1900, he was assassinated by an anarchistRoosevelt brought charisma and energy to the presidencyPassionate on increasing the power of the U.S.Born sickly, but overcame obstacles by participating in unique activities, such as marksmanship, wrestling, and boxingThought that conflict and cooperation made one healthy
25Diplomacy in China China and Japan went to war over Korea in 1894 Japan won, showing its Western strength, and received the region of Manchuria, along with Korean independenceRussia was afraid of China occupying Manchuriabacked by France and Germany, forced Japan to lease Manchuria for European useSphere of influence: foreign nation controlled economic developmentMcKinley supported an Open Door Policy, in which all countries should trade with ChinaSecret societies against foreign influence, began to revoltBoxer Rebellion: Boxer group revoltedTo keep the peace with China, no powers would split China into colonies
26The Great White FleetRoosevelt negotiated between Russia and Japan to end the Ruso-Japanese War in 1905asked Russia to recognize Japan’s territorial gains, and for Japan to stop fightingearned a Noble Peace Prize for his effortsAfter the negotiations, Japan and U.S. relations worsenedRoosevelt had 16 warships from the U.S. Navy, called the Great White Fleet, tour around the world to show the military might of the U.S.
27The Panama CanalThe U.S. and Great Britain signed the Hay-Pauncefote Treaty, giving the U.S. the rights to build and control a canal through Central AmericaThe French began operations to open a canal in the 1850’s, but abandoned it due to bankruptcygave U.S. rights to continue operations in 1903Since Panama was still part of Columbia, the U.S. offered it $10 million and a yearly rent for Panamathey refused, which caused Panama to revolt against Columbia, for fear it would lose the canal dealU.S. recognized Panama as a country, and began building in 1903
28The Roosevelt Corollary Growing American involvement in foreign affairs led Roosevelt to address the issueRoosevelt Corollary: stated U.S. would intervene in Latin America when necessary to maintain economic and political stabilityFirst used it on the Dominican Republic, taking on its debts to foreign nationsRoosevelt’s successor, William Howard Taft, focused on helping Latin American industryDollar diplomacy: U.S. would increase trade and profits, and Latin American and Asian countries would rise out of poverty through support from American businesses