Presentation on theme: "American History. Imperialism Many European nations were expanding overseas due to imperialism, or the economic and political domination of weaker countries."— Presentation transcript:
Imperialism Many European nations were expanding overseas due to imperialism, or the economic and political domination of weaker countries by stronger countries expanded to countries with resources and to invest capital elsewhere To protect interests, countries began dominating the territories Territories became either colonies or protectorates, or colonies where the local leader would stay in charge, and the dominant country would protect them from rebellion and invasion
Thoughts from United States The U.S. noticed the trend of imperialism from Europe desired to expand overseas and continue Manifest Destiny, since it had already expanded as far West as it could Social Darwinism stated that those countries that expanded overseas, thus economically, politically, and militaristically, would survive and be the strongest Anglo-Saxonism: English speaking countries were far superior that countries who did not speak English had more character, ideas, and systems of government
Expanding to the Pacific Japan: In 1852, President Franklin Pierce sent Commodore Matthew Perry to Japan to negotiate a trade treaty and open its doors to the world Pago Pago: The U.S opened up its first Pacific naval base in Pago Pago in 1878 to further speed up trade between them and China and Japan Hawaii: To help the people of Hawaii out, the U.S. signed a trade treaty that gave exclusive rights to trade with Hawaii and build a port in Pearl Harbor But wait, there’s more….
Hawaiian Paradise? Due to the trade treaty, sugar planters pressured the king to sign a constitution limiting the king’s power and giving more power to the planters Because of the McKinley tariff, Hawaiian sugar was more expensive than American sugar, which caused it to be sold less, which caused an economic downturn in Hawaii Queen Liliuokalani desired to gained original power back to the monarchy was met with opposition by planters and U.S. troops was forced to abdicate her throne and have the U.S. set up a provisional government President Cleveland was against imperialism and desired to restore Liliuokalani to power Congress waited until another president came into office, and five years later, annexed Hawaii as a territory
Influence in Latin America The U.S. also desired to expand into Latin America in order to show Europe it was a dominant power Secretary of State James Blaine set up a conference with Latin American countries in a desire to work together, to support peace, and increase trade Pan-Americanism The conference set up a customs union that would reduce tariffs between both regions and treat each other equally in trade Pan-American Union, or Organization of American States (OAS)
Answer the following questions with a partner: Why was expanding its territory so important to the U.S.? Was attempting to expand into other inhabited countries just? If not, why not?
Anticipation Guide Answer the following with a true or false, and if it’s false, re-correct the statement: Many European nations spread across the world due to imperalism The U.S. desired to expand as well due to Manifest Destiny, Social Darwinism, and Anglo-Saxonism One of the islands the U.S. expanded to was the Philippines The queen in charge of the Hawaiians was Queen Elizabeth I The desire for the U.S. to establish peace with Latin American was called Pan-Americanism
Building a modern Navy Three international incident that almost led to war with the U.S. led many to call for the building of a modern navy would allow U.S. to set up ports overseas in order to become more involved in foreign markets would allow ships to become re- supplied en route Many politicians, including President Harrison and secretaries of the navy McKinley and Roosevelt, backed up the building of the navy
The Cuban Rebellion Cuba was a Spanish colony which produced 1/3 of the world’s sugar, which made Spain very wealthy 1/3 of the Cubans were enslaved by the Spanish and forced to produce sugar Cuban rebels revolted in 1868, but failed in 1878 fled to U.S., a close economic ally, to prepare another revolution Cuba suffered an economic crisis due to increased tariffs from the U.S., which sparked another revolution Rebels took eastern Cuba and established the Republic of Cuba in 1895
Americans support the Cubans Even though Cleveland called for the U.S. to be neutral, many American supported the Cubans Began smuggling weapons to Cuba Two major newspapers, The New York Journal and The New York World began publishing pieces supporting Cuba and denouncing Spain Yellow journalism: writers exaggerated and made up stories to attract attention
Yellow Journalism Project You are assigned to create a newsletter, like the one you just saw, discussing a particular event in U.S. History Ex. World War II, The War in Iraq, the Civil Rights Movement, etc. Write an article, describing the event, what happened, and your opinions of what happened Use persuasive language in order to gain support for your opinions Include a letterhead and a picture of the event You have one week to complete the assignment
Calling out for war Cuban rebels destroyed American invested railroads and plantations, thinking the Americans would intervene to prevent further destruction rebels and families were placed in re-concentration camps, where many died of starvation and disease To avoid war, President McKinley asked the Spanish government to negotiate peace Spanish gave the Cubans autonomy, or control over their government Spanish loyalists rioted against the decisions, placing American lives in jeopardy
Remember the Maine! To control riots, the U.S. sent the U.S.S. Maine to Havana Harbor for precaution exploded in Havana Bay, possibly from misfire of munitions Because of this and an intercepted letter called McKinley weak, Congress authorized the president to prepare for war used the slogan “Remember the Maine!” Republican Party showed jingoism, or extreme nationalism McKinley, forced by Congress, asked Congress to declare Cuba independent and use force to end the conflict In response for the preparations, Spain declared war on the United States on April 24 th, 1898
Answer the following questions with a partner: Was yellow journalism an easy tactic in getting the American public to support the Cuban rebellion? If so, why? Do you think the Cubans purposely committed acts against the Americans in order to blame the Spanish and gain support?
Anticipation Guide Answer the following with a true or false, and if it’s false, re-correct the statement: The U.S. government focused on building a modern army The Cubans led a rebellion against the Spanish inhabitants National newspapers helped gain American support for the Cuban rebellion President Cleveland negotiated with the Spanish to avoid war The sink of the battleship Maine was the immediate cause for the Spanish-American War
Uneven match The Spanish had weakened soldiers from fighting in the tropics, old warships, and were dependant on trade to mobilize The Americans had a stronger navy, easy access to materials from Cuba, and strategized to take out the Spanish at sea had connections in Cuba and Hong Kong, which would prove to be beneficial during its campaign in the Philippines and Cuba
Campaign in the Philippines The Philippines was a Spanish colony that desired to become its own country Stationed in Hong Kong, Commodore George Dewey landed on Manila Bay and began a campaign to take the Philippines American troops, en route to support Dewey, took Guam Dewey contacted Emilio Aguinaldo, a Filipino rebel, to organize a guerilla war against the Spanish Dewey and troops took the capital of Manila, but did not allow Aguinaldo and his men to enter the city, nor did he recognize them as an organization would spark conflict between Americans and Filipinos after the war
Campaign in Cuba Training American troops for mobilization to Cuba was more challenging unsanitary conditions killed more troops than battle 17,000 troops landed in Santiago, mainly to capture shore-based guns to drive the Spanish fleet out of the harbor and into American fleets nearby Rough Riders: volunteer cavalry unit, a mix of cowboys, miners, and law officers, headed by Leonard Wood and Theodore Roosevelt Troops and Rough Riders were successful in the Battle of San Juan Hill and other preceding it Spanish commander in Santiago ordered his fleets to leave Americans sunk every vessel The Spanish surrendered Santiago and the nearby island of Puerto Rico, and agreed to a cease-fire with the U.S. on August 12, 1898
The Birth of the American Empire With the war over, the U.S. had acquired a lot of territories Cuba: gained independence, as promised Puerto Rico and Guam: annexed by U.S. The Philippines: ? Many wanted to annex the Philippines because it provided a base on the way to China, large market for American goods, and a way to spread American ideals to the “uncivilized” The U.S. and Spain signed the Treaty of Paris on December 10 th, 1898 Cuba was declared as an independent country, the U.S. acquired Puerto Rico and Guam, and paid $20 million for the Philippines from Spain
Rebellion in the Philippines Emilio Aguinaldo saw the U.S. occupation as an aggressive seizure, so he organized to attack American troops Rebels were placed in re-concentration camps, where the same issues from Cuba occurred in the Philippines The island’s first governor, William Howard Taft, desired to make peace with the Filipinos reformed education, transportation, and health care reduced Filipino hostility After the capture of Aguinaldo, he agreed for the war to be over and for the Americans to take control of the Philippines By the 1930’s, they elected their own congress and president, and by 1946, they were declared independent of the U.S.
Puerto Rico and Cuba Congress passed the Foraker Act, declaring Puerto Rico an unincorporated territory, which allowed the U.S. to do whatever they wanted to the island eventually would be allowed to be citizens and to elect their own governor status is still argued today The U.S. established a military government for Cuba to keep ties strong In 1901, Cuba added the Platt Amendment to its constitution Cuba could not sign a treaty that would weaken its government or allow another country to gain territory in Cuba Cuba had to allow the U.S. to buy or lease naval stations Cuba’s debts had to be low in order to prevent other countries from invading and enforce payment U.S. could intervene to preserve Cuban independence
Roosevelt becomes president After McKinley was elected a 2 nd term in 1900, he was assassinated by an anarchist Roosevelt brought charisma and energy to the presidency Passionate on increasing the power of the U.S. Born sickly, but overcame obstacles by participating in unique activities, such as marksmanship, wrestling, and boxing Thought that conflict and cooperation made one healthy
Diplomacy in China China and Japan went to war over Korea in 1894 Japan won, showing its Western strength, and received the region of Manchuria, along with Korean independence Russia was afraid of China occupying Manchuria backed by France and Germany, forced Japan to lease Manchuria for European use Sphere of influence: foreign nation controlled economic development McKinley supported an Open Door Policy, in which all countries should trade with China Secret societies against foreign influence, began to revolt Boxer Rebellion: Boxer group revolted To keep the peace with China, no powers would split China into colonies
The Great White Fleet Roosevelt negotiated between Russia and Japan to end the Ruso-Japanese War in 1905 asked Russia to recognize Japan’s territorial gains, and for Japan to stop fighting earned a Noble Peace Prize for his efforts After the negotiations, Japan and U.S. relations worsened Roosevelt had 16 warships from the U.S. Navy, called the Great White Fleet, tour around the world to show the military might of the U.S.
The Panama Canal The U.S. and Great Britain signed the Hay-Pauncefote Treaty, giving the U.S. the rights to build and control a canal through Central America The French began operations to open a canal in the 1850’s, but abandoned it due to bankruptcy gave U.S. rights to continue operations in 1903 Since Panama was still part of Columbia, the U.S. offered it $10 million and a yearly rent for Panama they refused, which caused Panama to revolt against Columbia, for fear it would lose the canal deal U.S. recognized Panama as a country, and began building in 1903
The Roosevelt Corollary Growing American involvement in foreign affairs led Roosevelt to address the issue Roosevelt Corollary: stated U.S. would intervene in Latin America when necessary to maintain economic and political stability First used it on the Dominican Republic, taking on its debts to foreign nations Roosevelt’s successor, William Howard Taft, focused on helping Latin American industry Dollar diplomacy: U.S. would increase trade and profits, and Latin American and Asian countries would rise out of poverty through support from American businesses