2 Anticipatory SetThe most powerful political leader in the United States in the President. This leader is elected by the citizens of the United States.Can you predict what problems might arise in the U.S. if it were a monarchy under the rile of a king?Today we are going to learn how the ancient Romans rebelled against the rule of a monarch and how their government changed as a result
3 Standards S.S. 6.7.1 E-LA Reading 6.1.3 Identify the location and describe the rise of the Roman Republic, including the importance of such mythical and historical figures as Aeneas, Romulus and Remus, Cincinnatus, Julius Caesar, and Cicero.E-LA Reading 6.1.3Recognize the origins and meanings of frequency used foreign words in English and use these words accurately in speaking and writing
4 ObjectiveStudents will learn how the Roman Republic developed
5 Language of the Discipline RepublicConsulPatricianPlebeianDebt bondageTribune
6 From Monarchy to Oligarchy (Input) The first rulers or Rome were kingsAccording to tradition, Rome had 7 kingsSome of these rulers, like Romulus, were legendaryHistorians do not know if they really existed, but there is some evidence that suggests that the last 3 kings of Rome did existThese monarchs were known as the the Etruscan kings
7 The Etruscan Kings (Input) The Etruscan people lived north of Latium in a region called EtruriaThey had an older and more advanced culture than the RomansThe Etruscans were great artists, builders, and sailorsThey traveled to other lands around the Mediterranean trading goods, ideas, and customs while also learning many things form other cultures
8 The Etruscan Kings (Input) They expanded into Latium and a leader known as Tarquin the Eder gained power and became Rome’s kingThe thrown was later passed down to two other Etruscan monarchsEach monarch had broad powersServed as head of the army, chief priest, and supreme judgeEtruscan kings ruled with wealthy aristocratsAristocrats formed a body called the SenateThe Senate advised the king on important mattersThere was an assembly made of citizens who could bear armsThe king could consult the assembly at any time but the assembly has no real power
10 Etruscan Improvements (Input) Etruscan kings brought many changes to Rome like including a writing system adapted from the Greek alphabetIt became the basis for the Latin alphabet which we still use todayThe kings brought a strong military tradition to RomeTheir military organization (based on the phalanx) would later expand RomeThey also improved the city by draining the low marshy areas so people could live between the hillsThey created a system to carry away wastewater
11 Etruscan Improvements (Input) They laid out new streets in a rectangular, or grid patternThey paved the streets with cobblestone and introduced the use of the stone arch in construction in order to support heavy structures such as bridgesThe Etruscans also brought their gods and religious practicesOne ritual called augury was used to predict the futureSpecial priests used methods to read the will of the godsOne method involved the flight patterns of birds and another to examine animal intestinesAugury remained an important part of Roman cultureEtruscan influence did not cause the Romans to abandon their own culture
13 Formation of the Republic (Input) When the third Etruscan king, Tarquin the Proud, came to rule, the Romans got tired of Etruscan ruleHe was so harsh that it lead to a Roman revolt and the Romans overthrew the king, establishing a Roman RepublicA republic is a government in which citizens have the right to vote and elect officialsThe word republic comes from the Latin term res publica which means “public things” or “public affairs”Even though citizens a a role in civic life the Republic was not a democracy
14 Formation of the Republic (Input) In the early Republic 2 officials called consuls took over the jobs the king used to doThe consuls stood as the highest officials in the Roman governmentTheir authority was limited, the aristocratic Senate has most of the powerThey passed laws and ran the governmentAlthough the assembly still existed, it was becoming controlled by aristocrats
15 The Struggle of the Orders (Input) Before the rise of the Republic, Rome was divided into 2 main groups called ordersOne order was the patricians who represented the upper class of Roman societyPatricians took great pride in belonging to noble families with famous or influential ancestorsThe other order was the plebeians, or the common people of RomePlebeians were 90% of the populationSome were wealthy but most were ordinary farmers, artisans, and workersDifferences in the orders eventually led to conflict known as the Struggle of the Orders
16 Patricians and Plebeians (Input) Roman society and government strongly favored the patriciansPatricians ran the government through their control of the SenateThey were leaders of Rome’s social and economic lifeThe Plebeians had little power or influenceThey could not hold political office or serve as priestsThey could not advance politically by marrying a patrician. Marriage between orders was prohibited
17 Patricians and Plebeians (Input) They had little influence on economic lifeMost worked as poor peasants farmers. In poor harvest years they had to take out loans to surviveIf they could not pay their debt they were sold into slaveryThe practice of enslaving people who cannot pay their debts is known as debt bondageDebt bondage became common and life for plebeians became worse
18 The Plebeians Rebel (Input) The plebeians began to rebel carrying out random acts of violence against patriciansThey realized that the patricians did govern Rome, but could not do it without the plebeian soldiersPlebeian soldiers went on strike and while Rome was planning to expand their land, they realized they needed to listen to the plebeians to gain their helpThe plebeians demanded real power for the common people. Therefore, an assembly known as the Tribal Assembly became part of Rome’s governmentThe top officials of the plebeian assembly were called tribunesThey had the power to block laws they saw as unfair
19 The Twelve Tables (Input) 2 decades later the plebeians won another major reform which concerned Rome’s legal systemRoman law consisted of ancient customs but none were written downThis allowed judges to choose which laws to follow and which to ignorePlebeians demanded a written law codeThe first law code was known as the Twelve Tables because it was written on 12 tabletsThe new code listed rights and duties of Roman citizens, such as the right to take anyone to courtThe Roman Republic still concentrated on governing power from the patricians, but slowly was moving into a democracy
21 Check for Understanding Please determine the BEST answer for the following question.Please write your answer on your white boards and wait for the teacher’s signal.On the teacher’s signal, hold up your white boards.
22 Checking for Understanding #1 Fill in the blank_______________ are the common people of Rome.Plebeians
23 Checking for Understanding #2 Answer the following question.The government of Rome began with________________.Etruscan kings
24 Checking for Understanding #3 Answer the following question.What did the Twelve Tables do?Created the first written laws
25 Guided Practice/Independent Practice Complete questions on the reading comprehension worksheet.Raise your hand and wait to get stamped.If you received an “R” go to the back table with Ms. Graham.Independent PracticeOnce you have been stamped moved to independent practice and complete numbers 4 and 5 on the reading comprehension worksheet.HomeworkNote-taking guide on the reverse side.
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