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Chapter 17 Section 2 Rise of the Roman Republic

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1 Chapter 17 Section 2 Rise of the Roman Republic

2 Anticipatory Set The most powerful political leader in the United States in the President. This leader is elected by the citizens of the United States. Can you predict what problems might arise in the U.S. if it were a monarchy under the rile of a king? Today we are going to learn how the ancient Romans rebelled against the rule of a monarch and how their government changed as a result

3 Standards S.S. 6.7.1 E-LA Reading 6.1.3
Identify the location and describe the rise of the Roman Republic, including the importance of such mythical and historical figures as Aeneas, Romulus and Remus, Cincinnatus, Julius Caesar, and Cicero. E-LA Reading 6.1.3 Recognize the origins and meanings of frequency used foreign words in English and use these words accurately in speaking and writing

4 Objective Students will learn how the Roman Republic developed

5 Language of the Discipline
Republic Consul Patrician Plebeian Debt bondage Tribune

6 From Monarchy to Oligarchy (Input)
The first rulers or Rome were kings According to tradition, Rome had 7 kings Some of these rulers, like Romulus, were legendary Historians do not know if they really existed, but there is some evidence that suggests that the last 3 kings of Rome did exist These monarchs were known as the the Etruscan kings

7 The Etruscan Kings (Input)
The Etruscan people lived north of Latium in a region called Etruria They had an older and more advanced culture than the Romans The Etruscans were great artists, builders, and sailors They traveled to other lands around the Mediterranean trading goods, ideas, and customs while also learning many things form other cultures

8 The Etruscan Kings (Input)
They expanded into Latium and a leader known as Tarquin the Eder gained power and became Rome’s king The thrown was later passed down to two other Etruscan monarchs Each monarch had broad powers Served as head of the army, chief priest, and supreme judge Etruscan kings ruled with wealthy aristocrats Aristocrats formed a body called the Senate The Senate advised the king on important matters There was an assembly made of citizens who could bear arms The king could consult the assembly at any time but the assembly has no real power

9 The Etruscan Kings (Input)

10 Etruscan Improvements (Input)
Etruscan kings brought many changes to Rome like including a writing system adapted from the Greek alphabet It became the basis for the Latin alphabet which we still use today The kings brought a strong military tradition to Rome Their military organization (based on the phalanx) would later expand Rome They also improved the city by draining the low marshy areas so people could live between the hills They created a system to carry away wastewater

11 Etruscan Improvements (Input)
They laid out new streets in a rectangular, or grid pattern They paved the streets with cobblestone and introduced the use of the stone arch in construction in order to support heavy structures such as bridges The Etruscans also brought their gods and religious practices One ritual called augury was used to predict the future Special priests used methods to read the will of the gods One method involved the flight patterns of birds and another to examine animal intestines Augury remained an important part of Roman culture Etruscan influence did not cause the Romans to abandon their own culture

12 Etruscan Improvements (Input)

13 Formation of the Republic (Input)
When the third Etruscan king, Tarquin the Proud, came to rule, the Romans got tired of Etruscan rule He was so harsh that it lead to a Roman revolt and the Romans overthrew the king, establishing a Roman Republic A republic is a government in which citizens have the right to vote and elect officials The word republic comes from the Latin term res publica which means “public things” or “public affairs” Even though citizens a a role in civic life the Republic was not a democracy

14 Formation of the Republic (Input)
In the early Republic 2 officials called consuls took over the jobs the king used to do The consuls stood as the highest officials in the Roman government Their authority was limited, the aristocratic Senate has most of the power They passed laws and ran the government Although the assembly still existed, it was becoming controlled by aristocrats

15 The Struggle of the Orders (Input)
Before the rise of the Republic, Rome was divided into 2 main groups called orders One order was the patricians who represented the upper class of Roman society Patricians took great pride in belonging to noble families with famous or influential ancestors The other order was the plebeians, or the common people of Rome Plebeians were 90% of the population Some were wealthy but most were ordinary farmers, artisans, and workers Differences in the orders eventually led to conflict known as the Struggle of the Orders

16 Patricians and Plebeians (Input)
Roman society and government strongly favored the patricians Patricians ran the government through their control of the Senate They were leaders of Rome’s social and economic life The Plebeians had little power or influence They could not hold political office or serve as priests They could not advance politically by marrying a patrician. Marriage between orders was prohibited

17 Patricians and Plebeians (Input)
They had little influence on economic life Most worked as poor peasants farmers. In poor harvest years they had to take out loans to survive If they could not pay their debt they were sold into slavery The practice of enslaving people who cannot pay their debts is known as debt bondage Debt bondage became common and life for plebeians became worse

18 The Plebeians Rebel (Input)
The plebeians began to rebel carrying out random acts of violence against patricians They realized that the patricians did govern Rome, but could not do it without the plebeian soldiers Plebeian soldiers went on strike and while Rome was planning to expand their land, they realized they needed to listen to the plebeians to gain their help The plebeians demanded real power for the common people. Therefore, an assembly known as the Tribal Assembly became part of Rome’s government The top officials of the plebeian assembly were called tribunes They had the power to block laws they saw as unfair

19 The Twelve Tables (Input)
2 decades later the plebeians won another major reform which concerned Rome’s legal system Roman law consisted of ancient customs but none were written down This allowed judges to choose which laws to follow and which to ignore Plebeians demanded a written law code The first law code was known as the Twelve Tables because it was written on 12 tablets The new code listed rights and duties of Roman citizens, such as the right to take anyone to court The Roman Republic still concentrated on governing power from the patricians, but slowly was moving into a democracy

20 The Twelve Tables (Input)

21 Check for Understanding
Please determine the BEST answer for the following question. Please write your answer on your white boards and wait for the teacher’s signal. On the teacher’s signal, hold up your white boards.

22 Checking for Understanding #1
Fill in the blank _______________ are the common people of Rome. Plebeians

23 Checking for Understanding #2
Answer the following question. The government of Rome began with________________. Etruscan kings

24 Checking for Understanding #3
Answer the following question. What did the Twelve Tables do? Created the first written laws

25 Guided Practice/Independent Practice
Complete questions on the reading comprehension worksheet. Raise your hand and wait to get stamped. If you received an “R” go to the back table with Ms. Graham. Independent Practice Once you have been stamped moved to independent practice and complete numbers 4 and 5 on the reading comprehension worksheet. Homework Note-taking guide on the reverse side.

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