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From the Declaration To the Amendments.  End of French and Indian War  Treaty of Paris gives Great Britain claim to all of North America east of the.

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Presentation on theme: "From the Declaration To the Amendments.  End of French and Indian War  Treaty of Paris gives Great Britain claim to all of North America east of the."— Presentation transcript:

1 From the Declaration To the Amendments

2  End of French and Indian War  Treaty of Paris gives Great Britain claim to all of North America east of the Mississippi River  Britain in great debt  Proclamation of 1763  To avoid further conflict with Native Americans, British government prohibited colonists from settling west of the Appalachian Mountains  Colonists ignored proclamation line

3  Sugar Act  Halved duty on foreign-made molasses in hopes that colonists would pay a lower tax rather than risk arrest for smuggling  Placed duties on certain imports that had not been taxed before  Colonists accused of violating act would be tried in vice-admiralty courts – single judge rather that jury

4  Imposed a tax on documents and printed items such as wills, newspapers, and playing cards  First tax affected colonists directly because it was levied on goods and services  Colonist harass stamp distributers, boycott British goods  Prepare Declaration of Rights and Grievances

5  Britain taxes certain colonial imports and stationed troops at major colonial ports to protect customs officers  Colonists protest “taxation without representation”  Organize new boycott of imported goods

6  Taunted by angry mobs, British troops fire into the crowd, killing five colonists  Colonial agitators label the conflict a massacre and publish dramatic engraving depicting the violence

7  Britain gives the East India Company special concessions in the colonial tea business and shuts out colonial tea merchants  Boston Tea Party - Colonists in Britain rebel, dumping 18,000 pounds of East India Company tea into Boston harbor

8  King George III tightens control over Massachusetts by closing Boston Harbor and quartering troops  Colonial leaders form the First Continental Congress and draw up a declaration of colonial rights

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10  General Gage orders troops to march to Concord Massachusetts and seize colonial weapons  Minutemen intercept the British and engage in battle  “shot heard around the world”  Second Continental Congress called  Formed Continental Army & appointed G. Washington as commander  Issued Olive Branch Petition – last attempt at resolving differences

11 I N CONGRESS, J ULY 4, 1776 The unanimous Declaration of the thirteen united States of America When in the Course of human events it becomes necessary for one people to dissolve the political bands which have connected them with another and to assume among the powers of the earth, the separate and equal station to which the Laws of Nature and of Nature's God entitle them, a decent respect to the opinions of mankind requires that they should declare the causes which impel them to the separation. We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness. — That to secure these rights, Governments are instituted among Men, deriving their just powers from the consent of the governed, — That whenever any Form of Government becomes destructive of these ends, it is the Right of the People to alter or to abolish it, and to institute new Government………….

12  Dec Reading Dec Reading

13  BIG IDEA:  Written as a complaint to George III  Outlined signers view of relationship between Govt and citizens.  Placed power with citizens- allowing them to rebel if govt wasn’t protecting their rights. (Hobbes/Locke)  Life, Liberty, and Pursuit of Happiness (Locke)  July 4, Birth of USA

14  Influenced by John Locke  Natural rights granted by God  Life, liberty, & the pursuit of happiness (property)  Equality of all men  Principle of limited government  Government by consent  Right to rebel against tyranny Thomas Jefferson Primary Author

15  This declaration created the USA!  Declared our independence from Great Britain  “ We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness.”

16  What does Life, Liberty, and the Pursuit of Happiness mean to you as a teenager?

17  BIG Idea:  1 st government of USA  Purposefully weak- placed most power with states  Framers were afraid a government that was too powerful would abuse power like George III.  Government could not coin money, raise taxes, or give the president law enforcement power.

18  It really set the stage for something better – the US Constitution (which rules all US citizens)  The weak areas of the Articles of the Confederation were addressed in the drafting of the US Constitution  It was like a US Constitution “rough draft” that had some problems that needed fixing.

19  Pros  Provides for a common defense force  Allows each state to retain its independence and sovereignty ▪ State constitutions  Powers ▪ Declare war ▪ Negotiate w/other countries ▪ Postal system  Cons  No power to tax  No power to regulate interstate commerce  No strong central voice for negotiation  No way to deal with Revolutionary debt  No common currency  Inconsistent representation in Congress  1 state : 1 vote

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21 L Confederate system w/one branch at the national level L Unicameral Congress - one vote per state L National Congress powerless to tax L National Congress powerless to regulate foreign & interstate trade L No executive branch to enforce acts of Congress L No national court to settle disputes between states L Amendment: ALL 13 states had to agree - unanimous L 9/13 majority to pass laws

22  Do you believe that the government should have large or small role in leading the United States and it’s people?

23 L Confederate system L Unicameral Congress - one vote per state L Powerless to tax L Powerless to regulate foreign & interstate trade L No executive branch to enforce acts of Congress L No national court to settle disputes between states L Amendment: ALL 13 states had to agree - unanimous L 9/13 majority to pass laws Federal System Bicameral Congress: Senate & House of Representatives Congress given power to tax Congress given power to regulate trade Executive Branch to enforce laws Judicial Branch to interpret laws & Constitution Amendment: 2/3 Congress + ¾ State Legislatures 50%+1 to pass laws

24  BIG IDEA:  Created Northwest Territory (1789)  Expanded US landholding westward  Ohio River was the “slave boundary” – Civil War  Also allowed religious freedoms  Ohio became the first state created from this ordinance (1803)

25  It established Ohio! – where you live!!  It also showed that America was sovereign (in charge) of their new land  Slavery was also NOT allowed in this territory which set up the issues in the Civil War

26  Ohio has a rich history of fighting against slavery. How does it make you feel to know that the place you now live was against the acts of slavery?

27  BIG Idea:  Is the supreme law of the USA  Highlights separation of powers (judicial, legislative, executive)  Role of states and federal govt.  Has been amended 27 times  Bill of Rights would later be added to the Constitution

28  55 men  experienced in politics  men of wealth and prestige (elite)  most were formally educated  all were white  owned property  relatively young James Madison = Primary Author “Father of the Constitution”

29 Federal System Bicameral Congress: (Connecticut Compromise) Senate – States are equally represented – 2 per state House of Representatives – Based on population size Congress given power to tax Congress given power to regulate trade Executive Branch to enforce laws Judicial Branch to interpret laws & Constitution Amendment: Proposed by 2/3 Congress Ratified by ¾ of the state legislatures 50%+1 to pass laws

30  Popular Sovereignty  Limited Government  Separation of Powers  Checks and Balances  Judicial Review  Federalism

31  The people are the source of political authority - (power)  Government by consent  Representative democracy (republic)  “We the People of the United States…”

32  Rule of law  No one is above the law - including members of the government  The government must operate within the boundaries of the Constitution

33  Division of the national government into three co-equal branches  Each branch given specific responsibilities  Legislative Branch =  Executive Branch =  Judicial Branch =

34  System designed to prevent any branch of the national government from becoming more powerful than another branch

35  The power of the courts to decide the constitutionality of laws and acts of government  Marbury v. Madison

36 1. After the Constitution was signed on September 17, 1787, the fight for Ratification began out of 13 states had to ratify the Constitution before it would go into effect. 3. Two factions (opposing groups) emerged: A. Federalists who supported the Constitution B. Anti-Federalists who opposed to the Constitution 4. These two groups argued for their position in newspapers, magazines, and pamphlets until the Constitution was ratified by the 9 th and decisive state on June 21, 1788

37 1. Led by Thomas Jefferson and included farmers and small landowners who believed nation’s future rested on agriculture.

38 1. Arguments made by Anti- Federalists A.The Constitutional Convention went beyond what they were charged to do. (illegal- Treason) B.A strong national government would destroy states’ rights. C.Resembled a monarchy with its concentration of power D.Did not have a Bill of Rights

39 1. Effective national government to handle the nation’s economy, establish its monetary system, promote justice, and protect individual liberty. 2. Took name “Federalists” show link to “Federalism” A. Federalism: government power is distributed among the states, but the power of the central authority outweighs the authority of the states.

40 1. Included Alexander Hamilton, George Washington, Benjamin Franklin, and James Madison. 2. Wrote a series of letters/essays called the Federalist papers in support of the new constitution.

41 Federalists Anti-Federalists Supported removing some powers from the states and giving more power to the national government. Wanted important political powers to remain with the states. Favored dividing powers among different branches of government. Wanted the legislative branch to have more power than an executive. Proposed a single person to lead the executive branch. Feared that a strong executive might become a king or tyrant. Believed Constitution did not need a Bill of Rights Wanted a Bill of Rights added to the Constitution

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43 1. Written by Alexander Hamilton, James Madison and John way under pen name Publius (Latin word for public). 2. A series of letters published in newspapers 3. Written for three reasons: A. To influence the vote in favor of ratification B. To explain the Constitution for future interpretation C. Outlined how the Constitution should be set up 4. Included 85 letters published from October 1787 to April 1788 and later bound in book form.

44 Arguments made by The Federalist Papers A.Federalists 1-14 stressed importance of the Union B.Federalists’ stressed inadequacy of the Articles of confederation C.Federalists Explained arguments for the Type of Government Contained in the Constitution D.Federalists Explained the Republican Form of Government E.Federalists explained the 3 branches of government. F.Federalists answers questions of objections to the Constitution

45 1. In the spirit of Compromise, the Federalists agreed to add a Bill of Rights which helped the document to be ratified. 2. Delaware was the first state to ratify the document on December 7, New Hampshire was the 9 th and decisive state.

46 1. North Carolina became the 12 th state to ratify the Constitution whey they approved the document on November 21, Rhode Island was the last to ratify in Once the document was ratified questions arose on how to put the Constitution into practice leading to the growth of political parties

47 1. Led by George Washington (although he ran as an independent) and Alexander Hamilton 2. Believed in a strong central government 3. Supported loose interpretation of the constitution. 4. Believed future of country rested on manufacturing and industry. A.

48 1. Led by Thomas Jefferson and James Madison 2. Believed in states’ rights 3. Wanted strict interpretation of the Constitution 4. Believed that the future of the nation rested with agriculture.

49 1. The Bill of Rights was the first test of the amendment process outlined in Article 5 of the Constitution. 2. The Articles lays out two ways to amend a document. A. 2/3 rd of both houses, or Conventions in 2/3 rd of the states propose an amendment B. 3/4 th of state legislatures or special conventions in each state ratifies the amendment of 12 proposed amendments were ratified on December 15, 1791.

50 1stFreedom of Religion, Speech, Press, Assembly, Petition 2ndRight to Keep and Bear Arms 3rdQuartering of Soldiers 4thSecurity from Unwarrantable Search & Seizure 5thRights of Accused Persons in Criminal Proceedings 6thRight to Speedy Trial, Witnesses, Trial by Jury in Criminal Cases 7thTrial by Jury in Civil Cases 8thBan Excessive Bail, Fines, and Cruel & Unusual Punishment 9thUnenumerated Rights of the People 10thReserved State Powers

51  The Bill of Rights Memory Game The Bill of Rights Memory Game

52 1. 1 st Amendment: 5 Freedoms – religion, assembly, petition, press, and speech. A. Establishment Clause: government can not establish a state religion. B. Free exercise Clause: citizens can worship (or not) any way they choose.

53 2. 2 nd Amendment: right to bear arms rd Amendment: government can’t ask you to quarter soldiers.

54 4. 4 th Amendment: protection against search and seizure A. Police need search warrant or probable cause 5. 5 th Amendment: due process of law, right to remain silent, indictment by a grand jury, double jeopardy, and eminent domain (rights of person’s accused of a crime)

55 6. 6 th Amendment: right to a speedy, fair, and public trial of your peers, right to a lawyer/attorney/ counsel, right to confront witnesses, right to bring witnesses to testify on your behalf. (more rights of the accused)

56 7. 7 th Amendment: right to a jury trial in civil cases more than $ th Amendment: right to apply for bail, no cruel or unusual punishment

57 9. 9 th Amendment: All powers not listed in the constitution belong to the people th Amendment: All powers not listed in Constitution belong to states or the people.

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