Presentation on theme: "Chapter 20 American Imperialism. Manifest Destiny Early ideas of westward expansion were limited to North American territories where a growing population."— Presentation transcript:
Chapter 20 American Imperialism
Manifest Destiny Early ideas of westward expansion were limited to North American territories where a growing population could expand. – By 1890 the U.S. first began to consider expansion into foreign territories, Much like France, Britain, and Germany. – The subjugation of Indian tribes in the west established a precedent in America to control inferior peoples.
Justification for Expansion Trade: American consumers could not support the rapid industrial growth. – As European powers jockeyed for control of African and Chinese markets U.S. businessmen feared they would lose opportunities. Anglo-Saxonism: movement that claimed the English speaking cultures were destined to control uncivilized territories of the world. – Followed the theories of Social Darwinism – Rev. Josiah Strong wrote the popular book Our Country which suggested it was the Christian duty to spread religion to such territories.
Justification Cont. Mahan and Naval Power – Alfred Mahan, Admiral of the U.S. Navy proposed that American safety was dependent upon imperialism. – Location between two oceans required America to develop a strong navy. – Island colonies in both oceans would create a network of bases that would strengthen navy. – Imperial colonies would open new markets, strengthen defense, and provide new sources of raw materials.
Annexation of Hawaii In early 1800s American merchants made contact in Hawaii – since then many U.S. businessmen immigrated there to create a thriving sugar, fishing, and merchant industry – But they also brought diseases that destroyed the native population, along with most traditional society. The U.S. convinced Hawaiians to sign a treaty giving control of Pearl Harbor and most trade. In 1891 Hawaiians rallied behind Queen Liliuokalani and revolted against U.S. control – When the U.S. ceased the sugar trade and sent naval ships the Hawaiians were forced to cede control of the islands.
The Situation in Cuba The U.S. began to take an interest in Cuba because American investors had invested massive amounts of money in sugar plantations there. Valeriano Weyler: Spanish General placed in control of Cuba – As part of his martial rule Weyler placed Cubans who resisted him in concentration camps. – U.S. Newspapers used this to gain headlines.
Yellow Journalism Yellow Journalism: outrageous stories published by journalists with the intention of creating anger in the reader. – Got their name from the cheap yellow ink newspapers used. William Randolph Hearst & Joseph Pulitzer: – Hearst wrote for the New York Journal – Pulitzer wrote for the New York World In many cases these two men embellished their stories about Cuba and made Weyler sound worse than reality.
The De Lome Letter: American outrage increased with the stories told by Hearst and Pulitzer. President William McKinley took a stance of “patient waiting” in order to keep America out of war. – This stance became increasingly unpopular. William Randolph Hearst intercepted a letter from Spanish Ambassador Enrique De Lome. – In his letter De Lome claimed McKinley was weak and would refuse any war. – This outraged Americans and increased calls for war.
“Remember the Maine” The U.S.S. Maine mysteriously sank in an explosion during patrols off the coast of Cuba. Racing for headlines, Pulitzer and Hearst published articles claiming the Spanish had fired on the Maine and sank it. – Even though government officials couldn’t confirm it, McKinley was forced to declare war on Spain. Later it was revealed that a boiler room explosion caused the demise of the Maine.
Sinking of the Maine
The Philippines At the outbreak of war Teddy Roosevelt was acting as Sec. of Navy – He quickly ordered the U.S. fleet to attack Spanish territory in the Philippines before they could mobilize for war. – Under George Dewey, American ships easily defeated an aging Spanish fleet in Manila Bay and became heroes. They were easily able to win and gain a major advantage before the war even started. – Also changed many of the objectives of the war – Rather than Freeing Cuba, a major objective seemed to be conquering Spanish territories.
A Splendid Little War Sec. of State John Hay called it this because the war was so short and easily accomplished so many American objectives. However, America was terribly underprepared for war. – Soldiers were given left over wool uniforms, hard tack, and salted pork from the Civil War. The U.S. military was largely dependent on volunteer National Guard units, and volunteers from communities back home. They were able to achieve quick victory largely because Cuban rebel units weakened Spanish strongholds before American arrival.
The Rough Riders Collection of former college athletes and adventure seekers that Teddy recruited to fight with him in the war. The Battle of San Juan Hill – TR and his Rough Riders attacked Spanish forces at this strategic location in Cuba before they could defend themselves. Eager to sell newspapers, American journalists created outrageous headlines about the exploits of the Rough Riders. – As their popularity grew so did the legend of Teddy Roosevelt.
The Legend of Teddy Roosevelt Following the war TR ran for Senate in New York and easily won based on his reputation. – Roosevelt was immensely popular with Americans, but most politicians didn’t like him. To bolster McKinley’s popularity in the 1900 election, he was selected as Vice President. – Became the youngest president in American history when McKinley was assassinated.
American Colonies The Treaty of Paris ending the war granted America FOUR new Spanish colonies – Cuba, Puerto Rico, Guam, and the Philippines America still controls Puerto Rico and Guam today.
Cuba The Teller Amendment was passed to ensure America would give Cuba its own government as soon as possible when the war was over. – However, peace was not easily restored in Cuba The Platt Amendment was passed in 1902: (lasted 33 years) – Granted Cuba limited independence, but with U.S. guidance.. The Platt Amendment had FOUR goals: 1. U.S. had to consent to all Cuban treaties with other countries – 2. Cuba had to allow American Naval Bases (Guantanamo Bay) – 3. U.S. could control Cuban finances for them – 4. The U.S. reserved all rights to intervene should Cuba need help.
The Philippines as a Territory During the war Americans placed Emilio Aguinaldo on the islands to fight the Spanish for them. – Aguinaldo was a native rebel who had been expelled by the Spanish for his resistance. – He was under the impression that he would become president after the war was over if American should win. Aguinaldo turned on America when the U.S. didn’t grant independence right away.
Aguinaldo’s War Aguinaldo retreated into the jungle and began a TWO year guerilla war against America. – The U.S. eventually sent 60,000 troops, more than four times the force in the Spanish American War in Cuba. Eventually they were able to capture him and put down the rebellion, but the longer it took the more unpopular imperialism became.
Filipino Government In 1907 America attempted to install a new government. – The problem was an ethnic one in the Philippines – There were over 43 different ethnic groups that struggled to get along, and any new government usually failed. The U.S. did not pull out and grant complete independence until 1946.